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(15,989 words)

Author(s): Harth, Dietrich (Heidelberg RWG) | Davies, John K. (Liverpool RWG) | Walther, Gerrit (Frankfurt/Main RWG) | Demandt, Alexander (Berlin RWG)
Harth, Dietrich (Heidelberg RWG) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) History and historiography are terms that can be used in a variety of ways. Not only are they frequently used synonymously, but depending on the context they refer to such different activities as the study of the past and the presentation of research results. This difference is reflected in the words historíēs apódexis, with which Herodotus began his accounts. In Herodotus' usage, the Greek noun historíē, which still defines 'historical knowledge' as distinct from other types of knowl…

Antiquarianism (Humanism until 1800)

(6,902 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit (Frankfurt/Main RWG)
Walther, Gerrit (Frankfurt/Main RWG) [German version] A. Concept, Content and Form (CT) During the period covered here, antiquities antiquitates, antiquités, ‘Antiquitäten’, ‘Alterthümer’ were understood as the totality of written documentation or material remains (such as coins, monuments, objects of art and everyday items) that might provide information about the daily conditions, customs, practices, cults, institutions, in short the culture, of an ancient people. An antiquarius was an authority, a collector and archivist of such documents and fragments. A…


(13,945 words)

Author(s): Harth, Dietrich (Heidelberg) RWG | Davies, John K. (Liverpool) RWG | Walther, Gerrit (Frankfurt/Main) RWG | Demandt, Alexander (Berlin) RWG
Harth, Dietrich (Heidelberg) RWG I. Allgemein (RWG) [English version] A. Einleitung (RWG) Geschichte und Historiographie/Geschichtsschreibung (im folgenden abgekürzt: G.) sind vielseitig verwendbare Ausdrücke. Nicht nur, daß sie häufig vertauscht werden; sie bezeichnen auch je nach Kontext so verschiedene Tätigkeiten wie die Erforschung des Vergangenen und die Darstellung der Forschungsergebnisse. Eine Differenz, die schon in den Worten historíēs apódexis anklingt, mit denen Herodot seine Erzählungen eröffnet hat. Das griech. Nomen historíē, das bis h. “histor. …

Altertumskunde (Humanismus bis 1800)

(5,986 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit (Frankfurt/Main) RWG
Walther, Gerrit (Frankfurt/Main) RWG [English version] A. Begriff, Gehalt, Form (RWG) Unter antiquitates, antiquités, antiquities, “Antiquitäten” bzw. “Alterthümern” verstand man in der hier behandelten Epoche eine Summe einzelner schriftlicher Nachrichten oder materialer Überreste (wie Münzen, Monumente, Kunst- und Gebrauchsgegenstände), die Auskunft über die alltäglichen Lebensumstände, Sitten, Gebräuche, Kulte, Institutionen, kurz: die Kultur eines ant. Volkes geben konnten. Ein Antiquarius war ein Kenner, Sammler und Ordner solcher Nachrichten und …

Catholic Enlightenment

(1,174 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. Term The concept of Catholic Enlightenment developed in German historiography from the early 20th century, and has since the 1970s established itself as a specialist term [3. 40–53]; [5. 76–85]. In its general and internationally current sense, it denotes all the efforts undertaken within European Catholicism before around 1820 to adapt the ideas and accomplishments of the Enlightenment and to implement them in culture, education, scholarship, economics, and political organization [1]; [6]. In the specific sense widely used in German scholarship, it refers above …
Date: 2019-10-14


(968 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. Terminology The term  Anglophilia first appeared around 1750. It and the stronger form  Anglomania refer - from a critical distance - to the “(unsophisticated) fondness for England, the English, and all things English” [7. 18] that appeared among the continental elite after 1713 and became a general vogue in the 1730s. Admiration for English politics, economics, philosophy, science, culture, and lifestyle led to wholesale imitation, triggering one of the most momentous transfers of culture in European history.Anglophilia was a concomitant of the Enlightenment an…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,716 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. Concept In Antiquity, the Greek term first encountered as archaiología (‘antiquarian lore’) in the Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1st century BCE – archaiologeín, ‘to discuss antiquities,’ is already found in Thucydides, 5th century BCE) denoted the sphere of history of which there were no longer living witnesses to give accounts, but that depended entirely on traditions and legends. The Renaissance Latinized the term to archaeologia or  archaeographia, and used it synonymously with antiquitates, i.e. antiquarianism, from which archaeology was indist…
Date: 2019-10-14

Catholic Reformation

(5,118 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf | Walther, Gerrit | Kanz, Roland
1. Terminology The response of the Catholic Church (usually called the “Old Church” in the Reformation period) to the Reformation began gradually. Historians have coined various terms for it. Today there is still no term that covers both the efforts at reform within the Church during the 16th century and the attempt to win back the Church’s lost socio-political terrain. The competing terms include  Catholic Reformation,   Counter-Reformation, Catholic confessionalization, and recatholization.The reaction of the Old Church (and the states and territories that …
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,564 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. Concept The term, which came into English in the Middle Ages from the French dame (compare Italian dama/ donna, German Dame), derives from the Latin  domina (“mistress”). Dame in English is generally confined to an honorific title; where derivatives of domina in other languages denote a woman of high social rank or status, English uses “lady” (Old English hlafdige = “[woman] who kneads bread”) as Spanish uses señora. As a courtly title, “Dame” was mostly used in conjunction with the possessive “my” or  ma ( Madame, Madonna, Madam, My Lady/Milady). Domina derivatives denote th…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,952 words)

Author(s): Grünberger, Hans | Walther, Gerrit
1. Concept This term, already used by Homer, became a key term in cultural critique from the 14th century onwards. Used polemically, it meant anyone who ignored the values, demands and representatives of humanist education, or indeed opposed them ( Bildung; Humanism), or anyone whose social claims to power did not appear legitimated by a corresponding openness to Early Modern culture and to urban forms of social intercourse. There was special polemical force in the accusation of being a barbarian, precisely because of the variety of …
Date: 2019-10-14


(3,821 words)

Author(s): Busch-Salmen, Gabriele | Walther, Gerrit | Rode-Breymann, Susanne
1. Introduction Dance - a sequence of stylized rhythmical steps and movements performed by individuals, couples, or groups - was one of the most widespread and popular forms of nonverbal communication and public representation in the early modern period. As an indispensable component of free time and festivals of all kinds, it formed part of the everyday world of almost all ranks and groupings, in both elite and popular culture (see also e.g. Kermis, fig. 1; Music, fig. 3). Many had their own danc…
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,164 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. Terminology and form Before 1800 the Latin word antiquitates (“antiquities”; French antiquités, German Antiquitäten), made popular by the famous (but fragmentary) antiquarian treatise Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum (“Antiquities of Human and Divine Institutions”) of the Roman scholar Marcus Terentius Varro (116–27 BCE) was used synonymously with archaeology. It referred to written accounts or material remains (such as coins, monuments, works of art, everyday objects) that could provide information about cults…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,806 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit | Schliesser, Eric
1. Concept and meaningA method - a planned, standardized procedure for obtaining and verifying information and arranging it into a knowledge system, is an indispensable element of learned activity in all knowledge societies. The development of method in early modern Europe was characterized by its gradual emancipation from knowledge content. To begin with, method served as a procedure of teaching and demonstrating (Proof) theories, dogmas, traditions, and authorities that arose and endured independ…
Date: 2019-10-14


(3,917 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit | Müller-Wille, Staffan | Kalusok, Michaela
1. ConceptThe prototype and model for all early modern museums was the Museíon, which the Egyptian king Ptolemy I had established around 320 BCE in the same part of the palace at Alexandria that also housed his world-famous library. It was an academy where scholars, who were paid a salary by the government, met for research, discussion, and banqueting. Only in the early modern period did “museum” acquire a more topographical and material meaning. In the 18th century, it was defined as “a place where things are kept that have direct reference to the arts and Muses” [1. 893]. By the 19th cen…
Date: 2020-04-06


(2,195 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. Concept and overviewIn most of the cultural languages of Europe, dissimulation at the beginning of the early modern period was denoted using the Latin terms simulatio and  dissimulatio that had been current since Cicero and that Tacitus, in particular, made his own. While the latter meant concealing one's own views and intentions, the former meant simulating ideas and plans other than those one really had in mind. Although dissimulation, as a form of lying (Lie), was strictly frowned upon - telling the truth was a comm…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,550 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. Theology and languageModern Egyptology was born on September 27, 1822, when Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) presented his Lettre à M. Dacier to the Paris Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres. The document provided the basis for the decipherment of the Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs [8]; [9]. European scholars had begun researching the writing, language, and culture of Ancient Egypt from the 15th century, but they had done so mostly from the perspective of the theological problem of the relationship between Egyptian and…
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,488 words)

Author(s): Dücker, Burckhard | Walther, Gerrit
1. Term The Greek word kanṓn (orig. craftsman’s ‘measure’, ‘standard’) had a range of meanings in Antiquity, all of which referred to a generally valid norm. In art, for instance, it denoted from around the time of Polyclitus (5th century BCE) the proportion theory of the human body. In music, beginning with the Pythagoreans (5th century BCE) it was a twelve-part measuring instrument for determining the intervals. In epistemology from Democritus (4th century BCE) it was the sense of truth and the fac…
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,589 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit | Graf, Klaus
1. Concept and forms Ever since Hecataeus of Miletus collected genealogíai (“information about [noble] families”) in the 6th century BCE, the term ‘genealogy’ has denoted the art of ascertaining the place of a subject within his or her biological kin (Latin genus or  gens), or of reconstructing and portraying the succession of generations within a family. The genealogical perspective may be the world's oldest and most widespread method for determining the class (Estates of the realm) and rank of a person in society and for recalling, recording, and presenting the past.In the e…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,093 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. Concept and functionThe term “epigraphy” (from the Greek epigraphḗ; “inscription”) first occurred in German in the 18th century, and in French not until 1838. Yet the recording, collecting, and classifying of ancient inscriptions on stone and metal is among the oldest, most widespread, and most highly regarded forms of early modern antiquarianism and archaeology. The reasons vary. When Friedrich August Wolf declared in 1807 that epigraphy “is not important in terms of beauty of form, but by virtue of …
Date: 2019-10-14

Latin studies

(1,084 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit
1. SurveyIn the early modern period, Latin was a language in active use in diplomacy, science, and the educational system (Bildung) and was therefore a living language. This circumstance favoured the scholarly study of the language only to a certain extent. Before the 19th century, it was studied less for its own sake than for practical purposes: to be able to write and speak better, to be familiar with the (still obligatory) canon of classical literature, to understand Roman law, which was still in effect, and to share in the greatness of ancient Rome (Antiquity, reception of).Lati…
Date: 2019-10-14
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