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Sperthias

(126 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Hdt. 7,134,2: Σπερθίης/ Sperthíēs; Plut. Mor. 235f: Σπέρτις/ Spértis; 815e: Σπέρχις/ Spérchis). A high-ranking Spartan (Spartiatae) who is supposed to have offered himself and the Spartan Boulis in Susa as atonement for the ambassadors of Darius [1] I who had allegedly been killed in Sparta in 491 BC, but refused to prostrate himself before Xerxes who nevertheless set him free (Hdt. 7,134,2-136). Whether Persian ambassadors had appeared in Sparta in 491 BC, however, remains questionable [1.…

Cnemus

(84 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κνῆμος; Knêmos). Spartan nauarchos (fleet commander) in 430/29 BC, destroyed Zacynthus in 430, conducted operations in Acarnania in 429 and was defeated at Oeniadae (Thuc. 2,66; 80-82; Diod. Sic. 12,47,4f.). C.'s formations suffered heavy losses in 429 at Stratus and Naupactus against the Athenians under Phormion. In the late autumn of 429 an assault that C. and his ‘adviser’  Brasidas had planned against Piraeus was called off; Salamis was laid waste instead (Thuc. 2,83-94; Diod. Sic. 12,49). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Ischolaus

(41 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσχόλαος; Ischólaos). Spartan, fought in the Corinthian War against Chabrias in Thrace (Polyaen. Strat. 2,22), fell in battle in Scritis against the Arcadians during the winter of 370/69 BC (Xen. Hell. 6,5,24-26; Diod.Sic. 15,64,3f.). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lampito

(87 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Λαμπιτώ; Lampitṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Spartan king Leotychidas II, 5th cent. BC Daughter of the Spartan king Leotychidas II, wife of king Archidamus [1] II, mother of the later king Agis [2] II (Hdt. 6,71; Plut. Agesilaus 1; Pl. Alc. 1,123c); Aristophanes (Lys.) uses the name for a typical female representative of Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Samian woman, lover of Demetrius [4] c. 300 BC Samian woman, lover of Demetrius [4] (Ath. 13,593e-f; Diog. Laert. 5,76). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gorgo

(604 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Horrific monster Female monster in Greek mythology. According to the canonical version of the myth (Apollod. 2,4,1-2),  Perseus must get the head of  Medusa, the mortal sister of Sthenno and Euryale (Hes. Theog. 276f.; POxy. 61, 4099), the daughters of Phorcys and Ceto (cf. Aeschylus' drama Phorcides, TrGF 262). The three sisters live on the island of Sarpedon in the ocean (Cypria, fr. 23; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 11), although Pindar (Pyth. 10,44-48) located them among the Hyperboraeans ( Hyperborei). Their connection to the s…

War guilt, problem of

(489 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Indications of public indignation at peace-breakers in Homer (Hom. Od. 24,424-437) and the emergence of the Roman fetiales rite as the opening of a bellum iustum (International law) show that even in the Archaic period wars were not regarded as a normal state of affairs and that WG was discussed [1. 127]. WG acquired greater political significance in the course of expansionist aspirations. The actions and causes which triggered battles between the Greeks and 'Barbarians' form a leitmotiv in the work of He…

Charillus

(57 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Χάριλλος; Chárillos, in Hdt. 8,131 Χαρίλαος; Charílaos). Historically uncertain Spartan king, Eurypontid; according to Sosibius (FGrH 595 F 2), ruled 874-811 BC and with King Archelaus conquered the perioikic city of Aegys (Paus. 3,2,5), but defeated by the Tegeans (Paus. 8,5,9). This data arises from constructions based on legend.   Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gorgopas

(114 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γοργώπας; Gorgṓpas). Spartiate, in 389/8 BC. Epistoleús of the nauarch Hierax, who assigned to him the defence of the polis Aegina under the siege of Athens. He operated successfully against Athenian forces and against Attic coastal regions, accompanied the new nauarch Antalcidas to Ephesus in 388, and got into difficulties in a battle against an Athenian squadron on his return. He won the counter attack in a night battle at Cape Zoe, but was not up to the surprise attack of the Atheni…

Cleombrotus

(315 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Κλεόμβροτος; Kleómbrotos). [German version] [1] Agiad, Spartan commander in Salamis Agiad ( Agiads), brother of Leonidas I who died at Thermopylae in 480 BC and guardian of the latter's son Pleistarchus. As commander of the Peloponnesian forces, C. directed the fortification of the Isthmus of Corinth before the battle of Salamis, but died late that year or in the winter of 480/79 (Hdt. 5,41; 7,205,1; 8,71; 9,10; Paus. 3,3,9). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. I. Spartan king 380-371 BC Agiad, after the banishment of his father Pausanias in 394 BC under …

Stephanephoria

(184 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (στεφανηφορία/ stephanēphoría) was the term for the 'wearing of a garland' as a symbol of sacred or magisterial dignity, widespread in the Greek poleis of Asia Minor and often connected with eponymity (Eponyms in chronology). Eponymous stephanephoria is known primarily in Miletus (Syll.3 57; LSAM 50); it was carried out by the aisymnetai of the molpoi [1. 68, 7729]. In their name lists, which, with only a few interruptions, extend from 525/4 BC to AD 31/2 [2. no. 122-128], Alexander [4] and Augustus also appear (cf. [3. 167]). In Priene stephanephoria was at times t…

Dorieus

(553 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Δωριεύς; Dorieús). [German version] [1] Spartan, son of Anaxandridas II Spartan, Agiad, son of Anaxandridas II and his first wife, older brother of the kings Leonidas and Cleombrotus, younger half-brother of Cleomenes I, who was born before D., but to the second wife of Anaxandridas, whom he due to the initial infertility of his first wife had additionally married at the direction of the ephors and gerontes. After Cleomenes as the eldest son had succeeded to the throne (Hdt. 5,41f.; Paus. 3,3,9f.), D. organized ─ allegedly due to outrage over this ruling ─ a colonist campaign to Libya c. 51…

Kosmoi

(181 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne)
(κόσμοι; kósmoi). [German version] [1] Official in Cretan cities Name of the highest official in Cretan poleis, before the 3rd cent. BC, also attested as ho kósmos (singular) or hoi kosmíontes (plural). Kosmoi had political and military leadership functions in addition to their representative and judicial duties. The department of the kosmoi could include up to 10 officials and a ‘leader’ ( startagétas = stratēgós; later prōtókosmos). It made political decisions and was subject to the control of the people. If they performed their office well, the kosmoi could be elected to the co…

Athens

(11,799 words)

Author(s): Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ἀθῆναι; Athênai; Lat. Athenae). [German version] [1] Capital of Attica This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Hellenistic states | Celts | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Rome | Athletes | Attica | Attica | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources Goette, Hans Rupprecht (Athens) [German version] I. Geography A. is the primary location …

Thorax

(592 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(θώραξ; thṓrax). [German version] [1] Cuirass Cuirass. As a part of Greek hoplite armour, the thorax protected the chest and the back. In the Geometric and Archaic Periods, it was commonly a bell-shaped armour made of bronze; it consisted of two hip-length plates that widened towards the bottom and were attached to each other at the sides. This thorax offered excellent cover against blows from lances and swords or shots from arrows, but it was extremely heavy and cumbersome and limited the soldiers' mobility to a great extent. It was therefore replaced…

Prytanis

(180 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Πρύτανις). [English version] [1] myth. König von Sparta Mythischer König von Sparta, angeblich Sohn des Eurypon (Hdt. 8,131), der als Stammvater des Hauses der Eurypontidai galt. Der Stammbaum ist aber ebenso wie der der Agiadai vor dem 6. Jh. v. Chr. fiktiv. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [English version] [2] König des Regnum Bosporanum 310-309 v. Chr. König des Regnum Bosporanum 310-309 v. Chr., jüngster Sohn des Pairisades [1] I., kämpfte nach dem Tod seines Bruders Satyros II. gegen seinen ältesten Bruder Eumelos [4] (Diod. 20,22-24). Nach dem…

Menedaios

(61 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Μενεδάϊος). Spartiat, 426 v.Chr. in Akarnanien im Kriegsrat des Eurylochos [2], nach dessen Niederlage und Tod bei Olpai Kommandeur der dortigen peloponnes. Truppen. Der athen. Befehlshaber Demosthenes [1] gewährte ihm nach geheimer Absprache freien Abzug unter Preisgabe der Ambrakiotai (Thuk. 3,100,2; 109,1-3; [1. 30]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. Roisman, The General Demosthenes and His Use of Military Surprise, 1993.

Knemos

(70 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Κνῆμος). Spartan. Nauarch (Flottenkommandant) 430/29 v.Chr., verwüstete 430 Zakynthos, operierte 429 in Akarnania und wurde bei Oiniadai geschlagen (Thuk. 2,66; 80-82; Diod. 12,47,4f.). K.' Flottenverbände erlitten 429 schwere Niederlagen bei Stratos und Naupaktos gegen die Athener unter Phormion. Im Spätherbst 429 unterblieb ein von K. und seinem “Berater” Brasidas geplanter Überfall auf den Peiraieus; statt dessen wurde Salamis verwüstet (Thuk. 2,83-94; Diod. 12,49). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Panteus

(57 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Παντεύς). Spartaner, führte 223 v.Chr. unter Kleomenes [6] III. zwei spartan. Einheiten mit Erfolg beim Sturm auf Megalopolis (Plut. Kleomenes 23,5-6), floh nach der Schlacht bei Sellasia mit Kleomenes nach Ägypten, wo er nach dessen mißglücktem Versuch, sich aus der Internierung zu befreien, Selbstmord beging (ebd. 37,13-16; 38,5; Pol. 5,37,8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Apoikia

(893 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Ἀποικία). Siedlung einer Kolonistengruppe oder ihrer Nachfahren außerhalb des Gebietes einer bestimmten Mutterstadt (Metropolis), die einen Teil ihrer Bürger als “Aussiedler” (ἄποικοι, apoikoi) zur Gründung einer “Pflanzstadt” ausgesandt oder auch Bürger anderer Poleis zur Teilnahme an einer Neugründung aufgefordert hatte. Leiter des Unternehmens war in der Regel ein von der Mutterstadt benannter Oikistes. Vor allem während der “großen griech. Kolonisation” ca. 750-550/500 v. Chr. entstanden zahlreiche neue Gemeinwese…

Klearidas

(70 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[English version] (Κλεαρίδας). Spartiat, Sohn des Kleonymos; von Brasidas 423 v.Chr. als Befehlshaber in Amphipolis eingesetzt, bewährte K. sich nach dem Tod des Brasidas 422 und übergab nach dem Frieden des Nikias die ihm anvertraute Polis nicht den Athenern, um die Bewohner nicht Vergeltungsmaßnahmen auszuliefern (Thuk. 5,21; 34). Unbeeindruckt von Weisungen der Führungsgremien Spartas förderte er erhebliche neue Spannungen zwischen Sparta und Athen. Peloponnesischer Krieg Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
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