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Demades

(344 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Δημάδης; Dēmádēs). Orator from Athens, * around 380 BC, son of Demeas (deme of Paeania), † 319. Along with references by contemporary orators and epigraphical evidence (collected in [6]), we have information about him from an article in the Suda. Like his father, D. was initially a sailor and then, at a point in time that has not been authoritatively established, he turned to politics, initially and even later (cf. [4]) often in concert with Demosthenes. After 338 D. became one of…

Hypereides

(1,056 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ὑπερείδης; Hypereídēs). Attic orator, son of Glaucippus, from the deme Collytus, born 390/89 BC (since he was diaitetes in 330/29 and thus 60 years old, IG II 941), died in 322 BC. [German version] A. Life Of the rich biographical tradition of antiquity (Hermippus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Caicilius) all that has been preserved are the Vita in Ps.-Plutarch (Mor. 848d-850b) and short notes in Athenaeus, Photius (495b-496a) and in the Suda; in addition there is usable biographical information in H.' extant speeches and epigraphical testimonies. H. came from a wealthy family (h…

Polycrates

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πολυκράτης; Polycrátēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Samos, 540-522 BC Son of Aeaces [1], tyrant of Samos c. 540-522 BC, initially together with his brothers Pantagnostus and Syloson; he killed the former and expelled the latter (Hdt. 3,39). Aristotle calls major constructions comparable to the pyramids [6] 'the works of P.' (Aristot. Pol. 1313b 24); Herodotus pinpoints three buildings on Samos as the largest among those of the Greeks: the Temple of Hera, the harbour mole and the aqueduct of the architect Eu…

Demosthenes

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δημοσθένης; Dēmosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Prominent Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. Appointed strategos for the first time in 427/6 BC, he entered Aetolia with Western Greek allies so as to be able to attack Boeotia from the west. Through tactical errors D. suffered a severe defeat and fear prevented him from returning to Athens (Thuc. 3,94-98). However, in the Aetolian and Spartan assault on the Athenian stronghold of Naupactus in 426, D., wit…

Democrates

(130 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δημοκράτης; Dēmokrátēs). [German version] [1] Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC from Aphidna Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC from Aphidna, probably an older contemporary of Demosthenes [2] (about 338 BC he is called γέρων ( gérōn; old man), cf. Stob. Floril. 3,22,43). As the descendant of  Harmodius or  Aristogeiton, he had a claim to free provisions in the Prytaneion (Hyp. 4,3). He belonged to the Pro-Macedonian party (Hyp. 4,2). He is also mentioned in Aeschin. Leg. 2,17 and Isaeus 6,22. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2. [German version] [2] Tragedian of Sic…

Naucrates

(247 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale)
(Ναυκράτης; Naukrát ēs). [German version] [1] Of Erythrae, rhetor, 4th cent. BC Rhetor of the 4th cent. BC, of Erythrae [2] in Ionia, known almost solely by virtue of the fact that he was a student of Isocrates. He seems not only to have relied closely on his teacher linguistically and stylistically (Cic. De orat. 2,94), but also, like him, to have confined his activities particularly to the area of political journalism (an epitáphios [2] is mentioned - probably a model funeral oration without a concrete occasion: Dion. Hal. Rhet. 6,1 - and a funeral oration presente…

Isaeus

(786 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἰσαῖος; Isaîos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic logographer from about the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC, son of Diagoras. Scant information about his life is offered in vitae in the MSS, Ps.-Plutarch (Mor. 839e-f), Harpocration, Suda and Photius (490a), all of which however depend on Dion. Hal. De Isaeo and Caecilius. The precise dates of his life are unknown; among the datable surviving speeches the earliest can be dated to about 389 and the latest to perhaps 344/3. Athens and Chalcis in Euboea are named as his birthplace.…

Stratocles

(397 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Στρατοκλῆς/ Stratoklês). [German version] [1] Of Athens, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Charidemus of the Oion deme, relative and part heir of the wealthy Hagnias. After S.' death ( c. 360 BC), there was a legal dispute between his brother Theopompus and the guardian of his son for half of the Hagnias legacy (Isaeus 11). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass 2, 565-570  A. Schäfer, Demosthenes und seine Zeit (Beilagen), 1858, 229-236  PA 12942  W. E. Thompson, De Hagniae Hereditate, 1976. [German version] [2] Of Athens, c. 300 BC Athenian, son of Euthydemus of the Diomea deme, c. 360/…

Neanthes

(285 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Νεάνθης; Neánthēs). [German version] [1] Of Cyzicus, Greek author of uncertain date N. of Cyzicus. References to and some fragments of the following works under this name are preserved (FGrH 84): a Greek history (Ἑλληνικά, Hellēniká), a history of Attalus [4] I of Pergamum (Περὶ Ἄτταλον ἱστορίαι, Perì Áttalon historíai), writings on the myths and history of the city of Cyzicus (Τὰ κατὰ πόλιν μυθικά, Ὧροι Κυζικηνῶν, Ta katà pólin mythiká, Hȏroi Kyzikēnȏn), a biographical collection ‘On famous men (Περὶ ἐνδόξων ἀνδρῶν, Perì endóxōn andrȏn), a piece on mysteries and cults (Περὶ τελετῶν, P…

Lysias

(2,221 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Λυσίας; Lysías). [German version] [1] Attic logographos, 5th/4th cent. BC Attic logographos , 459/8 or c. 445 to c. 380 BC Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] A. Life The main biographical facts can be gathered from L.'s speeches (esp. or. 12), from which the later vitae (Dion. Hal. de Lysia; Ps.-Plut. Mor. 835c ff.) and Byzantine learning (Phot. Bibl. 262; Suda s.v. L.) drew partly. Born probably around 445, L. left Athens at the age of 15 and together with his older brother Polemarchus settled in the Panhellenic colony o…

Eudemus

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Εὔδημος; Eúdemos). [German version] [1] Sculptor in Miletus, 1st half of the 6th cent. BC Sculptor in Miletus. He signed a male seated statue of the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC, one of the earliest  Branchidae of Didyma. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 373-375 Loewy, No. 3 K. Tuchelt, Die archaischen Skulpturen von Didyma, 1970, 77-78, 121. [German version] [2] of Cyprus Friend of Aristotle A friend of  Aristotle of about the same age, participated, as a follower of Dion [I 1], in the overthrow of Dionysius II and was killed in the fight…

Philiscus

(934 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Et al.
(Φιλίσκος; Philískos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy Poet of Middle Comedy, to whom the Suda attributes 7 play titles: Ἄδωνις (Á dōnis), Διὸς γοναί ( Diòs gonaí/ 'The Birth of Zeus'; Adespoton 1062 K.-A. is sometimes assigned to this play [4]), Θεμιστοκλῆς ( Themistoklês/ ' Themistocles'; title probably incorrectly included in the list [3. n. 37]), Ὄλυμπος ( Ólympos; ' Olympus'), Πανὸς γοναί ( Panòs gonaí; 'The Birth of Pan'), Ἑρμοῦ καὶ Ἀφροδίτης γοναί ( Hermoû kaì Aphrodítēs gonaí/ ' The Births of Hermes and Aphrodite'; possibly two plays [3. n. 24]), Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ἀ…

Menippus

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος; Ménippos). [German version] [1] According to Plutarch sub-commander of Pericles In Plut. Pericles 13,10 (cf. Plut Mor. 812d) mentioned as a friend and sub-commander of Pericles (probably between 443 and 430 BC). Like the latter, he was mocked in the comedies. It is uncertain if M. really was a strategos. Plutarch's term for him ( hypostratēgṓn) is the Greek equivalent of the Latin term legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 mentions a M., whom the scholias identify as a horse dealer. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography PA 10033 Traill, PAA 646185 (vgl. 646190 und 646195). …

Aphthonius

(218 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ἀφθόνιος; Aphthónios). Rhetorician of the 4th and the 5th cent. AD, from Antiochia, student of  Libanius and friend of  Eutropius. Of his writings, the practice speeches mentioned in Phot. library 133 are lost; still extant are 40 fables, some of which he had adopted from  Babrius, others he had newly created. Also still extant are the so-called   progymnasmata , which contain 14 definitions of basic rhetorical concepts used as introductory material for the discipline of rhetoric (e.g. fable μῦθος, narration διήγημα, p…

Rhetoric

(12,493 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] I. Terminology Generic term: Greek τέχνη ῥητορική/ téchnē rhētorikḗ; from Plato onwards, the technical term is ῥητορική/ rhētorikḗ [43]; Latin: ars oratoria, ars dicendi (rhetoric as an acquired skill), or eloquentia (as an ability). Performers: Greek ῥήτωρ/ rhḗtōr (Homeric ῥήτηρ/ rhḗtēr); Latin orator (initially referring to any orator; later used in the specific context of rhetoric), rhetor (technical term for a teacher of rhetoric). Activity: Greek είρειν/ eírein (‘say’ in formal language) or more generally λέγειν/ légein (‘speak’); the Latin equivalen…

Acacius

(589 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἀκάκιος; Akákios). [German version] [1] Rhetorician and poet from Caesarea Rhetorician and poet from Caesarea, contemporary of  Libanius, who mentions A. numerous times in his letters, also known through Eunapius (Vitae Sophist. 497, cf. PLRE s. v. Acacius 6-8). After completing his studies in Athens, A. taught in Antioch [1]. He is said to have been superior to Libanius because of his natural talent. A. may have authored Ὠκύπους (Lib. Ep. 1380 W. = 1301 f.), the parody of a tragedy that was passed down …

Himerius

(810 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] A. Life From his own speeches and other sources (Lib., Eun. Vit. Soph. 14 (494), Suda) the following emerges: Greek rhetor from Prusias in Bithynia, c. AD 320 until after 383, son of the rhetor Aminias. After studying in Athens until the beginning of the 340s, H. first worked as a teacher of rhetoric in Constantinople (343-352). One of several journeys undertaken at this time took him to Nicomedia (around 350), where he lost to  Libanius in an oratory competition (Lib. Ep. 742,1F = 654W; Libanius' speech …

Genethlius

(162 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Γενέθλιος; Genéthlios). Greek rhetor from Petra, a pupil of Minocianus and Agapetus, 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD. He taught in Athens in rivalry to Callinicus, and died there aged 28. He wrote epideictic orations and was praised for his talent and his astounding memory (Suda s.v.). The fact that he is mentioned four times in the Schol. Demosth. (18,8; 52; 19,148; 22,3) supports the assumption that G. had written a commentary on that rhetor. Two treatises on the classification of …

Cocondrius

(99 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Κοκόνδριος; Kokóndrios). Greek rhetor of undetermined date (probably Byzantine); a slim treatise on tropes ( trópoi) is extant. These are at the beginning systematically divided into three groups ( génē), namely trópoi referring to an individual word (e.g. onomatopoeia), to the whole sentence (e.g. allegory), or to both (e.g. hyperbaton). In elaboration C. does not adhere strictly to this system but deals with other types as well. For example, poets are quoted exclusively: Homer, as well as Alcaeus, the tragedians, and Theoc.  Style, figures of style;  trope Weißen…

Anonymus Seguerianus

(127 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Designation for the author of a rhetorical treatise from the 5th cent., publicized in 1840 by Séguier de St.-Brisson. For a time, the treatise had been falsely attributed to L. Annaeus Cornutus. This work is the epitome of a school book from the 2nd cent. AD (definitely prior to Hermogenes), which is predominantly based upon  Alexander [II 25],  Neocles and ( Valerius) Harpocration. The subject matter is the 4  partes orationis and also the 4   officia oratoris . It is an important source for the controversy between Theodoreans ( Theodor…
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