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Lacydes

(230 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λακύδης; Lakýdēs) of Cyrene. Academic philosopher of the 3rd cent. BC. Took over the leadership of the Academy from Arcesilaus [5], which he held, according to Diog. Laert. 4,60/61, for 26 years and handed over in his own lifetime to Evander and Telecles. How the information contained in Philod. Academicorum Index 27,1-7 is to be reconciled with this is disputed (details in [1. 831]). L. died most likely in the year 207 BC ([1. 830], differently [2. 50]). He lectured in a garden…

Speusippus

(1,394 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Σπεύσιππος/ Speúsippos), c. 410-339/8 BC [German version] A. Life Academic philosopher, c. 410-339/8 BC Academic philosopher, son of Plato's sister Potone, who succeeded his uncle as scholarch of the Academy (from 348/7 BC, the year of Plato's [1] death; Academy), without having been appointed by means of an official election; the family relationship may have been the decisive factor. A fundamental organisational innovation in the Academy is linked to his name: the introduction of school fees; lessons during…

Hestiaeus

(107 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἑστιαῖος; Hestiaîos) from Perinthus (4th cent. BC), student of Plato (Philod. Academicorum index 6,2 after Timaeus; Diog. Laert. 3,46), who, according to Simplicius, together with Aristotle and Heraclides [15] Ponticus the Elder heard Plato's lectures ‘On the Good’ and also recorded them. According to Theophrastus' testimony (Metaphysica 11-13 = F 2 Lasserre = Testimonium Platonicum 30 Gaiser), H., like Xenocrates, also concerned himself to a certain extent with the derivation of the realms of being from the principles.  Academy Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübinge…

Axiothea

(70 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀξιοθέα; Axiothéa) from Phleius. She is supposed to have come to the Academy after reading a work by Plato about government and to have attended classes there with Lastheneia of Mantinea, whilst dressed like a man (Diog. Laert. 3,46 = Dicaearchus F 44 W.).  Academy Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography T. Dorandi, Assiotea e Lastenia. Due donne all'Academia, in: Atti e Memorie Accademia Toscana ‘La Colombaria’ 54, 1989, 53-66.

Telecles

(88 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τηλεκλῆς; Tēleklês). Academian philosopher of the 3rd/ 2nd cent. BC from Phocaea, after Lacydes' resignation from leading the Academy ( Akadḗmeia ) he apparently held a prominent position alongside Evander [3] (cf. Diog. Laert. 4,60). T. had his own pupils and gave lectures, but we know nothing of any writings or specific doctrines, Apollodorus [7] ( Chroniká 30 Dorandi) gives 167/6 BC as the year of his death; T. presumably died before Evander. Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Görler, T. Euandros. Hegesinus, in: GGPh2, Bd. 4.2, 834-836.

Carneades

(628 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Καρνεάδης; Karneádēs). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher from the 3rd/2nd cent. BC Academic philosopher, born 214/3 (or 219/8 BC) in Cyrene, died 129/8 in Athens. He probably came to Athens as a young man, later receiving rights of citizenship. After studying i. a. under the Stoic  Diogenes [15] of Babylon he joined the  Academy, taking over leadership from another of his masters,  Hegesinus [1], in around 164/60. He gave up the leadership in 137/6, thus long before his death, perhaps for health re…

Ecdemus

(112 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἔκδημος; Ékdēmos) or Ecdelus (Ἔκδηλος; Ékdēlos, thus Plutarch, Polybius) from Megalopolis. Academic philosopher of the 3rd cent. BC, pupil of Arcesilaus who is mainly known because of his many and diverse political activities (Plut. Aratus 5: ‘a philosopher and a man of action at the same time’, ἀνὴρ φιλόσοφος καὶ πρακτικός cf. Id., Philopoemen 1); (Pol. 10,22; cf. Paus. 8,49,1): he was a teacher of Philopoemen; together with Demophanes, he liberated his home town of Aristodemus' tyra…

Timonides

(129 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τιμωνίδης/ Timōnídēs) of Leucas, 4th cent. BC; according to Plut. Dion 31,3, a friend and comrade-in-arms of Dion [I 1] in the latter's attempt to overthrow Dionysius [2] II in Syracuse and seize power himself. He is named by Plutarch among those who actively supported Dion's military venture (Plut. Dion 22,5). According to Diog. Laert. 4,5, T. also wrote letters to Speusippus reporting on Dion's activities in Syracuse. These writings, in which T., not shrinking from distortion, s…

Crantor

(286 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κράντωρ; Krántōr) of Soli. Academic philosopher of the early 3rd cent. BC. Studied with  Xenocrates and  Polemon. He surrounded himself with a considerable number of students (Diog. Laert. 4,24). It is unclear whether he was scholar of the  Academy for a short period of time. His favourite student was  Arcesilaus [5]. Little has survived of his voluminous and varied writings (Diog. Laert. 4,24: 30,000 lines). The writing ‘On Mourning’ (Περὶ Πένθους) was famous and decisive for the…

Deinomachus

(81 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Δεινόμαχος; Deinómachos). Philosopher whose dates and school cannot be precisely determined; little can be deduced doxographically. He is mentioned only in association with Calliphon, who is scarcely more easily placed: both represent a position recorded in a discourse on the divisio Carneadea ( Carneades) in Cic. Fin. 5,21, seeing virtue ( honestas) allied with pleasure (ἡδονή) as the goal of human action (Clem. Al. Strom. 2,21,127; also critically commented upon in Cic. Off. 3,119; Tusc. 5,85). Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)

Charmadas

(108 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Χαρμάδας; Charmádas or Χαρμίδας; Charmídas). Lived c. 165- 91 BC (cf. Cic. De or. 2,360). Apollod. Chronica 119-130 Dorandi (= FGrH 244 F 59; subsequently Philod. Ind. Acad. 31,35-32,10) very probably relates to him: a pupil of Carneades, after founding his own school he returned to the Academy. In Sext. Emp. Pyrrhōneioi hypotypṓseis 1,220 and Euseb. Praep. evang. 14,4,16 mentioned with Philo as founder of a ‘Fourth Academy’. Probably most important as a teacher of rhetoric (cf. Cic. D…

Erastus

(75 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἔραστος; Érastos) from Scepsis. 4th cent. BC; a pupil of Plato, he took part in the philosophical delegation to Hermias at Assos (Didymus, In Demosthenem commenta V 54 = F 7 Lasserre). According to Philod. Index academicorum VI 10-12, E. like Asclepiades of Phleius was the author of a text ‘Memories ( Apomnēmoneúmata) of Plato’, otherwise unknown. Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Lasserre, De Léodamas de Thasos à Philippe d' Oronte. Témoignages et fragments, 1987.

Anonymus in Theaetetum

(178 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] A fragment preserved on papyrus of a commentary with rather selective interpretations on the Platonic dialogue Theaetetus (mainly concerning the section 142d to 153de). [1] is now the definitive edition with a detailed introduction and commentary. The exact dating is controversial. The common assumption that the fragment originates from the 2nd cent. AD was recently challenged by the attempt of dating it to the pre-Christian era; more at [1. 256]. The anonymous author, who mentions several commen…

Appendix Platonica

(213 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] The Corpus Platonicum contains in its appendix several dialogues which were already generally agreed to be false in antiquity (ὁμολογουμένως νοθευόμενοι; homologouménōs notheuómenoi). Besides the dialogues Sisyphus, Demodocus (actually containing four conversations), Περὶ δικαίου ( Perì dikaíou), Περὶ ἀρετῆς ( Perì aretês), Alcyon, Eryxias and Axiochus, which follow the Hóroi in the MSS, five additional titles are named by Diog. Laert. 3,62. The appendix was created mainly in order to support the order by tetralogies, although t…

Coriscus

(78 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κορίσκος; Korískos) from Scepsis; a Socratic often mentioned c. 375-350 BC alongside  Erastus (Str. 13,1,54); accompanied Plato to Hermias at Assus; recipient of the sixth of Plato's letters. Father of Neleus, to whom Theophrastus bequeathed the body of Aristotle's writings. Stobaeus passes down an apophthegm on death by C. in his old age (Stob. 3,7,53 = T 9 Lasserre). Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Lasserre, De Léodamas de Thasos à Philippe d'Oponte. Témoignages et fragments, 1987.

Perictione

(280 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Περικτιόνη; Periktiónē). [German version] [1] Mother of Plato Mother of Plato; came from an old aristocratic Athenian family to which Critias and Charmides [1] also belonged. Also born of her marriage to Ariston were the pair of brothers Glaucon and Adeimantus, Socrates' discussion partner in the Platonian Politeía, as well as Potone, the mother of Speusippus, Plato's successor in the headship of the Academy. In her second marriage, P. was the wife of Pyrilampes, the son of an Antiphon. From this relationship was born a son who was also cal…

Hegesinus

(161 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡγησίνους; Hēgēsínous). [German version] [1] Teacher of Carneades, 2nd cent. BC H. of Pergamum, 1st half of the 2nd cent. BC, likely identical with Hegesilaus in Clem. Al. strom. 1,64,1. He took over the direction of the Academy from Evander (Diog. Laert. 4,60). H., the last representative of the Middle Academy (Galen hist. phil. 3 = Diels, DG 599f.; Clem. Al. ibid.), was the teacher of Carneades (Cic. Acad. 2,16), his later (before 155 BC) successor in the scholarchate. The name H. turns up only in succession lists; information going beyond mention of the name is lacking.  Academy Stanzel,…

Bucolics

(3,076 words)

Author(s): Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
I. Greek [German version] A. Genre Real Greek bucolic poetry (‘real’ compared with its later development in Latin, see below, and in  Longus, 2nd cent. AD) consists of Idyls (= Id.; eidyllia). 1, 3 to 7 and 11 of  Theocritus, 3rd cent. BC (Id. 10 is similar, but more agriculturally Hesiodic than pastoral), and several other poems of the Corpus Theocriteum (Id. 8; 9; 20; 27). The latter are probably pseudoepigraphs and can be ascribed to the epoch between the end of the 3rd and the 2nd cent. All except Id. [8],33-60 (elegiac distichs) are written in hexa…

Cleitomachus

(368 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
(Κλειτόμαχος; Kleitómachos). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher Academic philosopher, probably born in 187/6 BC in Carthage, died in 110/109. Original name Hasdrubal (Philod. Academicorum Index 25.1-2). Presumably came to Athens in 163/2 (information in Diog. Laert. 4,67 is wrong). He entered the Academy in 159/8 After an elementary education of sorts with  Carneades [1], and studies in the Peripatos and the Stoa. Occasionally, his participation in the philosophers' delegation in 155 to Rome is …

Polyxenus

(397 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πολύξενος/ Polýxenos, 'he who has many guests'). [German version] [1] Sobriquet for Hades Poetic epithet for the god of the underworld (Hades, Pluto): Aesch. Supp. 156 f. etc. (cf. Polydectes [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mythical king of Elis Mythical king of Elis; holds in safekeeping the cattle stolen from Electryon; Amphitryon releases them and receives Electryon's daughter Alcmene in return (Apollod. 2,55 f.; Schol. Lycoph. 932). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Mythical king of Elis Mythical king of Elis, grandson of Augeias; suitor of Helen…
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