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Noachic Laws

(378 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] In Jewish theology, the seven Noachid (Noahide) laws (Heb. sheva mizwot bene Noach) are the commandments (Mitzvot) binding on all human­king, including Gentiles – in contrast to the commandments and prohibitions of the Torah, revealed exclusively to the Jews. This idea goes back to the rabbinic interpretation of the revelations to Adam and Noah, the forefathers of all humankind (Gen 2:16; 9:1–7). In principle observing the Noahide laws enables Gentiles to live lives pleasing to God and incorp…


(1,858 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Wandrey, Irina | Graf, Fritz
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Responses I. History of Religions 1. Orphic-Dionysian mysteries. The earliest Greeks anticipated a short and active life without any form of existence after death. The 6th century bce saw the appearance of religious alternatives that promised an afterlife in the beyond. One of these spread anonymously under the name of Orpheus; myths of Orpheus speak of deliverance from a senseless and cheerless netherworld. There was never a coherent religion practiced by Orphics, but there is discu…


(298 words)

Author(s): Wandrey, Irina
[German Version] 1. Rabban Gamaliel (Gamaliel I) was active in Jerusalem c. 25–50 ce as an outstanding Torah scholar ( Midr. Sota 9:15) and member of the Sanhedrin ( bet-din; Acts 5:34ff.). The traditional view that he was the son or grandson of Hillel is presumably legendary ( b. Šabb. 15a), but does, indeed, suggest continuity in doctrine. The historicity of the teacher-student relationship attributed to him and Paul in Acts22:3 and his intervention ¶ before the Sanhedrin on behalf of releasing the apostles (Acts 5:34–39) is also unclear. 2. Gamaliel II , the son of Simeon and grands…

Ascension of Christ

(3,139 words)

Author(s): Zeller, Dieter | Schmitt, Armin | Boring, M. Eugene | Farrow, Douglas B. | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. History of Dogma and Dogmatics – V. Art History – VI. Judaism I. Religious Studies The attempt to ascend to the abode of the gods is associated with myths and expressions of the impossible (Deut 30:12; Prov 30:4) and of presumption (Isa 14:13f.; the Aloads, Bellerophon). Nevertheless divine help empowers (Wind, cloud, wings, Angels…
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