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Arthmius

(177 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἄρθμιος; Árthmios). Son of Pythonax, probably proxenos of the Athenians in his home town of Zeleia in Propontis. Between 477 and 461 BC, he worked in the service of the Persians and was sent with bribe money to the Peloponnese in order to fan the flames of resentment against the Athenians and thus reinforce the rivalry between the Greek cities. Following this expedition, the city of Athens took measures against A. by declaring him and his entire lineage as dishonoured and as an enemy ( átimos,  Atimia). This measure was probably requested by  Cimon and applied no…

Lycidas

(52 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυκίδας; Lykídas). Athenian, member of the boule , was the only one to vote in 479 BC for the creation of the alliance with the Persians offered by Mardonius [1]. He was stoned by the angry crowd when he left the council building (Hdt. 9,5). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Cynaegeirus

(85 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Κυναίγειρος; Kynaígeiros) from Athens, son of Euphorion, brother of Aeschylus [1], fell in battle at  Marathon (490 BC;  Persian War). Herodotus (6,114) reports that his arm was chopped off while trying to hold on to the stern of an enemy ship. This heroic act was represented in the painting of Marathon at the Stoa Poikile in Athens (Ael. NA 7,38) and was a favourite exemplum for later rhetors (Lucian.e, Iupp. Trag. 32; Luciane, Rhetorum praeceptor 18). Traill, PAA 588715. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Labda

(138 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λάβδα; Lábda). Daughter of the Bacchiad Amphion of Corinth. According to Herodotus (5,92), L. was lame and therefore could not find a husband in the strictly endogamous circle of nobility of the Bacchiadae. Therefore she was said to have married Eëtion from the deme of Petra who did not belong this circle. As there had been a prophecy even before the birth of their son Cypselus [2] that he would rule over Corinth, the Bacchiadae were said to have planned his murder. The tradition available to Herodotus says that L. succeeded in hiding the child in a kypsélē (‘chest’) thus sa…

Lelantine War

(412 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] Modern term for a military dispute between the Euboean cities of Chalcis [1] and Eretria [1] over the Lelantine Plain ( Lēlántion pedíon ) situated between their respective territories. Today the conflict is generally dated to the period around 700 BC. The Lelantine War (LW) obviously dragged out over several decades. The surrender of the city of Lefkandi on the eastern edge of the plain that is dated to c. 700 on the basis of archaeological findings was probably a consequence of the war. The LW is first mentioned in Archilochus. There he states t…

Pyrilampes

(119 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Πυριλάμπης; Pyrilámpēs). Son of Antiphon from Athens, born c. 480 BC, was the second husband of Perictione, the mother of Plato [1], and hence his stepfather (Pl. Chrm. 158a). P. was considered a friend and follower of Pericles [1] (Plut. Pericles 13). In the 440s he travelled as ambassador e.g. to Persia (Lys. 19,25). Valuable gifts of hospitality from the Great King, probably including P.' famous peacock farm, increased his wealth, which was in any case considerable, and his social sta…

Elpinice

(129 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἐλπινίκη; Elpiníkē). Daughter of Miltiades and sister or stepsister of  Cimon. A number of scandalous tales grew up around her. Intimations of an incestuous relationship with Cimon are already found in Eupolis (PCG, fr. 221). Another tradition assumes a legal marriage, which would have been entirely possible between stepsiblings; however, there is no doubt that E. was married to  Callias (Nep. Cimon 1). She was supposed to have had an affair with the painter  Polygnotus (Plut. Cim…

Strattis

(244 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Στράττις/ Stráttis). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Chios, 6th cent. BC Tyrant of Chios, who took part in the Scythian campaign in 513 BC as an adviser of Darius [1] (Hdt. 4,138). It can not be determined whether he was deposed at the beginning of the Ionian Revolt. Nevertheless, he was able to resume his reign after the Persians' victory (in 493/2 BC). In 479 he was able to elude a conspiracy (Hdt. 8,132). At the liberation of Ionia after the battle of Mycale in 479 S. may also have been toppled. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 5th/4th cents. BC Attic comi…

Philaidae

(447 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Φιλαΐδαι; Philaïdai). [German version] [1] Attican deme P. was an Attic mesogeia deme of the Aigeis phyle with three bouleutaí on the east coast of Attica. The shrine of Artemis at Brauron was on its territory. Peisistratus [4] came from P. (Pl. Hipparch. 228b; Plut. Solon 10,2). It is unsubstantiated that Cleisthenes [2] did not therefore name the deme Brauron [4. 11 with fn. 30, 24 with fn. 83]. The location of the deme centre of P. to the west of the early Christian basilica of Brauron [1. 41; 2. 127] is hypothetical [3. 56]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Traill, Attica, 41, 6…

Agariste

(126 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Ἀγαρίστη; Agarístē). [German version] [1] Mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens (6th cent. BC) Daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, wife of the Alcmaeonid  Megacles, mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens. The story of the long courtship before her marriage around 575 BC can be regarded as the paradigmatic depiction of the lifestyle of the archaic aristocracy (Hdt. 6,126 ff.).  Aristocracy Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography E. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Adelskultur und Polisges., 1989, 117-119. [German version] [2] Athenian, mother of Pericles Athenian, great-grandda…

Leontiades

(211 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λεοντιάδης; Leontiádēs). [German version] [1] Theban leader at the Battle of Thermopylae, 5th cent. BC Theban, leader of the contingent which, on the order of Leonidas [1], had to take part in the battle about the Thermopylae (480 BC). The Thebans were suspected of pro-Persian sympathies, and during the battle they did indeed defect to the Persians (Hdt. 7,205; 233). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Theban politician, c. 400 BC (Plut.: Λεωντίδης/ Leōntídēs), Theban politician, leader of a party of pro-Spartan property owners (Hell. Oxy. 15 Barto…

Cylon

(336 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κύλων; Kýlon). [German version] [1] Athenian aristocrat, victor in Olympia in 640 BC, attempted to establish tyrannical rule in 632 BC Athenian aristocrat, son-in-law of  Theagenes of Megara, became Olympic victor in 640 BC. C. and his hetaireíahetairía  [2]) occupied the Acropolis in Athens around 632 in order to establish  tyrannical rule there -- possibly with support from Megara. C. did not manage to mobilize the population to support him. The rebels initially were besieged by a contingent of citizens, b…

Adeimantus

(325 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀδείμαντος; Adeímantos). [German version] [1] Corinthian (5 cent. BC) Corinthian, son of Ocytus, fled in a cowardly manner, according to Herodotus (8,94), in the war against Xerxes with the Corinthian contingent before the naval battle at  Salamis in 480 BC. In fact, he was probably supposed to guard an area apart from the scene of the battle, namely the western entrance to the gulf, and then became involved in the battle (cf. ML 24; Dio Chrys. 37,18; Plut. Mor. 870b-871a). His son Aristeas (Aristeus) c…

Cleinias

(469 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κλεινίας; Kleinías). [German version] [1] Friend of Solon, heard of the seisáchtheia in advance and was able to unjustly enrich himself One of  Solon's, friends, who heard of the   seisáchtheia in advance and, therefore, was able to unjustly enrich himself (Plut. Solon 15,6-9; cf. [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 6,2). The story was probably invented in the late 5th cent. BC to discredit the descendants of these men (e.g., Alcibiades [3]). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 600 III Rhodes, 128f. Traill, PAA 575270. [German version] [2] Born c. 510 BC, son of Alcibiade…

Dromocleides

(88 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δρομοκλείδης; Dromokleides). [German version] [1] Athenian archon 475/4 BC Athenian archon 475/4 BC. (Diod. Sic. 11,50,1). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian demagogue c. 295 BC Influential and active Athenian demagogue, supporting  Demetrius [2] Poliorketes. In 295 BC he proposed that Piraeus and Munychia be handed over to Demetrius and, probably in 292/1, that the ‘saviour’ Demetrius be asked for an oracle (Plut. Demetrius 13,1-3; 34,1-7).  Athens;  Kolakes Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Habicht, 94; 98-100 Id., Unt. zur polit. Ge…

Cimon

(972 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Κίμων; Kímōn). [German version] [1] Known as Koálemos, born c. 585 BC, achieved three Olympic victories C., known as Koálemos (‘the Stupid’), son of Stesagoras of Athens, born about 585 BC, had to leave Athens during the tyranny of  Peisistratus. During his exile he achieved two Olympic victories with the four-horse chariot (536 and 532 BC). Since C. had the 2nd victory proclaimed for Peisistratus, he was permitted to return. C.'s high prestige after his third Olympic victory (528) resulted in a conflict between …

Orthagoras

(445 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ὀρθαγόρας/ Orthagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sicyon, 6th cent. BC O. of Sicyon is said to have established the tyrannís there around 650 BC. The ruling dynasty thus established was called the 'Orthagorids' after him. An anonymous ‘history of tyranny (FGrH 105 F 2) preserved on papyrus, and probably deriving from Ephorus, reports that O. had first distinguished himself as a border guard on the frontier with a neighbouring city, and later rose to become commander of the watch and polémarchos . Whether he had the support of the hoplítai for his seizure o…

Isagoras

(246 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἰσαγόρας; Isagóras). [German version] [1] Son of Teisander, Cleisthenes' competitor after the fall of the tyrants Son of Teisander, he fought  Cleisthenes for supreme power in Athens after the fall of the tyrants. The conflict was initially between their hetairiai ( Hetairia). It was only when I. was elected archon for the year 508/507 BC, that Cleisthenes was successful in winning the support of the dḗmos. I. too had to mobilize additional sources of power and in traditional aristocratic manner had his guest  Cleomenes I of Sparta intervene in Attica and e…

Leagrus

(262 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Λέαγρος; Léagros). [German version] [1] Companion of Odysseus Together with Ergiaeus, a descendent of Diomedes, who robbed the Trojan Palladion together with Odysseus, L. steals the Argivean palladion (Paus. 2,23,5). He later took the statue to Lacedaemon (Sparta), where he places it under Odysseus' protection near the sanctuary of the Leucippides and erects a heroon. (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 48). According to Callimachus, Eumedes, a descendent of Diomedes, brings the Argive palladion into the mountains to keep it safe (Callim. H. 5,37ff.). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] …

Agesias

(150 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Ἀγησίας; Agēsías). [German version] [1] Seer and captain in the service of Hieron I of Syracuse (5th cent. BC) Son of Sostratus, stemming from one of the branches of the Jamides, who had migrated from Stymphalus (in Arcadia) to Syracuse and functioned in Olympia as priests of Zeus. Active as a seer and captain in the service of  Hieron I of Syracuse, A. was killed by the people after Hieron's death in 467 BC (schol. Pind. Ol. 6,165). Pindar's sixth ode celebrates A.'s victory with the mule team, which probably occurred during the Olympic games in 468. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2…
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