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(598 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] a landlocked country in East Africa, with an area of 26,338 km2 and a dense estimated population of 11.1 million (2010). The capital is Kigali. Rwanda is one of the few countries in modern Africa where the overwhelming majority of the population belong to a single ethnic and cultural group. Precolonial Rwanda was a complex society divided into three major groups: the pastoral Tutsi, the rural Hutu, and the Twa, a tribe of hunter-gatherers. A hierarchical system made the Hutu majority (some 9…


(261 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Situated among the Xhosa people, Lovedale Mission, founded in 1826 near the town of Alice in South Africa's Eastern Cape, was named after John Love, secretary of the Glasgow Missionary Society. In 1844 the newly formed Free Church of Scotland took control and developed Lovedale, under William Govan, as one of the foremost educational institutions in Africa for black and white students. In 1866, its new principal, James Stewart, argued for an education more adapted to the social an…

Paton, Alan Stewart

(273 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jan 11, 1903, Pietermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa – Apr 12, 1988, Hillcrest, KwaZulu/Natal), Christian writer and political activist. Of Scottish and English ancestry, Paton converted to Anglican Christianity, which thereafter informed his political and ethical outlook. In 1936 he became the principal of Diepkloof Reformatory, an educational institution for juvenile criminals. The experience of rehabilitating black African youth informed his first and most famous novel, Cry the Beloved Country (1948), which appeared as the National Party came t…

Church Missionary Society

(280 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (CMS) was established in 1799, a product of the evangelical revival movement in the Church of England and of the Abolitionist movement (Abolitionism). Many of the first CMS missionaries were German and Swiss members of the Basel Mission. The CMS pioneered work in India, the Middle East, in Africa, China, Japan, New Zealand, and Canada. H. Venn, secretary of the Society from 1841 to 1872, developed the “three selves policy” (Three-Self Move…

Sierra Leone

(444 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Sierra Leone, presidential republic in West Africa (see map, Africa); the capital city is Freetown; area 71,740 km2, population 5,732,681 (July 2003). Sierra Leone owes its existence as a colonial state to the activities of the British Evangelicals and humanitarian abolitionists (Slavery). In 1787 G. Sharp persuaded the British government to support a colony for black freed slaves from America. Settlers from the Caribbean and Nova Scotia arrived, many of them Baptists or Methodists. Relations with…

Legion of Mary

(458 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] The Maria Legio Church of Kenya, also known as Legio Maria) is one of the largest African Instituted Churches (AICs) to have broken away from the Roman Catholic Church. Its base is in western Kenya, but it extends to the neighboring districts of Tanzania. The majority of adherents belong to the Luo people, but the Church understands itself to be a multi-ethnic community and includes adherents from the Kisii and Luyia peoples. It has parishes in urban areas, including the Kenyan ca…


(769 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] ¶ is a land-locked country in the Great Lakes region of East Africa (see map of Africa), with an estimated population of 22 million. The majority belong to Bantu speaking ethnic groups, but there are important Nilotic (Nuer and Dinka) and Sudanic peoples in the North. The staple crops are bananas and millet, with cotton and coffee as cash crops. Cattle keeping has cultural and economic importance. Uganda is named after the kingdom of Buganda, which occupies the central part of what became the British colonial state. From the 1840s, Arab and Swahi…

Moriah (Africa)

(142 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] The Paris Evangelical Missionary Society began its work in Lesotho in 1833. The society founded a number of missions with biblical names: Hebron, Beersheba, Berea, Cana etc. Moriah was the first and most important of them. It was established by Eugene Casalis and was situated to the south-west of Thabo Bosiu. The mission developed into the central educational center of the “Kereke ea Evangeli Lesotho,” which was founded by the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society. This educational…

Scott, Michael

(281 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jul 30, 1907, Lowfield Heath, Sussex – Sep 14, 1983, London), Anglican priest, and campaigner against apartheid in southern Africa. Scott first went to South Africa in 1926 to recover from tuberculosis. He attended theological college in Grahamstown, but was ordained by Bishop G. Bell of Chichester in 1930. His ministry as a curate in London gave him a radical socialist political consciousness. He worked in India from 1937 to 1939. In 1940 he joined the Royal Air Force, before th…

Third World

(8,437 words)

Author(s): Gern, Wolfgang | Ward, Kevin
1. Political, Economic, Social, and Cultural Problems 1.1. Term, Criteria, Groups 1.1.1. The African Caribbean (Martinique) doctor and freedom fighter Frantz Fanon (1961) is thought to have been the author of the term “Third World.” He based it on the Third Estate (i.e., the commoners) in the French Revolution and denoted by it the colonized and underdeveloped countries. I. L. Horowitz (1966) and then D. Nohlen and F. Nuscheler (1982) studied the significance of the term both practically and in terms of th…


(711 words)

Author(s): Nambala, Shekutaamba V.V. | Ward, Kevin
[English Version] I. Allgemein Mit einer Fläche von 824 295 km 2 und 1 826 854 Einwohnern liegt das heutige N. am südwestlichen Rand Afrikas, begrenzt von Angola, Sambia und Simbabwe im Norden, Botswana im Osten, der Republik Südafrika im Süden und Südwesten und dem Atlantik im Westen. N. war seit 1884 Schutzgebiet des Deutschen Reiches, wurde nach dem 1. Weltkrieg an den Völkerbund abgetreten und kam als Mandatsgebiet unter die Verwaltung Südafrikas, von dem es quasi als Teil seines Staatsgebietes beh…


(782 words)

Author(s): Nambala, Shekutaamba V.V. | Ward, Kevin
[German Version] I. General – II. Pre-Christian Religious History – III. History of Christianity I. General With an area of 824,295 km2 and 2,088,669 inhabitants (2008), Namibia today lies on the southwestern edge of Africa, bordered by Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe to the north, Botswana to the east, the Republic of South Africa to the south and southwest, and the Atlantic to the west. From 1884 Namibia was a protectorate of Germany. After World War I it was ceded to the League of Nations and came as a mandated t…
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