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Cales

(225 words)

Author(s): Garozzo, Bruno (Pisa) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [2] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | Tribus | Coloniae | Coloniae Main centre of the Ausones in Campania (Καλησία; Kalēsía: Steph. Byz. s.v.; Calenum: Plin. HN 3,63; Cale), on an elevated plain, enclosed on three sides by the Rio de' Lauzi and the Rio di Pezzasecca, modern Calvi Risorta. For its foundation myth cf. Verg. Aen. 7,728 (Aurunca), Sil. Pun. 8,512; 12,525 (Calais), Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,32,37 (Volsci). Conquered by the Romans in 334 BC (Liv. 8,16; Vell. Pat. 1,14,3), municipium, seat of the quaestor for Campania (Tac. An…

Galatia

(1,808 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
I. Region [German version] A. Definition Region in central Anatolia; it received its ethnically derived name following the conquest, settlement, and formation of states by the Celtic  Tolistobogii,  Tectosages, and  Trocmi, thus replacing the older names for its constituent regions (Phrygia, Cappadocia). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] B. Geography Before 188 BC, the tribal states of G. included, in the north, peripheral areas of  Paphlagonia and the territory of the  Mariandyni (basins of Bolu and Gerede), the zone ─ rich in woodl…

Claudioupolis

(334 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Κλαυδιούπολις; Klaudioúpolis). [German version] [1] Settlement in the Salo region This item can be found on the following maps: Celts | Asia Minor Old settlement in the Salo region (Abant Gölü, Bolu basin and surrounding alpine pastures), today known as Bolu (Str. 12,4,7). It was a suburb of the free  Mariandyni, conquered by  Zipoetes in 281/0 BC, and Galatian from c. 275/4 to 179 (the residential fortress of the north-western Tolistobogian tetrarchy is located south of Bolu at the spa of Karacasu, already ancient at that time). Newly founded as the po…

Dia

(455 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Δῖα, Δία; Dîa, Día). [German version] [1] Female equivalent of Zeus The female equivalent of  Zeus, as Diwiya on the Linear B inscriptions from Pylos and Knossos, with her own sanctuary, just as  Poseidon also has his female counterpart in the Mycenaean pantheon [1]. In the post-Mycenaean period the three heroines who can be linked with the Mycenaean goddess by name, are all linked with Zeus, but the individual derivation is problematical. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Heroine in the local cults of Phlius and Sicyon The heroine is most likely D. in the local cult…

Astacus

(425 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἀστακός; Astakós, ‘lobster town’). [German version] [1] Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Delian League Town on the eastern end of the Gulf of A. or of  Nicomedia, in an unhealthy region; its exact location is unknown. Its foundation in 712/11 BC was initiated by  Megara (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 12; Str. 12,4,2), and it was presumably a member of the  Delian League from 478/7 BC[1]; in 435/4 BC, it was colonized by Athens. In about 405 BC, under D…

Tyana

(216 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | Zenobia | | Coloniae | Ḫattusa | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Aegean Koine (Τύανα/ Týana; Luwian Tuwana). Ancient Anatolian city, capital of southern Cappadocia, on the road to the Cilician Gates [1], modern Kemerhisar (settlement mound, aqueduct, tapping of springs). Seat of a Late-Hittite kingdom, which in the later 8th cent. BC probably came under the predominance of the Phrygian kingdom (Phryges). In the Hellenistic…

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Arca

(47 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἄρκα; Árka). Town in  Armenia minor, present-day Akçadaǧ. Statio on the road Caesarea-Melitene (Arcas: Itin. Anton. 211,3), colonia Arca. Evidence of a bishopric from AD 431. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Hild, M. Restle, Kappadokien (TIB 2), 1981, 152 f. G.Hirschfeld, s.v.A. 4, RE 2, 1118.

Cybistra

(73 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Ḫattusa (Κύβιστρα; Kýbistra). Town in  ‘Cataonia at the end of the road from the Cilician Gates across the Taurus, later also called Heraclea; modern Tont Kalesı, 13 km south-east of Ereğli; belonged later to  Cappadocia II. It was a diocese from AD 325 and an archdiocese from c. 1060. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Kybistra, RE Suppl. 4, 1123 Hild/Restle, 188-190.

Olbia

(1,082 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία/ Olbίa). [German version] [1] Milesian colony This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Wine | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Apollo | Patricius | Patricius | Rome | Rome Milesian colony (Colonisation) south of modern Parutino (Ukraine) at the confluence of the Hypanis and Borysthenes (Ps.-Scymn. 808f.), and for that reason also known as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης; Hdt. 4,24; 78); founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f…

Calpe

(257 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Rock of Gibraltar The rock of Gibraltar ( Pylae Gadeirides). The derivation of the name from the Greek κάλπη ( kálpē) = κάλπις/ kálpis ‘jug’ (already found in Avien. 348) is founded on popular etymology, based on the cavity in the eastern face of the rock (Mela 2,95), which nowadays is largely taken up by fill and the town of Gibraltar itself [1]. Maybe the Greeks transferred this name -- of unknown origin -- from the Bithynian C. (modern Kirpe) to the Spanish peninsula [2]. C. was one of the two ‘P…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Malus

(294 words)

Author(s): von Stuckrad, Kocku (Erfurt) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Son of Amphictyon (Μᾶλος; Mâlos). Son of Amphictyon, eponym of the Malieis and of their city Malieus (Androtion in Steph. Byz. s.v. Μαλιεύς; Malieús). In the poems of Isyllus of Epidaurus (CollAlex 132-135 = [1. 380-383 no. 40]) M. is an Epidaurian king who introduces the cult of Apollo Maleatas. Therefore, M. is probably an Epidaurian etymology to explain the name Maleatas. In Isyllus, M. - through the mediation of Zeus - marries the Muse Erato and becomes the father of Cleophema, hence the grandfather of Aegle [5] and the great-grandfather of Asclepius. von Stuckrad,…

Cuballum

(151 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Fortress in  Galatia ( C. Gallograeciae castellum: Liv. 38,18,5), can be identified with the spacious plateau situated near modern Ortakişla (north of Sülüklü) in a bend in the valley, with edges that fall away steeply and have to some extent obviously been consolidated for fortification purposes, and the drop of a massive cut embankment to provide a barrier against the rear elevations; otherwise no identifiable building remains [1. 31]. C. cont…

Siberis

(61 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Σίβερις). Right-hand tributary of the Sangarius, dangerous because of its flooding (Procop. Aed. 5,4,1-3), also called Hieros flumen  (Plin. HN 5,149), modern Kirmir Çayı (otherwise still in [1]). From the 1st until the 3rd cent. AD it formed the border between Bithynia and Galatia (Plin. loc.cit.). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s. v. Hieros flumen, RE 8, 1589. Belke, 224.

Eudoxias

(77 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Εὐδοξιάς; Eudoxiás). City of Galatia II, named after the wife of Arcadius or the daughter of Theodosius II, probably Hamamkarahisar (Arslani [1. 447-464]) at the foot of the  Dindymum ([2. 129] incorrectly attributes this area to Germia); documented to have been a bishopric from 451 onwards (Hierocles, 698,2). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 M. Waelkens, Germa, Germokoloneia, Germia, in: Byzantion 49, 1979 2 Mitchell 2. K. Belke, Germia und E., in: W. Hörandner et al., Byzantios. FS H. Hunger, 1984 Belke, 163.

Gorbeus, Corbeuntus

(81 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Γορβεῦς, Κορβεῦντος; Gorbeûs, Korbeûntos). Residence of Castor the Elder, the tetrarch of the Tectosages, who was murdered here along with his wife by his father-in-law  Deiotarus; the latter destroyed the castle and large parts of the settlement (Str. 12,5,3). Later a road station (Ptol. 5,4,6; It. Ant. 143,2; 205,9); SE of Oğulbey, 29 km south of Ankara. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 171 K. Strobel, Die Galater 2, 1998.

Cyzistra

(39 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium (Κύζιστρα; Kýzistra). Town and Byzantine fortress in the Cappadocian strategia of Cilicia (Ptol. 5,6,15), the modern Zengibar Kalesı, 56 km south-south-west of  Caesarea. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 219f.

Ekkobriga

(152 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Central town of the north-western  Trocmi tetrarchy, a fortified settlement of the Trocmi and a joint posting station for the roads to Ancyra and Tavium (Tab. Peut. 9,5: Eccobriga; It. Ant. 203,6: Ecobrogis), modern Kalekişla east of Sulakyurt [1. 148-151; 2. 28]. E. consisted of a steeply rising castle mount and an extensive walled lower town; scattered finds indicate settlement into the Byzantine period. The name of this obviously Celtic new foundation is derived from briga (‘fortified high place’), and can m…

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…
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