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Tod

(4,100 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Daniel | Thiede, Werner
1. Rahmenbedingungen 1.1. Kontinuität, Vielfalt und Wandel Sterben und T. bilden hinsichtlich ihrer histor. Wirksamkeit, aber auch bestimmter Umgangspraktiken ein Phänomen der longue durée in der europ. Geschichte. Als Tremendum und Faszinosum begegnet dieses den Menschen weit über den religionsgeschichtlichen Raum (s. u. 4.) hinaus und fordert zeitübergreifend zahlreiche soziale und kulturelle Reaktionen heraus. In Literatur, Kunst, Philosophie und Theologie wird kontinuierlich eine Auseinandersetzung mit der Verände…
Date: 2019-11-19

Theodizee

(2,186 words)

Author(s): Thiede, Werner
1. BegriffTh. (»Rechtfertigung Gottes« angesichts des von ihm geschaffenen und regierten physischen und moralischen Übels in der Welt) ist ein von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 1697 im Rückgriff auf Röm 3,4 f. und Ps 51,6 geprägtes und durch seine Essais de Théodicée (1710) europaweit verbreitetes Kunstwort (Untertitel: Über die Güte Gottes, die Freiheit des Menschen und den Ursprung des Übels; s. u. 3.) [6]. Immanuel Kant erklärte es in einem Th.-Aufsatz (1791; s. u. 3.1.) genauer als »Verteidigung der höchsten Weisheit des Welturhebers gegen die Anklage, we…
Date: 2019-11-19

Wiedergeburt

(1,334 words)

Author(s): Thiede, Werner | Sparn, Walter
1. BegriffW. (Übersetzung von griech. palingenesía bzw. lat. renascentia) war in der Nz. meist die christl. Metapher für den (einmaligen) Vorgang einer der natürlichen vergleichbaren geistlichen Geburt einer Person, d. h. der zweiten, für ihr ewiges Leben entscheidenden Geburt. Der Ursprung, das Gespräch Jesu mit Nikodemus (Joh 3), blieb präsent; wie die paulinische Formel »neue Schöpfung« wurde der Begriff von Anfang an mit dem Akt der Taufe verknüpft (u. a. Tit 3,5 f.; Sakrament). In loser Anknüpfung an seine gelegentl…
Date: 2019-11-19

Palingenesis

(1,448 words)

Author(s): Thiede, Werner | Sparn, Walter
1. ConceptPalingenesis (Greek palingenesía, Latin  renascentia, German  Wiedergeburt, literally “rebirth…
Date: 2020-10-06

Death

(4,729 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Daniel | Thiede, Werner
1. Introduction 1.1. Continuity, diversity, and changeBy virtue of their historical impact, and of certain practices for dealing with them, death and dying comprise a  longue durée phenomenon in European history. As a mysterium tremendum et fascinans, this phenomenon confronts people far beyond the context of religious history (see below, 4.), and in all periods it demands many social and cultural responses. There is a continual confrontation and reflection in literature, art, philosophy, and theology on the alteration of life t…
Date: 2019-10-14

Sects

(2,685 words)

Author(s): Dehn, Ulrich | Bochinger, Christoph | Thiede, Werner | Thiele, Christoph
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Both the etymology and the usage of the word sect are disputed. Derivation from Latin secare (“separate”) is possible, as is derivation from secta (from sectus, sequi, “school of thought”). English uses the word in the latter neutral sense, whereas the German equivalent Sekte is usually a pejorative exonym, corresponding to Eng. cult. M. Weber (see II below) distinguished between voluntary membership “of those who are religiously and morally qualified” in exclusive sects, in contrast to compulsory membership in the church as a Gnadenanstalt (“institutional provider of grace,” like an entailed estate) with a claim to universality. E. Troeltsch (see II below) defined the marks of a sect as voluntariness, exclusivity, law (instead of grace), and a radicalized way of life. In a theological sense, sects can be differing religious parties within a larger religious community. English writers thus often refer to the various schools of Buddhism, Hinduism, etc. as sects. The term can also refer to groups that break away from a larger religious community in open or more subtle opposition to it (usually resulting historically in a sect in the first sense). In current usage, a sect in the ethical sense can be a religious community that forms around a prominent figure (a “guru”), maintains rigid internal structure, fosters a contrastive picture of the world of the community and the outside world, and makes it difficult to withdraw. These features present only a rough orientation, which is tested repeatedly by the osmotic interchange between traditional and new religious groups. Alternative terms have been suggested – “conflict-prone groups” (Reinhart Hummel), “new religious movements” (the majority of students of religion), “new spiritual movements” (Usarski), etc. – but they are gaining acceptance only gradually and remain exonym…

Immortality

(3,692 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Zachhuber, Johannes | Heiligenthal, Roman | Hartmut Rosenau | Thiede, Werner | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Christianity – IV. Taoism I. Religious Studies It is inherent in the conditio humana that we are forced to master everyday situations and withstand critical moments. To do so, members of every society need handy codes of conduct to survive the manifold crises. Life and death, time and eternity, meaning and meaninglessness mark such critical moments in both individual lives and the course of the world. The responses of cultures and religions to these questions document our yearning for immortality. 1. Models We …

Astrology

(3,924 words)

Author(s): Thiede, Werner | Koch, Klaus | Hübner, Wolfgang | Veltri, Giuseppe | Kiener, Ronald C. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Biblical – III. Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Judaism – V. Practical theology …

Stockmayer, Otto

(178 words)

Author(s): Thiede, Werner
[German Version] (Oct 21, 1838, Aalen, Württemberg – Apr 11, 1917, Hauptwil, Switzerland). Stockmayer was converted while working as a private tutor in Switzerland. After studying theology, he served Free churches in Tavannes, Geneva, and L’Auberson. In 1874 he took part in the Oxford Meeting to Promote Scriptural Holiness and became a leading theologian and itinerant preacher for the H…

Weltanschauung (Worldview)

(2,530 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Thiede, Werner
[German Version] I. History of the Concept With its very first appearance in the writings of I. Kant( Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790; ET: Critique of Judgment, 1951, 1987), the term Weltanschauung came to mark the difference between the empirical-scientific knowledge of individual phenomena in this world (or of an assortment thereof) and an all-encompassing conception of

Glossolalia (Speaking in Tongues)

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Holm, Nils G. | Pratscher, Wilhelm | Thiede, Werner
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. Psychology of Religion I. Religious Studies Glossolalia is a universal religious phenomenon in which utterances are produced that from the viewpoint of the speaker belong to a foreign “language.” Glossolalia appears i…

Regeneration

(2,576 words)

Author(s): Betz, Hans Dieter | Frey, Jörg | Marquardt, Manfred | Thiede, Werner | Pierard, Richard
[German Version] I. Religious History 1. Since the dawn of time, human birth has been associated with many religious ideas, rituals, and customs, including the idea of rebirth or regeneration. As a rite of passage (Rites of passage), birth is not merely a natural process; it can repeat a previous birth, view death as a passage to new life, or distinguish within a lifetime between a corporeal and a spiritual birth, separated by a ritual death. The Greek terminology is not uniform, using …

Horoscope

(1,002 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang | Thiede, Werner | Strohmaier, Gotthard
[German Version] I. Greek and Roman Antiquity – II. Practical Theology – III. Islam– I. Greek and Roman Antiquity ʿΩροσκόπος/ hōroskópos “the watcher…

Parapsychology

(604 words)

Author(s): Thiede, Werner
1. Concept The term “parapsychology,” which M. Dessoir (1867–1947) suggested in 1889, takes as the object of psychology or its related disciplines certain phenomena that deviate from the normal life of the soul. Alternative terms such as “scientific occultism” …

Church of Scientology

(1,148 words)

Author(s): Thiede, Werner
1. Origins The term “scientology,” meaning “the science of science,” was used as early as 1934 for the title of a book by the philosopher A. Nordenholz. It is uncertain whether the American writer L. Ronald Hubbard (1911–86), the founder of Scientology, knew this work. In Scientology, which Hubbard viewed as a kind of superscience, he aimed to liberate the human spirit by his “religious philosophy” or “technology.” He did not at first organize a church. The starting point was the great success of his book