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Poteidania

(57 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Ποτειδανία). Stadt in Aitolia (Aitoloi, mit Karte) im Gebiet der Apodotoi, identifiziert mit den Ruinen südöstl. des h. Kambos am mittleren Mornos durch hier gefundene Freilassungsurkunden (SEG 41, 528) von 135/4 v. Chr. Vgl. Thuk. 3,96,2; Liv. 28,8,9. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 49-52  D. Strauch, Röm. Politik und griech. Trad., 1996, 301.

Pale

(73 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Attischer Seebund | Perserkriege (Πάλη). Ort im Westen von Kephallenia auf der Halbinsel Paliki nördl. vom h. Lixuri. Hdt. 9,28,5 verwechselt Παλέες/ Palées mit αλεῖοι ( aleíoi, “Bürger von Elis”), wo er die Beteiligung der Truppen von P. an der Schlacht bei Plataiai 479 v.Chr. erwähnt. Ant. Reste sind kaum vorhanden. Inschr.: IG IX 1, 645f.; Mz.: BMC, Gr (Peloponnes) 84-88. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)

Pharos

(162 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Leuchtturm s. Leuchtturm Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) [English version] [2] Insel im Adriatischen Meer ( Pharia, Plin. nat. 3,152). 68 km lange Insel im Adriatischen Meer vor der dalmatischen Küste (Skyl. 23; Strab. 2,5,20), h. Hvar (Kroatien). Die Insel heißt nach Pol. 5,108,7 ὁ Φάρος/ ho Pháros, die Stadt ἡ Φ./ hē Ph. (Ruinen bei Stari Grad, vgl. [1]). Seit 385/4 v.Chr. (Diod. 15,13,4) war Ph. Kolonie von Paros (Ephor. FGrH 70 F 89), seit 229 zum illyr. Reich des Agron [3] und der Teuta gehörig, dann im Besitz des Demetrios von…

Pronnoi

(110 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Attischer Seebund (Πρῶννοι). Eine der vier Städte auf Kephallenia, im SO der Insel auf einer Felshöhe südl. des h. Dorfes Póros. 375 v. Chr. trat P. dem Attischen Seebund bei (StV 257); 218 v. Chr. wurde es von Philippos [7] V. im Bundesgenossenkrieg [2] vergeblich belagert (Pol. 5,3,4). Seit dem Fund eines reichen Fürstengrabs aus myk. Zeit nahe P. wird die Gegend arch. intensiv untersucht [1. 217; 2]. Inschr.: [1. 219-225]; Mz.: BMC Peloponnesus 89; RPC 272. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 D. Strauch, Aus d…

Atintanes, Atintanoi

(127 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀτιντᾶνες, Ἀτιντανοί). Die Lokalisierung ist wegen widersprüchlicher Angaben ant. Autoren umstritten: nach App. Ill. 7 ein illyr., nach Strab. 7,7,8; Skyl. 26 ein epeirotischer Stamm. [1] identifiziert daher zwei Stämme: die A.noi östl. von Epidamnos (Polyain. 4,11), 229 v.Chr. im Bündnis mit Rom (Pol. 7,9), nach 205 zu Makedonien gehörig (Liv. 27,30; 45,30; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀκαρνανία); die A.nes dagegen nordwestl. der epeirotischen Molossoi (Thuk. 2,80). [2] u.a. erkennen nur einen illyr. Stamm am Aoos. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 N.G.L. Hammo…

Portunata

(52 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Insel mit gleichnamiger Stadt im sinus Flanaticus, dem Golf östl. von Histria (Plin. nat. 3,140). Nicht zweifelsfrei [1] identifiziert mit Dugi Otok (Kroatien) [2]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 E. Polaschek, s. v. P., RE 22, 400 2 J. Chapman, The Changing Face of Dalmatia, 1996, Index s. v. Dugi Otok.

Konope

(90 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Aitoloi, Aitolia (Κωνώπη). Ort in Aitolia beim h. Angelokastro am Südrand der Acheloos-Ebene, Neugründung zw. 287 und 281 v.Chr. als Polis Arsinoeia zu Ehren der Arsinoë [II 3], Frau des Lysimachos. Verkehrsgünstige Lage an einer Furt des Acheloos (Strab. 10,2,22); Mitglied im Aitolischen Koinon (Aitoloi, Karte). Inschr.: IG IX 1,131-133; SEG 17,269-272; 25,625; 34,468f.; 40,457 [1]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 G. Klaffenbach, in: SPrAW 1936, 360-364. C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990  D. Strauch, …

Dyrrhachium

(529 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Delian League | Balkans, languages (Δυρράχιον; Dyrr[h]áchion, Dyrrhachium). [German version] I. Graeco-Roman period Harbour town on the Illyrian coast, the modern Durrës in Albania; founded on a peninsula by Corinth and Corcyra, probably in 626/625 BC, as the colony of Epidamnus (Eus. Chronicon 88f.; Thuc. 1,24-26; Scymn. 435-439). The name D. (c…

Astacus

(425 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀστακός; Astakós, ‘lobster town’). [German version] [1] Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Delian League Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia, in an unhealthy region; its exact location is unknown. Its foundation in 712/11 BC was initiated by  Megara (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 12; Str. 12,4,2), and it was presumably a member of the  Delian League from 478/7 BC[1]; in 435/4 BC, it was colonized by Athens. In about 405 BC, under D…

Acheron

(499 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀχέρων; Achérōn). [German version] [1] River in Epirus River in  Epirus, rising from the slopes of Tomarus [2. 166] (in the 4th cent. BC territory of the Molossi: Liv. 8,24,2), flows through the narrow gorges of Thesprotia (Thuc. 1,46,3); when it entered the plain its sluggish meanders formed in antiquity the swamp-like lake Ἀχερουσία λίμνη ( Acherousía límnē, today dried up). According to Str. 7,7,5 (as in Thuc. 1,46,3 based on Hecataeus [2. 443-469, 478]), it entered the sea near the γλυκὺς λιμήν ( glykỳs limḗn ‘Sweet-water harbour’, a station on the Roman   cursus publicus

Lissa

(169 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Island off the Dalmatian coast Island off the Dalmatian coast opposite Iader (Plin. HN 3,152), modern Ugljan. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 206, 208f. [German version] [2] Town in Lycia This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Λίσσα; Líssa). Town attested epigraphically on the south-west coast of Lycia in Asia Minor. Not identical with the place where the inscriptions [3; 6] were found, a Hellenistic tower farmstead in Kızılağaç on Kargın Gölü (different in [1. 520; …

Ambracia

(566 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀμβρακία; Ambrakía). South Epirote town in Thesprotia, originally about 80 stades upriver of the mouth of the Arachthus (navigable up to A.) into the Gulf of A. (Scyl. 33), the location of the modern Arta. The older form of its name, up to the 4th cent. BC, was Ἀμπρακία ( Amprakía; Hdt.; Thuc.; coins), derived from the castle of Ambrakos in the lagoons south of the town (Pol. 4,61,4 ff…

Calydon

(553 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Καλυδών; Kalydṓn). [German version] [1] Eponymous of the Aetolian city of the same name The eponymous of the Aetolian city of the same name, C. [3], son of  Aetolus and  Pronoe, brother of Pleuron, husband of Aeolia and through her the father of Epicaste and Protogenea (Apollod. 1,58-59). A similar genealogically linked construct in Deimachus (FGrH 65 F 1 = schol. Hom. Il. 217-218 Erbse) where the succession Endymion-Aetolus-Pleuron-C. is found, also the names of the region and both of the largest cities. According to Steph. Byz. s.v., either Endymion or Aetolus is the father of C. C. is a…

Achelous

(512 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Isler, Hans-Peter (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Greece's longest, most voluminous river (Ἀχελῷος; Achelôios). Greece's longest, most voluminous river, in the territory of the Aitoli and the Acarnanes; original name Thoas, from the Middle Ages Aspropotamos, today again Acheloos; sources in the territory of the Dolopes (Thuc. 2,102,2) near Mount Lacmon in the Pindus; fed there by five tributaries; today greatly transformed by dams. Coming from the territories of the Agraei and the Amphilochi (Str. 10,2,1), its bed widened (nowadays …

Aeolis

(298 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Name of a goddess associated with agrarian wealth in the imperial period Name of a goddess associated with agrarian wealth ( karpophóros) in the imperial inscriptions of Lesbos and Aegae; identified with Agrippina I and II (as Θεὰ Αἰολὶς Σεβαστή; Theà Aiolìs Sebastḗ, IG XII suppl. 134). She corresponds to the Αἰοληία θεά ( Aiolēía theá) mentioned in Alc. fr. 129 LP, who was worshipped together with Zeus and Dionysus Omestes in the main Lesbian sanctuary at Messa. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography L. Robert, Recherches épigraphiques V. (Inscriptions de L…

Hydra

(450 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Water monster (Ὕδρα; Hýdra, ‘water snake’). A monster, born of the monsters  Typhon and  Echidna (‘snake’) and raised by  Hera out of anger at Zeus. It lives at the spring of  Amymone in the swamps of Lerna, stealing cattle and humans until it is finally killed by  Heracles (Hes. Theog. 313-318; Diod. Sic. 4,11,5f.; Apollod. 2,77-80; Hyg. Fab. 30) despite the help of a crab sent to its aid by Hera. This killing constitutes Heracles' second deed in the canonical sequence. His lion'…

Cocytus

(202 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Κωκυτός; Kōkytós, Lat. Cocytus). [German version] [1] River of the Underworld ‘River of lamentation’ (cf. κωκύειν, ‘to weep, lament’). According to Paus. 1,17,5 from Homer onwards one of the rivers of the Underworld, named after the Thesprotic C. [1. 76]. It is fed from the  Styx and flows with the Pyriphlegeton into the  Acheron [2] (Hom. Od. 10,513f.); in Virgil the Acheron flows into the C. (Verg. Aen. 6,296f.). According to Pl. Phd., the C. flows around in a circle and empties into the  Tartarus (113b…

Pandosia

(276 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce)
(Πανδοσία; Pandosía). [German version] [1] City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus City of Thesprotia in the south of Epeirus. Allegedly one of the four Elean colonies in the territory of the Cassopaei on the Acheron [1] (Demosth. Or. 7,32; Theopompus FGrH 115 F 382). It is presumed that it was founded in the 8th/7th cent. BC [1; 3. 427] or not until the 5th cent. [2. 52]. P. is located near Trikastron about 17 km inland [1. 52f.; 2. 477f.]. Coins: [2. 107-110]. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography 1 S.I. Dakaris, Cassopaia and the Elean Colonies, 1971 2 P.R. Franke, Die antiken M…

Chalcis

(736 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Χαλκίς; Chalkís). [German version] [1] Settlement in Euboea on the Euripus This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Dark Ages | Ionic | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources | Boeotia, Boeotians In Euboea on the Euripus; by its especially strategic position the most important town on the island. It remains uncertain whether the name C. derives from the or…

Epirus

(1,836 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ἤπειρος; Ḗpeiros, Epirus) [German version] I. Region E. is located at the north-western fringe of the Greek cultural sphere, nowadays comprising northern Greece and southern Albania. From Homer (8th cent. BC) to the late 5th cent., the geographical term ἤπειρος ( ḗpeiros) referred to the mainland north of the Gulf of Ambracia. There is a wide variation in the attribution of individual tribes to E. both in ancient and modern literature, making it impossible clearly to define E.'s geographic expansion [1]. E. was bordered in the west by…
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