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(1,033 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
or ahl Fās , a name given to the inhabitants of Fās. In the local dialect this name does not apply to all those who live in Fās, but to those who were born there and have right of citizenship through having adopted the ways and customs of the city and its code of good manners. The population of Fās was formed little by little of many diverse elements. The original basis was certainly made up of Berbers and some Arab companions of the Idrīsids. From the beginning of the 3rd/9th century on, the population grew through the coming of political refugees f…


(251 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, a river on the Algero-Moroccan borders, a sub-tributary on the left bak of the Tafna. Of little importance in itself, this river was the scene of several battles, since it constitutes an obstacle on the East-West route between Algeria and Morocco. Battles occurred here between the Marīnids and the ʿAbd al-Wādids in 648/1250 and 670/1271, and above all there was the battle between the French troops under Marshal Bugeaud and the Moroccan troops commanded by Mawlāy Muḥammad, the son of Sultan Mawlāy ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. Bugeaud’s army consisted of some ten thousand men, the Moroccan a…

Bū Ḥmāra

(566 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, a Moroccan agitator who got himself recognised as sultan in north-east Morocco from 1902 to 1909. His real name was Ḏj̲ilālī b. Idrīs al-Zarhūnī al-Yūsufī, and he was born about 1865 in the mountains of Zarhūn. He had been a member of the corps of engineering students which Mawlāy al-Ḥasan had tried to establish, and then he became a minor civil servant. He was accused of dishonesty and imprisoned, and then became an exile in Algeria. He returned thence in the summer of 1902, and thanks to frauds and alleged miracles managed to pass himself off as a s̲h̲arīf and even a…


(18,623 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Ahmad, F. | Lambton, A.K.S. | Vatikiotis, P.J. | Tourneau, R. le | Et al.
, in modern Arabic “government”. Like many political neologisms in Islamic languages, the word seems to have been first used in its modern sense in 19th century Turkey, and to have passed from Turkish into Arabic and other languages. Ḥukūma comes from the Arabic root ḥ.k.m , with the meaning “to judge, adjudicate” (cf. the related meaning, dominant in Hebrew and other Semitic languages, of wisdom. See ḥikma ). In classical usage the verbal noun ḥukūma means the act or office of adjudication, of dispensing justice, whether by a sovereign, a judge, …

Ḳalʿat Huwwāra

(398 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, a town in Algeria in the wilāya of Mostaganem, a dāʾira of Ig̲h̲il Izane (Relizane), about 30 km. north-east of Mascara, on the Wādī Ḳalʿa. Population: 12,332 (1966 census). This Ḳalʿa was founded in the 6th/12th century by a chieftain of the Hawwāra, Muḥammad b. Isḥāḳ. About a century later, the Hawwāra [ q.v.] were supplanted by a tribe from the D̲j̲abal ʿAmūr, the Banū Rās̲h̲id. The town came under the rule of the Banū ʿAbd al-Wād, and following them under the Marīnids and then the Turks; it was at this period that Leo Africanus described it a…

ʿAbd Allāh al-G̲h̲ālib

(507 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
biʾllāh Abu Muḥammad , Saʿdid sultan, son of one of the founders of the dynasty, Maḥammad al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Mahdī. He was born Ramaḍān 933/June 1527 and, designated as heir presumptive, was recognized as sultan on his father’s death, assassinated by his Turkish guardsmen 29 Ḏh̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 964/23 Oct. 1557. His reign lasted till his death, due to a crisis of asthma, 28 Ramaḍān 981/21 Jan. 1574. His reign as a whole was peaceful. Yet the sultan showed himself uneasy in expectation of an eventual intervention of the Turks, who had killed his father, immediat…


(6,423 words)

Author(s): Isnard, H. | Tourneau, R. le
, a mountainous region in the Algerian Tell. The word Kabylia, coined by the French, means “land of the Kabyles” ( bilād al-Ḳabāʾil ). This name is of fairly recent origin, however, for it is not found in the works of Arabic historians and geographers; it is probably of oral origin and intended for use by foreigners, i.e., Europeans; it seems to have been introduced into geographic nomenclature by European writers from the 16th century onwards. The word “Kabyle”, the etymology of which is sometimes questioned, seems to correspond to the Arabic word ḳabāʾil , plural of ḳabīla


(446 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, chief town of the department of the Saoura (Organisation Commune des Régions Sahariennes), created by a decree of 7 August 1957. This town is quite recent; before the French occupation, which dates from 13 November 1903, a few villages, with no historical importance, had been built unevenly along the banks of the Oued Bechar (Wādī Bas̲h̲s̲h̲ār), which sustained a scanty group of palms. From 1857 the region had been explored by Captain de Colomb, whose name has been used for the new town; to this has been joined the…


(313 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, banū , a Berber tribe of the Zenata group mentioned as living in the Lower Zab (south of Msīla) at the beginning of the 4th/10th century. These Berbers, in conflict with the Fāṭimid Caliph, ʿUbayd Allāh, who built the fortress of Msīla as a look-out against them, supported the Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite agitator, Abū Yazīd [ q.v.], and offered him refuge when he was pursued by the Fāṭimid Caliph, al-Manṣūr. Although the latter pardoned them, they nevertheless took part in the rebellion of the governor of the Zāb, Ḏj̲aʿfar Ibn al-Andalusī [ q.v.] in 360/971. Fāṭimid repression forced them to flee…

Ḥasan Ag̲h̲a

(269 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, successor of K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn as governor of Algiers, when the latter was recalled to Istanbul on 17 Rabīʿ I 942/15 October 1535 to become ḳapudan-pas̲h̲a . Ḥasan was of Sardinian origin; he was captured as a child by an Algerine pirate and made a slave of K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn, who set him free and made him a eunuch and his confidant. While his master was in command at Algiers he performed various civil and military duties, K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn leaving him at the head of the government with the title of k̲h̲alīfa . Until the attack by Charles V (1541) he seems to have acquit…


(416 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, a religious brotherhood of Moroccan origin which established itself in the Central Atlas and in the neighbourhood of Constantine. It appears to have its origin in the zāwiya founded towards the end of the 6th/12th century by a Berber from the Sūs, Saʿīd u ʿAmur al-Ahansalī, on the banks of the asīf Ahansal, in the heart of the Berber country. From modest beginnings this zāwiya became better known in the second half of the 11th/17th century, when a descendant of the founder, Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān Saʿīd b. Yūsuf al-Ahansalī, who died in 1702, founded a new zāwiya in the same region and founded a b…


(682 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Tourneau, R. le
, plural of dāʾira , group of families attached to the service and the person of a native chief in Algeria. Before the French conquest, the name of dawāʾir (local pronunciation dwāyr ) was borne especially by four tribal groups encamped to the south-west of Oran and attached to the service of the Bey of that city, although there were other dawāʾir, for example in the Titteri. They were organized as a militia, living on the products of the ¶ land put at their disposition by the Turkish government and the profit from expeditions against tribes who were unruly or refused to p…


(534 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
b. al-Ḥusayn , the last dey of Algiers, was born at Izmir and ruled from 1818 to 1830. When his predecessor ʿAlī K̲h̲od̲j̲a died of the plague on 1 March 1818 Ḥusayn was occupying the high office of k̲h̲od̲j̲at al-k̲h̲ayl (tribute collector). Ḥusayn was raised to the dignity of dey without having sought it, and being of a moderate disposition opened his reign by gestures of clemency. His reward was two attempts at assassination. Thereafter he remained mostly in the kasbah, which dominated the city of Algiers, surrounded by Kabyle guards. There was unrest in Algeria: the beys of Consta…

Bū Ḥmāra

(535 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, agitateur marocain qui se fit reconnaître comme sultan dans le Nord-est du Maroc de 1902 à 1909. Son vrai nom était Ḏj̲ilālī b. Idrīs al-Zarhūnī al-Yūsufī; il était né vers 1865 dans la montagne du Zarhūn, avait fait partie du corps des élèves ingénieurs qu’avait essayé de créer Mawlāy al-Ḥasan, puis était devenu petit fonctionnaire. Accusé d’indélicatesse, il avait été mis en prison, puis s’était exilé en Algérie. Il en revint pendant l’été de 1902 et, grâce à des faux et de prétendus miracles, se fit passer pour chérif et même pour Maḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, frère aîné de Mawlāy ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz [ q.…


(397 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, confrérie religieuse d’origine marocaine, qui a essaimé dans l’Atlas central et au voisinage de Constantine. Elle aurait eu pour point de départ une zāwiya fondée dès la fin du VIe/XIIe siècle par un Berbère originaire du Sūs, Saʿīd u ʿAmūr al-Ahansalī, sur les bords de I’ asif Ahansal, en plein milieu berbère. Modeste en ses débuts, cette zāwiya revint à la lumière dans la seconde moitié du XVIIe siècle, lorsqu’un descendant du fondateur, Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān Saʿīd b. Yūsuf al-Ahansalī, mort en 1702, fonda une nouvelle zāwiya dans la même région et donna vie à une confrérie, après de…


(1,244 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, confédération berbère appartenant au groupe des Maṣmūda et établie dans la province du Tāmasnā [ q.v.] le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc, entre Salé et Safi, du IIe/VIIIe au VIe/XIIe siècle. Cette confédération était importante, puisqu’au dire du géographe andalou al-Bakrī, elle pouvait mettre en ligne plus de 12 000 cavaliers à la fois. De fait, elle paraît avoir joué un certain rôle politique jusqu’à l’arrivée des Almoravides (seconde moitié du Ve/XIesiècle). Jusqu’à cette époque, les renseignements que nous possédons sur les Barg̲h̲awāṭa sont dus presque uni…


(373 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, portion de la côte marocaine située approximativement entre le Wādī Lukkus, le Wādī Subū et les montagnes qui bordent la plaine côtière à l’Est. Ce territoire n’a jamais été délimité avec précision, mais a connu une extension variable selon les tribus qui l’occupaient et étaient ou non considérées comme tribus du G̲h̲arb. Il s’agit d’une plaine alluviale, humide et marécageuse le long de la mer et bordée à l’Est de collines ondulées. Le G̲h̲arb, tel qu’il vient d’être grossièrement défini, a d’abord été peuplé de Berbères et a probablement fait partie du territoire des Barg̲h̲awāṭa [ q.v.…


(1,305 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, corsaire turc qui s’est emparé d’Alger au début du Xe/XVIe siècle. Il est parfois désigné sous le nom de Barberousse (terme que certains ont interprété comme une déformation de Bābā ʿArūd̲j̲), mais il semble que ce surnom soit plutôt celui de son frère Ḵh̲ayr al-dīn [ q.v.]. ʿArūd̲j̲ était originaire de l’île de Midilli (Mytilène, anc. Lesbos); son père était soit un Turc, soldat musulman de la garnison d’occupation ( G̲h̲azawāt) soit un potier grec (Haëdo). Il avait au moins deux frères, qui se trouvèrent avec lui au Mag̲h̲rib: Ḵh̲ayr al-dīn et Isḥāḳ. Marin et musulman dès son jeune âge ( G̲h…


(946 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
ou ahl Fās, nom donné aux habitants de Fās. Dans le langage local, ce nom ne s’applique pas à tous ceux qui vivent à Fās, mais à ceux qui y sont nés et y ont droit de cité pour avoir adopté les us et coutumes de la ville et son code des bons usages. La population de Fās s’est peu à peu formée d’éléments divers. Le fonds primitif est certainement constitué par des Berbères et quelques Arabes compagnons des Idrisides. Dès le début du IIIe/IXe siècle, cette population s’accrut de réfugiés politiques de Cordoue et de Kairouan qui apportèrent à la nouvelle ville les traditions et le…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ismāʿīl

(512 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le
, sultan ʿalawite du Maroc, dont le premier règne commença le 4 s̲h̲aʿbān 1141/5 mars 1729 et le dernier se termina par sa mort le 27 ṣafar 1171/10 novembre 1757. En effet, ce souverain fut déposé à plusieurs reprises, cinq fois selon les historiens arabes, et fut chaque fois rappelé au pouvoir. C’est que la belle ordonnance du Maroc sous Mawlāy Ismāʿīl n’était plus qu’un souvenir. Lorsque ʿAbd Allāh prit le pouvoir, deux de ses frères, Aḥmad al-Ḏh̲ahabī et ʿAbd al-Malik, se l’étaient déjà disputé pendant deux ans et avaient déchaîné, par leurs surenchère…
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