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Catugnatus

(69 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κατούγνατος; Katoúgnatos). Celtic name compound ‘for battle born, well acquainted with battle’ [1. 168]. Leader of the  Allobroges who plundered Gallia Narbonensis in 61 BC. C. was able for a long time successfully to hold his ground against the Romans and also to save himself when they seized the town of Solonum which he was defending (Cass. Dio 47,1-48,2; Liv. per. 103). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Deiotarus

(682 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Δηιόταρος; Dēiótaros). Φιλορώμαιος (regarding Celtic composite name cf. [4. 190; 5. 155]). Born at the end of the 2nd cent. BC the son of Sinorix (IG III2 3429); husband of Berenice; tetrarch of the Tolistobogii, king of the Galatians; died c. 40 BC. D. was a semi-Hellenized client prince of the Romans, and practised an energetic and unscrupulous form of power politics. He was one of the three Galatian tetrarchs who in 86 BC escaped the assassination attempts of Mithridates of Pontus. From then on he fought as an all…

Domnilaus

(82 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Δομνέκλειος; Domnékleios). Celtic name; tetrarch of the Trocmi, the son and successor of Brogitarus [1. 1303; 2. 155]. D. was killed on Pompey's side at Pharsalus in 49 BC. After the death of Deiotarus his territory was awarded to his son Adiatorix by Antony but Augustus had him executed after the battle of Actium (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,5; Str. 12,3,6).  Antonius [I 9];  Brogitarus;  Deiotarus;  Trocmi Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, vol. 1 2 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken 1931.

Connacorix

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοννακόριξ; Konnakórix). Galatian with a Celtic name [1. 182; 2. 155], in 73 BC a commander of  Mithridates in  Heraclea (Memnon 29,4; 34,4; 35,1-4; 7; 36=FGrH 3 no. 434). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt. 2 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken, 1931.

Brittomaris

(68 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Leader of the  Senones, is alleged to have had Roman envoys murdered (App. Sam. 6 and Celt. 11). The Senones, together with the Etruscans, were defeated in 283 BC at the Vadimonian Lake by Consul P.  Cornelius Dolabella and driven out of Italy. The character of B. is perhaps a fabrication of the later  Annalists. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography E. Klebs, s.v. B., RE 3, 882.

Ambigatus

(83 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ambicatos). Celtic compound name with ambi- ‘around’ [5. 122-123, 215; 1. 134-135; 4. 708]. According to Livy the  Biturigan A. during the reign of  Tarquinius Priscus in Rome was king of all Celts (Liv. 5,34,2). Because of overpopulation, he is supposed to have, under the leadership of his nephew  Segovesus, caused the first Celtic immigration to the Po Plain (Liv. 5,34,3-9). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Holder, vol. 1, 120 3 E. Klebs, s. v. A. RE 1, 1798 4 R. M. Ogilvie, Comm. on Livy, 1965 5 Schmidt.

Eporedorix

(222 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic composite name: ‘king of the riders?’ (cf. also Plut. Mor. 259A; C (Πορηδόριξ MS]. [German version] [1] Before Caesar's arrival the leader of the Haedui against the Sequani E. was the leader of the Haedui against the Sequani prior to Caesar's arrival,. In 52 BC, he fell into Roman captivity at Alesia (Caes. B Gall. 67,7).  Alesia;  Haedui;  Sequani Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] Young equestrian leader of the Haedui Young equestrian leader of the Haedui, of noble descent. With Caesar's help, E. and Viridomarus had risen to highest office.…

Tasgetius

(81 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Prominent pro-Roman Celt [1. 378] whose ancestors were kings of the  Carnutes. Installed by Caesar in 56 BC as the king of this tribe, he was killed in the third year of his reign by his own people (Caes. B. Gall. 5,25; 5,29,2). Coin minting [2. 442 f.]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 J.-B. Colbert de Beaulieu, Les monnaies gauloises au nom des chefs mentionnés dans les Commentaires de César, in: M. Renard (ed.), Hommages à A. Grenier, vol. 1, 1962, 419-446.

Ducarius

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name formed from -caro- ‘dear’. Knight, in a unit of Insubres in Hannibal's army, who in the battle at Lake Trasimene in 217 BC killed the consul C.  Flaminius (Liv. 22,6,3-5; Sil. Pun. 5,644-658).  Hannibal Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Vertiscus

(52 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Remian noble and army leader (Remi). In 51 BC, as commander of a tribal contingent fighting on the side of Caesar, which he was leading in spite of his great age, V. fell in a cavalry battle with the  Bellovaci (Caes. Gall. 8,12). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 386.

Camulogenus

(69 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound Celtic name, ‘descendant of the (god) Camulus’ [1.60-61; 2.160]. An Aulercan, who in 52 BC lead the  Parisii and their neighbouring tribes against T.  Labienus, but fell in a battle at the Seine (Caes. B Gall. 7,57-62). A gold coin of the  Arverni was possibly dedicated to him [3.419, fig. 454; 4.726-727]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt. 3 A. Blanchet, Traité monn. gaul., 1905 4 Holder, 1.

Tinca

(40 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Cicero (Brut. 46,172) mentions a T. from Placentia, who sought to outdo his friend Q. Granius [I 2] with his wit. The cognomen is probably borrowed from the Celtic [1]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, vol. 2, 1851 f.

Eposognatus

(75 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐποσόγνατος; Eposógnatos). Celtic name; pro-Roman tetrarch of the Galatian Tolistobogii [1. 155]. E. remained loyal to Eumenes II of Pergamum and did not support Antiochus [5] the Great. For that reason, C.  Manlius Vulso asked him during his campaign against the Galatians in 189 BC to talk the Tolistobogii into voluntary submission, but without success (Pol. 21,37; Liv. 38,18).  Tolistobogii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken, 1931.

Vergobretus

(215 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] According to Caes. B Gall. 1,16,5 the highest magistrate of the Haedui, who was elected annually by the nobility and, as the senior judge, held authority over life and death. Caes. B Gall. 7,32,3 characterizes his power as 'royal' ( regia potestas). He was not allowed to leave the tribal territory. If there was an interregnum, the priests presided over the election of the new V., but another member of the same family could not be elected during the lifetime of a V. (Caes. Gall. 7,33,2-3). There was also a council of nob…

Dumnorix

(218 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Dubnoreix; Celtic composite name: ‘world king’ [1. 85-86]). Prince of the Haedui, brother of Diviciacus and son-in-law of Orgetorix, with whom he is supposed to have planned the conquest of the whole of Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,3). D. was the most powerful man in the tribe; he possessed his own mounted troop, and by means of gifts and matrimonial connections enjoyed great influence among foreign tribes, so that in 58 BC he was able to help the Helvetii to cross the territory of the S…

Albruna

(127 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Albrinia, Aurinia). Germanic compound name (‘the one furnished with the secret knowledge of the albs’?) [1. 553], probably not a personal name, but rather a designation for a visionary woman. According to Tac. Germ. 8, A. was worshipped almost as a god by the Germans together with others even before  Veleda. Several such visionaries are transmitted in literature; thus Ganna,  Waluburg and other women who are not named (Suet. Vit. 14; Cass. Dio 55,1). Their meaning is often overstated; they had sooner a low function in cult and in society [2. 151-162]. Spickermann, Wol…

Boduognatus

(58 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celt whose name is a compound from boduo and -gnatus ‘he who was born of the battle crow’ [1.461; 2.60; 3.152]. Commander-in-chief of the Nervii in the Belgian tribes' battle against Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,23,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, 1 2 Evans 3 Schmidt E. Klebs, s.v. B., RE 3, 594 Whatmough, 214.

Mal(l)orix

(68 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name compound with mall-, ‘slow [1. 236]. Together with Verritus, M. asked in Rome in AD 58 as king (?) of the Frisii for permission to resettle the tribe in Roman territory, took a seat in the theatre of Pompey among the senators and was given presents by Nero along with citizenship (Tac. Ann. 13,54; Suet. Claud. 25). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Druids

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] A. Druids in History (CT) The druid figure best known at present, Getafix (Fr. Panoramix; Ger. Miraculix), is distinguished by the fact that he does not divulge any of his secret teachings. And not only that - - apart from the traditional cutting of mistletoe with a golden sickle passed down to us in Pliny (nat. 16,95) - - Getafix is never observed indirectly or directly during a cult activity, nor does he function as a judge in his village. Clad in white an…

Cassignatus

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic composite name of uncertain origin [1. 167-171; 2. 165]. Galatian prince, in 180 BC ini- tially rejected by  Eumenes II, but later the leader of two alae of Galatian cavalry on the side of Pergamum and Rome against  Perseus. C. fell 171 BC in the battle by the Callinicus (Pol. 24,8; Liv. 42,57,7-9). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt.
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