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Avitus

(544 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Flavius Eparchius A. West Roman emperor 9.7.455-17.10.456 West Roman emperor 9.7.455-17.10.456, born c. 400 in Clermont. He came from a family of senators from the Auvergne, came to have some influence over the king of the West Goths,  Theoderic I and, as praef. praetorio Galliarum in 439, he negotiated a peace treaty with the king and persuaded him to join sides in the war against the Huns in 451 (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,295-355). In 455, A. was appointed mag. militum praesentalis by the emperor Petronius  Maximus and after the latter's overthrow was himself…

Palladius

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Παλλάδιος; Palládios). [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, 4th cent. Greek rhetor of the first half of the 4th cent. AD (Suda s.v. P. gives his prime as under Constantinus [1] I) from Methone (probably the Messenian one). According to the Suda, in addition to declamations he wrote in all three rhetorical genres ( genera dicendi ) and also an antiquarian work on the festivals of the Romans (FGrH F 837). Whether P. is identical with one of the numerous Palladii mentioned in the letters of Libanius and if …

Dracontius

(636 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Christian, murdered in 361 AD by the heathen mob Praepositus monetae in Alexandria. On 24 December AD 361 he was murdered as a Christian by the heathen mob because he had knocked over an altar (Amm. Marc. 22,11,9f.; Historia acephala 8). PLRE 1, 271 D. (1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Antonius D. Vicarius Africae 364-367 AD Attested only epigraphically (ILS 758; 763 et al.) and as a recipient of laws (Cod. Theod. 11,7,9; 11,30,33), vicarius Africae from AD 364 to 367 PLRE 1, 271f. D (3). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [3] Blossius Aemiliu…

Merobaudes

(700 words)

Author(s): Kehne, Peter (Hannover) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Consul in AD 377 and 383 In AD 363 Flavius M., presumably a Frank, served Iulianus [11]. Appointed magister peditum by Valentinianus I (Zos. 4,17), M. fought in the war with the Quadi in 375. Acting on his own authority, he elevated Valentinianus II to the rank of Augustus (Amm. 30,10; Zos. 4,19) and was Consul in 377 and 383 consul. In 377, M. withheld units of the army sent to Valens in Thrace (Amm. Marc. 31,7,4),and this probably contributed to Mallobaudes's victory in Gaul. Presumably he too…

Alcestis Barcinonensis

(125 words)

Author(s): Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] Anonymous Latin poetry in hexameters, evidently from the 4th cent. AD from the Barcelonian papyrus inv. 158-161 about the sacrificial death of Alcestis for her husband (material also in Virgil's cento ( Cento) Anth. Lat. 15). Structure as well as details (inclusion of the Phoenix myth, perhaps as in  Lactantius) differ from the Alcestis of Euripides. The almost exclusive use of direct speech is conspicuous; a form principle of the later epic is used a great deal in this ‘pseudo-drama’ (cf. the Orestes of  Dracontius). Smolak, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography Editions: W. D.…

Rusticus

(528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
Roman cognomen; Antistius [II 4], Fabius [II 19], Iunius [II 27-28]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Theologian from Rome, from 547 in Constantinople and Egypt Deacon of the city of Rome, resided at Constantinople with his uncle Pope Vigilius from AD 547. Became a ferocious defender of the 'Three Chapters' (Synodos), for which reason Vigilius excommunicated him in 550. Banished after the 5th Ecumenical Synod (553), initially to Egyptian Thebes, he wrote Contra Acephalos against the Monophysites (Monophysitism). Subsequently in exile in the Akoimet…

Eugenius

(682 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
(Εὐγένιος; Eugénios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eugenius Roman usurper, rhetor and emperor, about AD 400 Roman usurper in AD 392-394. He was a Christian, a teacher of grammar and rhetoric in Rome and he became magister scrinii for Valentinian II around 392 (Zos. 4,54,1). On 22 August 392 he was elevated to the position of emperor by Arbogast (Socr. 5,25; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,22,4). Constantly controlled by Arbogast, he first sought an agreement with Ambrosius and Theodosius I (Ambr. Epist. 57; Zos. 4,54f.; ILS 790). He was not …

Vespa

(243 words)

Author(s): Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] The only occupational agon surviving from Antiquity is the 'contest between the cook and the baker' ( Iudicium coci et pistoris) by the Latin poet who called him/herself V. ('Wasp'); the poem may have been performed in public (Public recitals); it was included in the anthology of the Codex Salmasianus (Anth. Lat. 199; Anth. Lat.3 190). Date: between the 2nd and 5th cent. AD, probably 4th cent. (probable reference to Nemesianus [1] and Ausonius). The play, consisting of 99 hexameters, after a traditional invocation of the Muse (Muse, …

Agrestius

(170 words)

Author(s): Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] The West Gothic poetry-MS Par. Lat. 8093 (9th cent.) contains as Versus Agresti episcopi de fide ad Avitum episcopum the fragment of an epistle in hexameters preceded by an introduction in the style of a letter and personal profession of faith. The author is probably to be identified with Bishop A. of Lugo in Spain, whose opposition to the anti-Priscillianists Pastor and Syagrius is reported by Hydatius in the year 433 (chron. 93 Burgess = 102 Mommsen); Avitus of Braga is a potential addressee. As …

Eucheria

(204 words)

Author(s): Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] Versus Eucheriae poetriae (‘Verses of the poetess E.’) is the title of an  epigram in 16 elegiac distichs in the Cod. Paris. Lat. 8071 (Thuaneus; 9th cent.); this text is found, sometimes incomplete and without title, in other codices of the 9th-12th cents. It is a catalogue of monstrous associations of ‘noble’ and ‘base’ objects; the meaning of these associations is clarified in the concluding distichon, which speaks of the absurdity of a man of low birth being a suitor of E. It is…

Tiberianus

(265 words)

Author(s): Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] Author of at least three short poems (possibly also a fourth, fragment surviving). Further fragments are cited by Servius [2] and Fulgentius [1] Mythographus in the 5th cent. AD. It is uncertain whether he is identical with the official C. Annius T., described by  Jer. Chron. ab Abr. 2380 as a vir disertus ('eloquent'), or with the Roman city praefect Iunius [II 42] T. of 303/4; the  much-discussed question of whether T. wrote the Pervigilium Veneris is also unresolved. It is possible that Carm. 4 refers distantly to Christological po…

Aegritudo Perdicae

(158 words)

Author(s): Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] Epyllium (250 hexameters) preserved in the Codex Harleianus 3685 (15th cent.), in which Perdicas' disastrous love for his mother on his return from his studies in Athens is treated. with considerable empathy, as a psychic illness (see 174 ). The cause is a neglected sacrifice to Venus. Perdicas overcomes the goddess's and Amor's lust for revenge by deciding to commit suicide so as also to destroy the god of love raging within him. The material may well stem from a Hellenistic sour…

Paulinus

(1,710 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) | Günther, Matthias (Bielefeld) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Military tribune in the army of Vespasianus in Iudaea Military tribune in the army of Vespasianus in Iudaea. in AD 67, following the conquest of Iotapata, he was instructed to convince Iosephus [4], the leader of the Jewish army, to surrender to Vespasianus, but proved unsuccessful (Jos. BI 3, 344f.). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Curator aedium sacrarum in AD 214 Senator. Curator aedium sacrarum in AD 214 (CIL VI 36899 = ILS 452). His nomen gentile was probably Max[imius]. PIR2 M 436. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] P. of Milan Secretary to…

Octavianus

(409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
Roman cognomen, indicating adoption by the gens Octavia (Octavius), in the Imperial period also a family name. [German version] [1] First Roman emperor (Augustus) In academic literature, the name O. is often used to denote the first Roman emperor, Augustus, in the period between his testamentary adoption by Caesar in 44 BC and his assuming the epithet Augustus in 27 BC. Born C. Octavius, in 44 he first took the name of his adoptive father C. Iulius Caesar, but never used his other epithet O., as it would only have draw…

Commodianus

(347 words)

Author(s): Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] Christian Latin poet of unknown origin (it is doubtful that the name in the title of the Instructiones = Inst. 2,35, nomen Gasei, is original and that it refers to the real Gaza; it could be regarded as a display of modesty by the ‘sinner’ according to Amos 1,6f.). The dating varies between the 3rd cent. (mention of Gothi, Carmen apologeticum 810, problematic loss of faith during the persecution of Christians, cf. the discussion in Africa under Cyprianus after 250) and the 5th cent. (reference to the seizure of Rome by Alaric in 410?). In …