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Primianus

(131 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] In 393 he became the successor of Parmenianus in Carthage and primate of the Donatist (Donatus [1]) Church (Aug. Contra epistulam Parmeniani 3,2,11); not long after his election he was removed from office by opposing clerics led by Maximianus (Maximianist Schism), but in 394  he was reinstated in office in the Council of Bagae (modern Ksar Baghaï in Algeria). Weakened by his brutal actions against the followers of Maximianus, he gained no Church-political traction against the Cath…

Petilianus

(181 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] Donatist (Donatus [1]) bishop of Constantina/Cirta (Constantine in Algeria), first a catechumen of the Catholic Church, then baptized and ordained in the Donatist Church, after 394 bishop (Aug. Contra litteras Petiliani 3,239). He was one of the leading speakers at the Conference of Carthage in 411, along with Primianus. † after 419/422. His Epistula ad presbyteros et diaconos regarding baptismal theology, schism and state persecution (around 400) and his wrathful Epistula ad Augustinum (402) can be reconstructed in part based on the reply in Augustine's Contra l…

Novatus

(113 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] Catholic bishop of Sitifis in Mauretania (modern Sétif in Algeria) 403-437 (driven out by the Vandals), † 23 August 440 in exile (funerary inscription CIL VIII 8634). N. participated in the Conference of Carthage in 411 (Gesta Conlationis Carthaginiensis 1,2; 1,55; 2,2) and the councils of Mileve in 416 (Aug. Epist. 176), Carthage in 418 and Carthage in 419 (CCL 149. 151). He was invited to the council of Spoleto planned for June 419 by Galla [3] Placidia. In 429/30 he introduced the comes Darius to Augustine (Aug. Epist. 229-230). Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) Bibliograph…

Parmenianus

(162 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] Of non-African origin (Optatus 1,5); as a result of a decree by emperor Iulianus [11] in favour of the Donatists (Donatus [1]), he was able to appear as primate of the Donatist Church of Carthage around 362 (Optatus 2,7), reorganize the Donatist Church after a period of suppression under Constance [1], and strengthen it theologically as an orator and writer (Aug. Contra Cresconium 1,3). His writings (on baptismal theology, ecclesiology, the origin of the schism, persecution) are m…

Misenus

(306 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] I. Greek (Μισηνός; Misēnós). [German version] [I 1] Trumpeter of Hector Trumpeter of Hector and, after his death, of Aeneas [1] (Verg. Aen. 6,164ff.), son of the Trojan Aeolus (ibid.; cf. Ov. Met. 14,103). When competing in shell-blowing against a trumpeter called Trito in the Bay of Cumae, he perished in the waves and was lost (Verg. Aen. 6,171ff.). Later, his body was recovered and, on the command of Sibyl (ibid. 149ff.), ceremoniously buried (ibid. 175ff.). Eponym of the foothills of Misenum (Strab. 5,4,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,53). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Miltiades

(1,099 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Μιλτιάδης; Miltiádēs). From the 7th (Paus. 4,23,10; 8,39,3) to the 4th cent. BC, a name belonging to the family of the Philaïdae in Athens. [German version] [1] M. the Elder Victor in the four-horse chariot race at Olympia, probably in 548 BC. Son of Cypselus (archon 597/6 BC), grandson (?) of the tyrant Cypselus [2] of Corinth, relative ([7. 7]: adoptive son) of Hippocleides (archon 566/5); from the same mother as the three-time Olympian victor Cimon [1]. M. was victor in the four-horse chariot race at Olympia (548?). ‘Dynast’ alongsi…

Pelagius

(849 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Πελάγιος; Pelágios). [German version] [1] Schoolfellow and friend of Libanius, high-ranking official Fellow student and friend of Libanius, in AD 357; represented his home city Cyrrhus (in Euphratensis) before Constantius [2] II in Italy; in about 382 he was consularis Syriae; he died in 393, a non-Christian (it is to him that Lib. Epist. 1325 and 1334 are addressed). PLRE 1, 686 (P. 1). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Epic poet and historian, 5th cent. Silentiarius ( Silentiarii ), distinguished epic poet and probably also historian…

Optatus

(565 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (“child desired by parents”), very widespread in the Imperial period; equally commonly a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, vol. 1, 1994, 110-111. [German version] [2] Flavius O. Imperial grammar teacher, 4th cent. AD Grammar teacher of the son of the emperor Licinius [II 4]. Allegedly, because of his wife's beauty he had great influence under Constantine [1] the Great and was appointed consul b…

Maximinus

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] M. Daia Roman emperor, AD 305-313 Roman emperor, AD 305-313. The son of Galerius' [5] sister and like Galerius born in Dacia ripensis, possibly in Šarkamen (modern Serbia), he rose from protector to tribunus (Lactant. De mort. pers. 19,6); as Galerius' adoptive son he became Caesar in the change of rulers of 305 (thereafter: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). As co-ruler over the diocese Oriens he continued the persecutions of Christians (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 8,14,9). Like Constantinus [1] not content with the title …

Zosimus

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ζώσιμος; Zṓsimos). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, epigrammatist, probably between 150 BC and AD 50 Z. of Thasos. Greek epigrammatist, whose works are probably to be dated between 150 BC and AD 50: three (Anth. Pal 6,183-185; 6,15 is also ascribed to him, alternatively to Antipater [8] of Sidon) are variations on the theme of 'dedication to Pan' from the view of a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (cf. Satyrius). Another deals with the unusual theme of a shield saving its owner who uses it as a raft (Anth. Pal. 9,40, cf. Diocles [10]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 104-…

Marcus

(4,055 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Μάρκος; Márkos). I. Greek [German version] [I 1] The Evangelist, [1] (Lat. Marcus). The author of the second Gospel (Mk) could be a missionary (Iohannes) M. who is often mentioned in the NT especially in close association with Paulus (Acts 12:12:25; Phm 24 among others) (for example, for the first time Papias around AD 130, see Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3,39,15). The fact that evidence of a closeness to Paul's theology can barely be found [3] is an argument against this identification, while the straightforwardn…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …