Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)" )' returned 281 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Kleros

(412 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλῆρος; klêros; Dor. κλᾶρος; klâros, ‘lot’, ‘land allocation’, ‘plot of land’, ‘land allotment’; etymologically probably derived from κλάειν/ kláein, ‘to break, to share’). The drawing of lots for cultivatable plots when acquiring land cannot be verified in the early Greek period.[1]. Already in Homer (Il. 15,498; Od. 14,64 ), as well as in Hesiod (Op. 37; 341), kleros designates private property, not acquired by lot. The function of the klêros in the ancient Thessalonian order of regulations on levies explained by Aristotle (fr. 611 Rose) is not …

Cynisca

(53 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνίσκα; Kyníska). Rich Spartan woman, born around 442 BC, daughter of Archidamus [1] II, sister of Agesilaus [2] II. C. was the first woman to participate in chariot races at Olympia where she was twice victorious (Xen. Ages. 9,6; Plut. Agesilaus 20; Paus. 3,8,1f.; 6,1,6; SGDI 4418). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Alcidas

(297 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκίδας; Alkídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC The Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC, who was supposed to bring relief to the polis of Mytilene on Lesbos, but on route learned of Mytilene's capitulation. The relief of Mytilene, which had been occupied after having broken away from Athens (Thuc. 3,16,3; 26,1), was to take place simultaneously with the invasion of Attica by a Peloponnesian army in the early summer of 427. He landed in Erythrae of Asia Minor, but did not advance fast enough i…

Geranor

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γεράνωρ; Geránōr). Spartiate, former polemarchos, fell in 369/8 BC during the defence of Asine against the Arcadians (Xen. Hell. 7,1,25). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lacedas

(68 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λακήδας; Lakḗdas; Hdt. 6,127,3: Λεωκήδης; Leōkḗdēs). Legendary king of Argus, by tradition the son of the historically debated Pheidon [3]. L. was regarded as the father of Meltas, the last king of the Argives (Paus. 2,19,2) [1. 385; 2. 107ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Carlier, La royauté en Grèce avant Alexandre, 1984 2 Th. Kelly, A History of Argos to 500 BC, 1976.

Klarotai

(34 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλαρῶται; klarôtai). Non-free country-dwellers in Crete, who worked the klâroi ( klêros ) of full citizens in exchange for the payment of fees (Ath. 6,263e-f; Poll. 3,83). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Apella, Apellai

(407 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] This word only occurs in the plural (ἀπέλλαι; apéllai) and is explained by Hesychius as σηκοί ( sēkoí; precincts) or by their function as ἐκκλησίαι ( ekklēsíai; people's assemblies) or ἐφαιρησίαι ( ephairēsíai; voting assemblies). The Labyad inscriptions in Delphi use apellai to refer to the  Apollo festival of the phratry during the religious month of Apellaios (Michel, RIG 995 = Schwyzer, DGE 323). Inscriptions from Gytheum (Laconia, 1st cent.) add the augmentative attribute μεγάλαι ( megálai; IG V 1, 1144, l.20 f.= SGDI 4567 = Michel, RIG 185; IG V 1, …

Teleclus

(83 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τήλεκλος; Tḗleklos). King of Sparta, who according to legend played an important role a generation before the beginning of the first Messenian War. As a person he is probably historical; he is supposed to have conquered Amyclae, Pharis and Geronthrae (Paus. 3,2,6) and settled several places in Dentheliatis (Denthalii) with Laconic colonists (Str. 8,4,4). His killing by Messenians allegedly led to the first of the Messenian Wars (Paus. 4,4,2-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 85-87, 102-106.

Proxenia, proxenos

(228 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (προξενία/ proxenía, πρόξενος/ próxenos). The term proxenía denotes the function of a 'public guest' ( próxenos), i.e. one citizen's representing one Greek community in another 'state'. It is a specifically Greek institution, traceable to the protection of foreigners (Xenoi; Aliens, the position of [III]) and first attested in a late 7th cent. BC resolution of the 'people' ( dâmos) of Corfu  (ML 4). In the 5th cent. BC, proxenía moreover became an Athenian instrument of control in the Delian League, where próxenoi represented Athenian interests, reporting if n…

Rhamphias

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥαμφίας; Rhamphías). Spartiate, father of Clearchus [2] (Thuc. 8,8,2). Member of the last Spartan delegation before the outbreak of the Peloponnesisan War (431 BC) that in Athens signaled a willingness for peace if the Athenians returned "independence to the Hellens" (Thuc. 1,139,3). R. was supposed to reinforce the army of Brasidas in the summer of 422 but in Thessaly he received news of his death and returned to Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Prytaneis

(837 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(πρυτάνεις/ prytáneis, sg. πρύτανις/ prýtanis, 'principal, first'). [German version] I. Individual chief magistrates Designation for holders of the highest power or official authority. The original meaning 'ruler' is given expression in the epic name Prýtanis (Hom. Il. 5,678), in Zeus' appellation in Aeschylus (Prom. 169), as well as in the verb form applied to the Roman emperor and empress ( prytaneúein; Phil. in Flaccum 126; Procop. Arc. 17,27). In the course of the institutionalization of the organs of the polis and during the 'Great' Greek Colonizati…

Chilonis

(158 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Χιλωνίς; Chilōnís). [German version] [1] Legendary wife of king Theopompus Legendary figure, said to be the wife of king  Theopompus, whom she is supposed to have freed from imprisonment by Messenians (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,34; Quint. Inst. 2,17,20; Plut. Lycurgus 7,2; Mor. 779e). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wife of Cleonymus, 3rd cent. BC Wife of  Cleonymus, son of Cleomenes II; she committed adultery with Acrotatus, later to be king; after the death of Cleonymus, who had left Sparta because of her, and joined Pyrrhus, she apparently married Acrotatus (Syll.3 …

Pasippidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πασιππίδας; Pasippídas). Spartiate and naval commander in the eastern Aegaean in 410/409 BC probably in the role of naúarchos; he was charged with conspiring in Thasos to stage an uprising against a group favouring Sparta and the harmost Eteonicus. He fled, but as early as 409 was sent as a legate to Persia (Xen. Hell. 1,1,32; 1,3,13). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Sophanes

(135 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Σωφάνης/ Sōphánēs). Athenian from Decelea, son of Eutychides (Hdt. 6,92,3; 9,73,1). In 490 BC after the battle of Marathon he refused to honour Miltiades [2] with a wreath (Plut. Cimon 8,1), since the victory was understood to be a success of the dêmos as a whole [1. 193]. S. distinguished himself by particular bravery in the Athenians' war with Aegina in 488/7 (Hdt. 6,92; 9,75; Paus. 1,29,5) and in the battle of Plataeae in 479 (Hdt. 9,73-75; Plut. Cato maior 29,2). He fell in 465/4 as a stratēgós and one of the commanders of the colonists who advanced from Ennea…

Hippitas

(47 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἱππίτας; Hippítas). Confidant of the Spartan king Cleomenes III, whom he accompanied to Alexandria after the battle of Sellasia, where he had himself killed willingly after the latter's failed uprising against Ptolemy IV in 219 BC (Pol. 5,37,8; Plut. Cleomenes 37,6-13). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Clearidas

(81 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κλεαρίδας; Klearídas). Spartan, son of Cleonymus. Appointed by  Brasidas in 423 BC as commander at Amphipolis, C. proved himself after Brasidas' death in 422. After the peace of  Nicias he did not surrender the polis entrusted to him to the Athenians so its inhabitants would not be exposed to retaliation (Thuc. 5,21; 34). Unimpressed by the instructions of the leading committees in Sparta he instigated considerable new tensions between Sparta and Athens.  Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Apoikia

(992 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀποικία; apoikía). Settlement of a group of colonists or their descendants outside the territory of a particular mother city ( Metropolis); the latter having sent out a proportion of its citizens as ‘emigrants’ (ἄποικοι, ápoikoi) to found a ‘colony’, or even encouraged the citizens of other poleis to take part in a new foundation. The leader of the undertaking was usually an oikist nominated by the mother city. Especially during the great period of ‘Greek colonization’ of c. 750-550/500 BC, many new communities arose, often being autonomous poleis which could be r…

Brasidas

(584 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Βρασίδας; Brasídas). Son of the respected Spartiate Tellis, who was one of those who took the oath sealing the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC (Thuc. 2,25; 5,19; 24).B. distinguished himself right at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War when he freed the Messenian coastal city of Methone which was surrounded by Athenians. That was probably the reason for his appointment in 431/30 as eponymous ephor (Diod. Sic. 12,43,2) and military ‘adviser’ at a relatively young age. In 429 he was adviser to admiral  Cnemus in the so-called second sea battle of Naupactus and…

Astyochus

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀστύοχος; Astýochos). Spartan nauarch in 412/11 BC. In the summer of 412 his attempt to gain Lesbos failed (Thuc. 8,22f.); his operations between Lesbos, Chios, Erythrae and Clazomenae were luckless (8,31-33). Dissatisfied with his administration, Sparta sent ‘advisors’ with extraordinary powers to his headquarters in Milet in the winter of 412/11 (Thuc. 8,39,1f.). After advances as far as Cnidus and Rhodes he signed the third Spartan-Persian contract in the spring of 411, in whic…

Eleutherolakones

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐλευθερολάκωνες; Eleutherolákōnes). League of Laconian coastal settlements; as former perioikoi settlements, they were placed under the protection of the Achaean Confederacy following the defeat of Nabis by the Romans in 195 BC. After the failure of the Achaean uprising in 146 BC, they were permitted to unite in the koinòn tôn Lakedaimoníōn (κοινὸν τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων) (Liv. 35,13,2; 38,31,2) [2. 51]. In 21 BC, Augustus reorganized the league [1. 60], which was thenceforth known as koinòn tôn Eleutherolakṓnōn (Str. 8,366; Paus. 3,21,6f.; IG V 1 1161; 116…
▲   Back to top   ▲