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Koinonia

(109 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κοινωνία; koinōnía) is the general Greek term for any type of human community such as a state, association, commercial company, or community of heirs or joint owners. Regarding associations, a law by Solon is transmitted in Dig. 47,22,4, Gaius 4 ad legem XII tab. (= Solon fr. 76a Ruschenbusch), while societies and communities are mentioned only occasionally in the Attic sources. In the papyri, koinonia refers to the Roman societas as well as to communio. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens I, 1968, 240-242 A. Biscardi, Diritto greco a…

Parakatabole

(153 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (παρακαταβολή; parakatabolḗ). Literally the payment of a sum of money ( parábolon ), it was used in Athenian law to denote a number of payments which the parties had to make at the start of a lawsuit ( prytaneía ). Especially in in lawsuits about inheritance and in those concerning confiscated goods, the pursuer had to deposit one tenth, sometimes one fifth of the value of the dispute, which was forfeited to the State, sometimes to the successful litigant (disputed) if he lost the case. The purpose of this was similar to the epōbelía that had to be paid…

Parapresbeias graphe

(122 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (παραπρεσβείας γραφή; parapresbeías graphḗ). Public action ( graphḗ ) against envoys (s. presbeía ) who had foresaken their duties. Many examples from Athens are known; the PG of Demosthenes [2] (Demosth. Or. 19) against Aeschines [2] (Aeschin. Or. 2) is famous. Punishable offences included, for example, transgression of official capacity, false reporting, unauthorised actions, receiving foreign envoys against the wishes of the council and the people, or the receiving of gifts (

Synomosia

(73 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (συνωμοσία; synōmosía). Legally barely definable 'oath community', which occurs throughout Greek areas among private individuals, in cult, the army, politics and judiciary ( Hetairía [2]), and also in inter-state relations; used in the Roman period as a translate factio or coniuratio (FIRA I2 Nr. 68, Z. 7, first Cyrene edict on praevaricatio ). Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography E. Seidl, s. v. S., RE 4 A, 1445-1450  L. Rubinstein, Litigation and Cooperation, 2000, 204-208.

Kratesis

(137 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κράτησις; krátēsis) denotes in Greek civil law the actual power over an object, allowing physical access to it, comparable to ownership, but not understood technically in the sense of the Roman p ossessio (the Greeks knew neither possession by prescription ( usucapio ) nor a special ownership protection by interdictum ). Kratesis was exercised, for example, by the creditor on the mortgaged object, even if this had remained with the debtor, and likewise by the tenant on a leased property. A person having the kratesis on an object was not allowed to dispose of it, e.g. sell or transfer it or lease it on his part. Only the …

Daneion

(318 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (δάνειον; dáneion). The  loan, limited assignment of fungible goods (in kind or money) was an everyday way of doing business throughout the regions inhabited by the Greeks. It took place between private individuals as well as in public life. The lenders were often banks or temples and the borrowers often states, which often also owed debts to private individuals (e.g. IG VII 3172: Orchomenus is indebted to Nicareta). This practise was generally known as daneion, but sometimes   chrḗsis was used; the   eranos loan is a special type. The daneion was set up with a fixed r…

Logographos

(255 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
[German version] (λογογράφος; logográphos). Writer of Greek court speeches. The ten classical Attic rhetors were called logográphoi. The word was, however, also frequently used in a derogatory sense (e.g. Aeschin. 1,94; 3,173). As in principle the parties in the proceedings in Athens had to represent the matter themselves before the court, the ‘orator’, if he was not appearing on his own matter, remained undetected in the background: he was not a representative of a party or an attorney ( syndikos ), but a ‘speech writer’ (which is how logographos should be literally translated). H…

Chrematistai

(100 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (Χρηματισταί; Chrēmatistaí). In the Egypt of the Ptolemies, judges delegated by the king to try fiscal and civil cases for all sectors of the population. They were probably introduced in the 2nd cent. BC. The courts had jurisdiction over an individual nome, or several in combination. In the provinces the chrematistai courts lapsed during the early part of the Roman Empire; in Alexandria they are attested into the 3rd cent. AD, with a somewhat modified range of functions. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography H. J. Wolff, Das Justizwesen der Ptolemäer, 21970 H. A. Rupprech…

Diomosia

(281 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (Διωμοσία; Diōmosía). At least from the time of Dracon (before 600 BC) Athenians of both parties and their helpers (witnesses) were obliged to swear a solemn oath, the diomosia, to the archon basileus during the official preliminary hearings ( prodikasíai) for murder trials. The prosecutor swore (while calling upon the goddesses of revenge and other deities) to his right of prosecution at the risk of his own person, lineage, and house, and to the fact that the defendant really had committed the crime (Antiph. 6,16; Dem…

Adikema

(68 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀδίκημα; adíkēma). Non-technical term for an illegal act committed intentionally on a private person (Aristot. Eth. Nic. 1135 b 20 f.; Rhet. 1374 b 8); if adikema was associated with damage to property, it led to a   blabes dike . Sometimes the unlawfully gained property is also referred to as adikema (Pl. Leg. 906d). In the papyri: marital misconduct, violent affront, peculation. Thür, Gerhard (Graz)

Arrha, Arrhabon

(468 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] A security, especially in relation to purchases. On the model of ancient oriental laws (cf. Gn 38,17), the Greek ἀρραβών ( arrhabṓn) represents a requirement to establish liability. The usual token of personal liability was a ring. Its symbolic meaning was soon accompanied by a financial function: breach of contract on the part of the giver of the arrha/arrhabon resulted in the latter's being retained by the recipient (the security functions as a forfeit); breach of contract on the part of the recipient rendered him liable to return the arrha/arrhabon or usually a mul…

Apokeryxis

(144 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀποκήρυξις; apokḗryxis). In Athens legal right of inheritance of the legitimate sons was compulsory. Disinheritance was not possible. The father could, though, renounce a son during his lifetime by apokeryxis and in this way exclude him from the inheritance (Demosth. 39,39; Aristot. eth. Nic. 1163b; see also Pl. Leg. 928d-929d). A similar provision is found in the law code of Gortyn IC IV 72 col. XI 10-17. Parallel manifestations in ancient oriental …

Pharmakeia

(166 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (φαρμακεία; pharmakeía). The giving of a medical drug, magic potion or poison ( phármakon). In Athens, if someone personally administrated it and this resulted in a citizen's death, a δίκη φόνου ( díkē phónou, 'murder charge'; phónos ) could be brought , which was decided by the Áreios págos (Dem. Or. 23; or. 24; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 57,3). In the case of premeditated killing, the punishment was death, otherwise exile. Plato differentiates between the pharmakeia of doctors and sorcerers on the one hand and that of laymen on the other (Pl. Leg. 932e-933e). Offenders were not liable to prosecution for attempt until Ptolemaic Egypt (PTebtunis I 43 = Mitteis/Wilcken 46). Thü…

Syndikos

(489 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (σύνδικος; sýndìkos), literally 'co-litigant'. A person who appears in court conjointly with another. In Athens, the synḗgoros who intervened on behalf of a private person was often referred to as syndikos as well [5. 43-45]. Both groups were the targets of schadenzauber ('harmful magic' or binding spells; defixio ) [5. 65]. S ýndikoi (always five in Athens) became necessary when alliances of people such as a polis, demos or cultic community acted in court. The public assembly ( ekklēsía) elected five syndikoi at a time to defend the validity of a law in a paranómōn grap…

Argias graphe

(71 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (ἀργίας γραφή; argías graphḗ). After Draco (before 600 BC), probably to preserve households with considerable land property, had issued a law against idleness and had threatened it with   atimia , Solon (594/3 BC) made the action into a public one, reduced the punishment to a fine and implemented atimia only on the third conviction. Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography E. Ruschenbusch, Unt. zur Gesch. des athenischen Strafrechts, 1968, 50 f.

Diamartyria

(282 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (διαμαρτυρία; diamartyría). A ‘testimonial decision’, an archaic procedure different from normal witness evidence: based on the testimony of one or more witnesses, it was an act with formal determining powers, which in Athens was predominantly admissible in administrative proceedings in respect of inheritance. Such proceedings were initiated by someone with a claim to the estate who was not one of the direct heirs. He would apply for the assignment of the estate (  epidikasía ). A direct heir would then appear as respondent, and suppl…

Graphe

(291 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(γραφή; graphḗ). [German version] [1] Statement of complaint Literally ‘script’, in adjective law in Greek poleis graphe generally had the meaning ‘statement of claim’ (Dem. Or. 45; 46; cf. also IPArk 17; 114/5; 178 from Stymphalus and SEG 27, 545, 27 and 33 from Samos). Especially in Athens graphe was used in the actual sense of ‘complaint document’ that each blameless citizen (ὁ βουλόμενος, ‘each person who wishes’) could lodge against persons who harmed certain public interests, whilst a party whose rights had been infringed in a private sense could defend himself with   díkē [2]. This difference does not parallel the modern one between ‘public’ or ‘criminal law’ and ‘civil law’: only the closest relatives were allowed, for example, to bring a (private) action for murder, the victim of theft could only make a (private) theft complaint; against the embezzlement of public monies, there was the corresponding grapheklopḗ

Katengyan

(142 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (κατεγγυᾶν; kateggyân). ‘To require guarantors from defendant for his appearance at court’. In Athens, this was possible in private cases against non-citizens (Dem. Or. 32,29; Isoc. Or. 17,12; Lys. 23,9) brought before the árchōn polémarchos. Otherwise, the defendant was arrested. Citizens could be subject to the same in proceedings opened by apagōgḗ , ephḗgēsis (request before a magistrate for the arrest of a delinquent) or éndeixis . In cases of freedom, the person claiming the contested person as a slave could demand katengyan from his opponent who was in defence of his freedom ( exhairéseōs díkē ). The simple confiscation of movable property could also be called katengyan (Dem. Or. 23,11). Thür, Gerhard (Graz) Bibliography …

Phonos

(410 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (φόνος; phónos). Homicide. In Greek law the nearest relatives could originally carry out a blood fued as a result of phonos. Due to the strengthening of the polis and in Athens, in any case since Draco (end of 7th cent. BC), they were limited to a private lawsuit ( díkē ) as a result of phonos. This lawsuit was brought before the basileús (I.C.), solemn oaths ( diōmosía ) were sworn in three pre-hearings by the parties and witnesses. The adjudication, according to the severity of the crime, was made in the court sessions which met on various cult sites ( dikastḗrion A.I.). Draco …

Kadiskoi

(127 words)

Author(s): Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
[German version] (καδίσκοι; kadískoi). Urns used in the courts of Athens ( dikasterion) to receive the votes of the jury, referred to as ἀμφορεῖς ( amphoreís) by Aristot. Ath. Pol. 68,3. In the 4th cent. BC, each judge had two bronze voting stones (ψῆφοι; psḗphoi), one with a hollow bore for a verdict of guilty, the other solid for a verdict of not guilty (ibid. 68,4). He declared his decision by throwing one psêphos into the ‘valid’ bronze urn, the other into the wooden urn. The vote in inheritance cases ( diadikasia ) was probably not secret as it was in other case…
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