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Antiphemus

(134 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀντίφημος; Antíphēmos). Rhodian from Lindus; in 688 BC founded the town of  Gela in Sicily after first consulting the oracle of Delphi. Herodotus (7,153) says an ancestor of a later tyrant,  Gelon, was involved, while Thucydides names Entimus of Crete as a further leader of the colonists. The stronghold was called first Lindioi and then Gela, from the river at the mouth of which it stood, and there Doric customs held sway (Thuc. 6,4,3). Even though several towns may have sent out …

Myronides

(300 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Μυρωνίδης; Myrōnídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 479/478 BC Athenian, member of the legation that went to Sparta in 480/479 BC to demand the immediate departure of the Peloponnesian army. In 479/478 M., as one of the strategoi led the contingent at  Plataeae (Plut. Aristeides 10,10; 20,1). Nothing is known about the lineage of M. However, the fact that he was part of the legation of 480/479 and that eleven ostraka with his name were found at the Kerameikos would indicate that he had already enjoyed great personal prestige and political influence earlier on. Persian Wars Ste…

Hegetorides

(64 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἡγητορίδης; Hēgētorídēs). Respected citizen of Cos. The story of his daughter who was abducted by the Persians and who, as a suppliant, is said to have been freed by the Spartan ruler  Pausanias after the battle of Plataeae (479 BC), is one of Herodotus' examples of the moral superiority of the Greeks (Hdt. 9,76; cf. Paus. 3,4,9). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Medontidae

(117 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Μεδοντίδαι; Medontídai). Aristocratic Athenian family, whose ancestor Medon [5] renounced the royal title in 1069 BC, and was supposedly the first to hold the archonship ( árchontes) for life. The office was then said to have become hereditary within his family, until the term of office was limited to ten years in 753. The ten-year archonship was also said to have been held exclusively by the M. down to 713 (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 3,3; Paus. 4,5,10). However, there is no authentic evi…

Lycomidae

(193 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυκομίδαι; Lykomídai). Priestly family from Athens, responsible for a cult of Demeter. Pausanias (1,22,7; 9,30,12) reports of a hymn that can be read in the Pinakotheca at the entrance to the Acropolis which the L. sang in honour of the goddess. The L. had a sanctuary in Phlya in which secret initiation rites took place (Plut. Themistocles 1,4; Paus. 4,1,7), which probably resembled the Mysteria in Eleusis [1]. In the Roman period links between the L. and the priestly families there are attested (IG II/III2 3559). In the older literature political significance was…

Labda

(138 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λάβδα; Lábda). Daughter of the Bacchiad Amphion of Corinth. According to Herodotus (5,92), L. was lame and therefore could not find a husband in the strictly endogamous circle of nobility of the Bacchiadae. Therefore she was said to have married Eëtion from the deme of Petra who did not belong this circle. As there had been a prophecy even before the birth of their son Cypselus [2] that he would rule over Corinth, the Bacchiadae were said to have planned his murder. The tradition available to Herodotus says that L. succeeded in hiding the child in a kypsélē (‘chest’) thus sa…

Cynaegeirus

(85 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Κυναίγειρος; Kynaígeiros) from Athens, son of Euphorion, brother of Aeschylus [1], fell in battle at  Marathon (490 BC;  Persian War). Herodotus (6,114) reports that his arm was chopped off while trying to hold on to the stern of an enemy ship. This heroic act was represented in the painting of Marathon at the Stoa Poikile in Athens (Ael. NA 7,38) and was a favourite exemplum for later rhetors (Lucian.e, Iupp. Trag. 32; Luciane, Rhetorum praeceptor 18). Traill, PAA 588715. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Herms, mutilation of the

(194 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] In summer 415 BC, shortly before the Sicilian expedition, all  Herms in Athens were damaged in one night. The citizens saw in this a bad omen for the enterprise. The posting of high rewards for informers led to the discovery of a further religious heinous deed: the desecration of the Eleusinian Mysteries ( Mysteria) in the private houses of some rich citizens.  Alcibiades [3], initiator of the Sicilian expedition, was accused of participating in both crimes. In the ‘witch hunt’ th…

Damasias

(111 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Δαμασίας; Damasías). Athenian archon in 582/1 BC. He succeeded in remaining in office for longer than the usual term of a year. Only after a further 14 months could he be driven out of office by violent means. For the remainder of his period in office in 580/79 it is said that a working party of ten archons ruled, five of whom are said to have belonged to the eupatrídai, three to the agroikoí and two to the dēmiourgoí (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 13,2). It is disputed whether the assumption of this ‘archontate compromise’ is historically correct. Traill, PAA 300925.  Archontate Stein-Hö…

Abrotonon

(47 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] Traditionally, A. is given among others as the name of the mother of  Themistocles (Plut. Themistocles 1, cf. Ath. 13,576). Her Thracian origins were supposedly the reason that Themistocles was not a full citizen.  Themistocles Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography F. J. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles, 1980, 61-63.

Aleuadae

(213 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀλευάδαι; Aleuádai). Aristocratic family from Thessaly, which ruled in  Larissa and surrounding areas. Aleuas ‘the Red’ is supposed to have created the military and political order of the Thessalian federation (Aristot. fragment 497 Rose; Plut. Mor. 492A-B). Numerous A. held the tageia, the highest office of this federation. According to Herodotus (7,6; 130; 9,58) they approached Xerxes before the Persian Wars in order to cause his invasion of Greece; a few even joined the Persian army. From 404 BC the political develop…

Elpinice

(129 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἐλπινίκη; Elpiníkē). Daughter of Miltiades and sister or stepsister of  Cimon. A number of scandalous tales grew up around her. Intimations of an incestuous relationship with Cimon are already found in Eupolis (PCG, fr. 221). Another tradition assumes a legal marriage, which would have been entirely possible between stepsiblings; however, there is no doubt that E. was married to  Callias (Nep. Cimon 1). She was supposed to have had an affair with the painter  Polygnotus (Plut. Cim…

Alcmaeonid curse

(79 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] The killing of the supporters of the aspiring tyrant  Cylon in the sanctuary of Athena Polias around 630 BC was regarded as a religious outrage. The family of the responsible archon, that of the Alcmaeonid  Megacles, was punished with banishment (Hdt. 5,71; Thuc. 1,126). The sacrilege was repeatedly put forward until the time of  Pericles in order to harm the influential  Alcmaeonidas (Thuc. 1,127; 2,13); Davies 9688. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography K.-W. Welwei, Athen, 1992, 133 ff.

Alcmaeonids

(699 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀλκμαιονίδαι; Alkmaionídai). Influential aristocratic family, which in archaic times and across several generations played a prominent role in the history of  Athens.  Megacles [1], the first verifiable A., defeated around 630 BC  Cylon's attempt to achieve the tyrannis. The ki…

Daiphantus

(74 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Δαίφαντος; Daíphantos). Son of Bathyllios from Hyampolis. D. was one of the commanders of the Phocians in the clashes with the Thessalians shortly before the Persian Wars (Hdt. 8,27-31). The brilliant victory won by the Phocian army in these battles was still being commemorated in the home town of D. at the annual festival of the Elaphebolia in the time of Plutarch (Plut. Mor. 244B-C).  Elaphebolos;  Hyampolis Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Lelantine War

(412 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] Modern term for a military dispute between the Euboean cities of Chalcis [1] and Eretria [1] over the Lelantine Plain ( Lēlántion pedíon ) situated between their respective territories. Today the conflict is…

Lycidas

(52 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυκίδας; Lykídas). Athenian, member of the boule , was the only one to vote in 479 BC for the creation of the alliance with the Persians offered by Mardonius [1]. He was stoned by the angry crowd when he left the council building (Hdt. 9,5). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Helixus

(59 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἕλιξος; Hélixos). Strategos from Megara. In 411 BC, H. led a fleet contingent of the  Peloponnesian League, which caused Byzantium to break away from Athens (Thuc. 8,80). When the city was later besieged by the Athenians, H. defended it until it capitulated in the winter of 409/8 (Xen. Hell. 1,3,15; 17; 21). Stein-Hölkesk…
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