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(1,082 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία/ Olbίa). [German version] [1] Milesian colony This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Wine | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Apollo | Patricius | Patricius | Rome | Rome Milesian colony (Colonisation) south of modern Parutino (Ukraine) at the confluence of the Hypanis and Borysthenes (Ps.-Scymn. 808f.), and for that reason also known as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης; Hdt. 4,24; 78); founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f…


(113 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Σίδυμα; Sídyma). Lycian polis in the west of the Xanthus valley (Plin. HN 5,100; Ptol. 5,3,5) with a small harbour at Calabatia; member of the Hellenistic Lycian League. Remains at modern Dodurga: Classical fortification, Imperial period buildings and graves; noteworthy are the founding document of the Gerousía (I.) (TAM II 175 f.) and a description of a syngéneia of Lycian poleis (TAM II 174; SEG 39, 1989, 1413). S. was a bishop's see up to the High Middle Ages . Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) Bibliography S. Dard…

Lycia et Pamphylia

(225 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] The province was set up in c. AD 74 under the Roman emperor Vespasian, after Lycia had been constituted as an autonomous imperial province following internal unrest (Suet. Claud. 25,3; [1. 137]) in AD 43. The contradictory account in Cass. Dio 60,17,4 is refuted by the existence of legati Augusti pro praetore Lyciae (e.g. AE 1956, 186). For the Roman influence in the Republican period cf. Str. 14,3,3; [2. 94-100]. Until then, Pamphylia belonged to the province of Galatia into which it had been incorporated in 25 BC after the deat…

Lycii, Lycia

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Λύκιοι, Λυκία; Lýkioi, Lykía, Lycian Trm̃mis; Latin Lycii, Lycia). [German version] A. Prehistory The south-western Asia Minor landscape of Lycia stretched from the ancient Indus at Caunus to the coast north of Phaselis [5. 265-271] and has not only high mountains and fertile alluvial plains but also highly organized upland with dense rural settlement [8. 29; 13] whose features have been reconstructed since 1989 as a result of field research in central Lycian Cyaneae [2] ([7]). The settlement area of the L…


(78 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τρεβένδαι; Trebéndai). City in Lycia (Lycii; IGR 3,704); the long political independence of T. suggests a location at modern Muskar, where there was an  ancient settlement (remains from the Classical period to the Roman Imperial period). T. minted, probably in the Hellenistic period, coins for the  Lycian League. In the Roman Imperial period T., as did Tyberissus, entered into a  sympoliteía with Myra  (Syll.3 1234). Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. T., RE 6 A, 2267 f.


(307 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Λίμυρα; Límyra, Lycian zêmuri). City in Lycia on a mountain slope near modern Finice in southern Turkey, settled at the latest from the 7th cent. BC onwards, with an extended chóra and small harbour (late antique name: Phoenix) [1]. In the 5th cent. BC the castle was extended with a fortified lower city [2], and coins were minted. From the beginning of the 4th cent. BC to 366/362 the Lycian king Pericles (cf. [3]; on his heroon with building decoration [1. 45-52]) c…


(76 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μεγίστη/ Megístē). Island off the Lycian coast near the city of Antiphellus. From the 4th century BC, it was a Rhodian naval base (Ps.-Scyl. 100; Liv. 37,24,1; 45,2), mentioned in Str. 14,3,7 as a pólis and in Plin. HN 5,131 as a ‘former civitas’. Inscriptions so far only provide evidence of Rhodian military presence in a fortress ( pýrgos) under a hagemṓn or epistátēs (SEG 14, 719; SGDI III 1, 4332). Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)


(476 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | | Asia Minor | Lycii, Lycia | Natural catastrophes | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Μύρα; Mýra). Since classical times, at the latest (5th cent. BC), M. was an inhabited polis (city-state) in Lycia (castle; Lycian inscription TAM 1,85-97; Lycii, with map), 20 km to the west of present-day Finike. In the 3rd cent. BC, M. became one of the six most important Lycian poleis thanks to a fertile plain and a port (Str. 14,3,3). In the 2nd cent. BC, M. minted both polis coins and the district coins of th…


(98 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Τρῦσα; Trŷsa). City in central Lycia (Lycii) at modern Gölbaşı; a dynastic seat from the archaic period. The small settlement was extended c. 400 BC around representational buildings, e.g. a significant heroon (reliefs in Vienna, KM); inhabited until late Antiquity. T. had belonged to Cyaneae [2] as a dêmos [2] (B.) since the early Hellenistic period and had a certain amount of autonomy. Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Oberleitner, Das Heroon von T., 1994  M. Zimmermann, Untersuchungen zur …


(390 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
(Κυανέαι). [German version] [1] Two rocky islands Two small rocky islands directly to the west of the confluence of the Bosporus and the  Pontus Euxinus, 2.3 km north of Garipçe Burnu, 100 m in front of the lighthouse of Rumelifeneri, modern İreke Taşı. In Greek myths they were identified with the dangerous  Symplegades or  Planctae (Hom. Od. 16,176; Apoll. Rhod. 2,317ff.). Here there was a shrine (Hdt. 4,85). Pompey built an altar in honour of Apollo here [1. 28f., 35-39]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography 1 R. Güngerich (ed.), Gryllius, De Bosporo Thracic…


(173 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Φελλός; Phellós). Lycian polis near modern Çukurbağ. As early as the 6th/5th cent. BC, an important town was situated here (in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 258 erroneously a Pamphylian pólis) with the Lycian name wehñti (Lycii, with map). In the mid 5th cent. BC, Harpagus, a dynast of Xanthus, resided here; right through to the 4th cent. BC, P. remained an important centre for the minting of coins of various dynasts and it had a significant heroon. In this period, P. still had a…


(60 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λίμυρος; Límyros). River with its source near Limyra which flows from there to the sea [1. 124f.] and into the Arycandus not far from the ancient seaport (late antique Phoenix) (Ps.-Scyl. 100; Str. 14,3,7; Coin image: BMCRE Lycia, 61). Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 J. Borchhardt, Zêmuri. Die Residenzstadt des lyk. Königs Perikles, in: MDAI(Ist) 40, 1990.


(126 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia (Τρεβέννα/ Trebénna). City in eastern Lycia (Lycii), to the southwest of modern Antalya at Çağlarca. The age of the settlement presumably extends back to the Classical period. A member of the Lycian League, possibly since the Hellenistic period. Archaeological studies of the Imperial period buildings (e.g. stoa, thermae, ekklesiasterion) are in progress. T. minted coins under Gordianus [3] III. The town of Onobara was part of the territory of T., probably incorporated by