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Temenium

(68 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τημένιον; Tēménion). Coastal town about 6 km to the south of Argos [II 1] with sanctuaries to Temenus, Poseidon, and Aphrodite (Str. 8,6,2; Paus. 2,36,6; 2,38,1 ff.); remains survive (to some extent under water). The long walls of Argos probably ended in T. (cf. Thuc. 5,82,5 f.; 5,83,2 on the year 417 BC). Tausend, Sabine Bibliography A. Folley, The Argolid, 1988, 196  E. Zangger, The Geoarchaeology of the Argolid, 1993, 62 f.

Scillus

(208 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Σκιλλοῦς/ Skilloûs). Town, settled from as early as the Mycenaean period, in Triphylia to the south of Olympia and possibly to the west of modern Makrisia on the Agios Elias (not at modern Skilluntia, where there are remains probably of the Temple of Athena Skilluntia of Phellon: Str. 8,3,14). Being allied with Pisa (Pisatis) (Paus. 5,6,4; 6,22,4), S. is said to have built the temple of Hera in Olympia (Paus. 5,16,1). After S. had been destroyed by Elis in about 570 BC (Paus. 5,6,…

Theisoa

(183 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
(Θεισόα/ Theisóa). [German version] [1] City in Arcadia City in Arcadia (Arcadians; Paus. 8,27,7: 'near Orchomenus'), at modern Karkalou Mill (1050 m elevation). Remains survive of the acropolis fortifications, the city wall, an Hellenistic sanctuary (IG V 2, 511) and houses. Initially part of Orchomenus [3], in 368 BC T. was incorporated into Megale polis. Made autonomous again by Philopoemen (SEG 14, 455), T. was a member of the Achaean League (cf. Achaeans, Achaea [1]) and minted its own coins. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography S. Dusanic, Notes epigraphiques sur l'histoire ar…

Teuthis

(93 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τεῦθις; Teûthis). City in Arcadia) on the Lusius with sanctuaries to Athena, Artemis and Aphrodite (Paus. 8,28,4-6), at modern Dimitsana. Settled from the Bronze Age, T. originally belonged to Orchomenus [3] (Paus. 8,27,4) and in 368/7 BC was added to Megalopolis and minted, occasionally independently, as a member of the Achaean League (Achaeans, Achaea [1]) its own copper coinage. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography S. Hornblower, When was Megalopolis founded?, in: ABSA 85, 1990, 71-77  R. Hope Simpson, Mycenaean Greece, 1981, 88  H. Chantraine, Der Beginn der jüngeren achäischen Bundesprägung, in: Chiron 2…

Therapnae

(329 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Tausend, Sabine | Fell, Martin (Münster)
(Θεράπναι/ Therápnai). [German version] [1] City in Crete City in Crete, probably in the central north (presumably between Eleutherna and Cydonia; [cf. 1. 198]), reckoned one of the island's more important towns (Mela 2,113; Plin. HN 4,59). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P. Faure, La Crète aux cents villes, in: Κρητικὰ Χρονικά 13, 1959, 171-217. [German version] [2] Place in Laconia This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta Cult site in Laconia (Laconica) on the left bank of the Eurotas, c. 2 km to the southeast of Sparta on a foothill of the Parnon…

Triphylia

(559 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τριφυλία /Triphylía). Territory in the western Peloponnesus, north of the Alpheius [1]; south of the Neda, bounded on the east by the highlands of Arcadia (Arcadians, Arcadia). The fertile hill country, crossed by rivers, with its flat, bayless coast, is divided by the mountain range, today again known as Lapithus, stretching from west to east. The southern part with the Minthe [1] is characterized by extensive sand dunes (cf. 'sandy Pylos' in Hom. Il.…

Spiraeum

(121 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Σπείραιον/ Speíraion). Promontory (Plin. HN 4,18; Ptol. 3,16,12) or bay (Thuc. 8,10,3, emendation) in northeastern Argolis on the border to Corinth, usually identified with modern Akrotiri Spiri or the Bay of Frangolimano; topographical considerations, however, suggest rather Akrotiri Trachili or the Bay of Korfos. Also, remains of a Late Classical watchtower above the bay indicate the border line. It was there that a Peloponnesian fleet was surrounded by the Athenians in 412 BC (Thuc. loc.cit.; Peloponnesian War). The bay played a role in a border dis…

Thornax

(133 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
(Θόρναξ; Thórnax). [German version] [1] Mountain in the west of Pron Mountain in the west of Pron, the city mountain of Hermion(e) with an archaic period sanctuary to Zeus Kokkygios and a Hellenistic one to Apollo (Paus. 2,36,1 f.). Zeus is supposed to have married Hera as a cuckoo there. Tausend, Sabine Bibliography N. Faraklas, Ancient Greek Cities 19, 1973, app. 2, 3. [German version] [2] Town near Sparta Town near Sparta on the eastern bank of the Eurotas, possibly on the modern …

Thuria

(267 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Θουρία/ Thouría). Perioikoi city in Messana [2] in the Pamisus [1] plain on a small hill plateau (Str. 8,4,5; Paus. 4,31,1 f.; Ptol. 3,16,22) to the east of modern Antheia and Aithaia. From the Classical Period, parts of the city wall as well as temple and house foundations have survived. The hill, settled as early as the Early Helladic Period, flourished in the Mycenaean Period (

Thyamia

(56 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Θυαμία; Thyamía). Fortress of Sicyon on its border with Phleius across the modern Stimanga, in 367 BC lost by Sicyon to Phleius, regained in the subsequent peace treaty (Xen. Hell. 7,2,1; 7,4,1).…

Thalamae

(178 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine

Tripolis

(627 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Tausend, Sabine | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Τρίπολις/ Trípolis; literally, 'triple city'). [German version] [1] Perrhaebic T. The three cities of Azorus, Doliche and Pythium [2] in the small valley south of the Titarus and west of the Olympus [1] were referred to as the 'Perrhaebic T.' The locations of the cities are attested archaeologically, some in inscriptions as well. Up to the 3rd cent. BC, the T. belonged to the Macedonian Elimiotis, then to the alliance of the Perrhaebi and therefore to Thessalia. Literary documentation of T. exists only for the 3rd Macedonian War in 171 BC (Liv. 42,53,6; 42,67,7). Kramolisch, Herwig (Epp…

Stymphalus

(407 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Στύμφαλος/ Stýmphalos, Στύμφηλος/ Stýmphēlos). City in northeastern Arcadia on the northern edge of a karst basin (590 m elevation) with no outlet, the majority of which is occupied by a swampy lake occasionally dried out by infiltration into the soil. Communication routes led to Pheneus in the west, Phlius in the ea…

Thraestus

(62 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine

Zarax

(331 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Ζάραξ/ Zárax). [German version] [1] City on the eastern coast of the Parnon This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea City of Laconian períoikoi on a bay (modern Limin Ierakas, Kastri or Ieraka) on the eastern coast of the Parnon, modern Ierax. Remains of ancient city walls on the northern side of the entrance to the harbour. Z. had an extremely advantageous maritime location (natural harbour) but lacked both good connections with the Laconian inland plain and drinking water. Paus. 3,24,1 describes the city, which was depopulated and destroyed in 272 BC b…

Thrius

(52 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Θριοῦς; Thrioûs). City in Achaea (Achaei [1]; Plin.  HN 4,22) probably to the southwest of Patrae, precise location unknown. Subsequently part of Elis [2]  (Steph. Byz. s. v. Θ.). T. appears c. 120 BC in a votive inscription for Zeus of Olympia (SEG 15, 254, l. 2). Tausend, Sabine…

Scyllaeum

(58 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine

Titane

(84 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τιτάνη; Titánē). Town in the area of Sicyon in the Peloponnese, away from the road to Phleius on the western bank of the Asopus [3] at modern T., with sanctuaries to Athena, Asclepius and Hygieia (Paus. 2,11,3-12,1). Apart from a Hellenistic fortress, remains of an Asklepieion (inscriptions IG IV 436) can be seen at the church of Agios Tryphon. …

Torthyneum

(93 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine
[German version] (Τορθύνειον; Torthýneion). Town in central Arcadia (Plin. HN 4,22; inscr.: [2]), to the southeast or south bordering Orchomenus [3] and Methydrium [1], recently identified with the remains of Hagia Sotira to the north of Kamenitsa; a prehistoric settlement is nearby on Mount Sakovouni (finds from the Neolithic to the Mycenaean period). Tausend, Sabine Bibliography 1 A. Plassart, Inscriptions d'Orchomène d'Arcadie, in: BCH 39, 1915, 58-60 2 S. Dusanic, Notes épigraphiques sur l'histoire arcadienne, in: BCH 102, 1978, 346-358.…

Taenarum

(525 words)

Author(s): Lienau | Tausend, Sabine
(Ταίναρον; Taínaron). [German version] [1] Promontory, southernmost point of the Peloponnesus (Ταίναρον/ Taínaron, Ταίναρος/ Taínaros; Lat. Taenarum, Taenaros). Promontory on the southern tip of a peninsula formed by the Taygetus, the southernmost point of the Peloponnesus, modern Tenaron or Matapan. It is a marble mountain of 5 km length (311 m height), without any bays on the rugged west side and with two bays dividing the east side (Ormos Asomaton in the south, Ormos Vathi in the north). It is connected to the peninsula in the north (modern Mani) by an isthmus of 540 m width that is flanked by two harbours (Achilleion in the west, Psamathus in the east). The city of T. was located at Asomaton Bay, another city at Psamathus Bay (Str. 8,5,2; Plin. HN 4,16; only few remains). For seafaring, the deep and well protected Psamathus Bay was the actual harbour of T. This was also a camp for mercenaries for whom T. was an important gathering and recruitment place, especially in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC…
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