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Iazyges, Iazuges

(208 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰάζυγες; Iázyges). Iranian-Sarmatian tribe, first documented around the birth of Christ. They probably settled from the 3rd cent. BC at the earliest on the  Maeotis east of the Tanais in the area of the Roxolani (Ptol. 3,7; Amm. Marc. 22,8,31). In the 1st cent. BC a branch of the I. turned towards the southwest, crossed the Carpathians and settled on the plains between the lower Danube and the Tibiscus (later the province of Pannonia; cf. Ov. Pont. 4,7,9; Tr. 2,191; Ἰάζυγες μετανάσται/ lázyges metanástai with a list of the Iazygian cities, Ptol. 7,1f.; Str. 7…

Doriscus

(133 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Persian Wars (Δορίσκος; Dorískos, Doriscum). Settlement in the west of the Hebrus estuary (modern Evros) in the plain of the same name (Hdt. 7,59). In 512 BC it was laid out by Darius I as the starting point of his campaign against the Greeks and as a provisions storehouse, and it was also used in this way by Xerxes (Hdt. 7,25, 108; inspection of troops by Xerxes: 7,59f.; Plin. HN 4,43). The commander of the Persian garrison was Maskame…

Theodosia

(169 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Θεοδοσία/ Theodosía; modern Feodosiya). City on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I) in a fertile plain, with an excellent harbour which could contain 100 ships (Str. 7,4,4), founded c. 700 BC by colonists from Miletos [2]. T. minted coins autonomously c. 500 BC. Conquered in the first half of the 4th cent. BC by Leucon [3] I, T. was subsequently the westernmost polis of the Regnum Bosporanum (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 30). The city was an import…

Bizye

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | (Βιζύη; Bizýē). Town on the south-western slopes of the Strandăza mountains, modern Vize/Turkey; residence of the Odrysian-Sapaean kings probably from the 3rd cent. BC, possibly since the destruction of  Seuthopolis (Str. 7 fr. 48). At the time of Trajan founded as a peregrine town of the strategia of Astike. The territory of B. encompassed i.a. the mines around Mălko Tarnovo, and bordered on that of  Deultum. Finding place of autonomous and imperial coins; B. is often mentioned …

Deultum

(300 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia (Δεβελτός; Debeltós). Settlement c. 25 km west of  Burgas, modern Debelt/Bulgaria. Traces from the late Bronze Age, and afterwards Thracian Hallstatt settlement that later flourished because of its trade with the Greek colonies of the Black Sea. D. was connected with the sea via Lake Mandra which in antiquity stretched further south than it does today. Attic goods of the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC, Hellenistic c…

Dantheletae

(289 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δανθηλῆται/ Danthēlêtai; also Dentheleti). Thracian tribe inhabiting the area around the upper reaches of the  Strymon and the area to the west reaching as far as Axius. Earliest mention was by Theopompus (FGrH 115 F 221) for 340/339 BC. Philip V twice laid waste to their territory on his Thracian campaigns (184 and 181 BC: Liv. 39,53,12; 40,22,9; Pol. 23,8,4). In 88 BC, the D. acted as allies of Rome in the quelling of a Macedonian revolt. They attacked this province in 86/5 together with the Maedi, Dardani and Scordisci. In 57 and 56, the proconsul of Macedonia, L. Cal…

Salmydessus

(201 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαλμυδησσός/ Salmydēssós). [German version] [1] Coastal region Coastal strip of the Pontos Euxeinos [I] without harbours, dangerously shallow for navigation, 700 stadia in length (Ps.-Scymn. 724-727; Ptol. 3,11,4: Σ. ἤτοι Ἁλμυδησσὸς αἰγιαλός ( Salmydēssòs ḗtoi Halmydēssòs aigialós) 'shore of S. or Halmydessus') from the Bosporus [1] to Cape Thynias, where the Astae (Ἀσταί/ Astaí) settled near other Thraci (Str. 7,6,1; cf. 1,3,4; 7). In 513 BC, the Thraci on the S. surrendered without a fight to Darius [1] I on his campaign against the Scythae (Hd…

Tyle

(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τύλη; Týlē). [German version] [1] City in Thrace Capital of the Celtic kingdom in Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), founded under Comontorius in 278 BC, abandoned in 212 BC after the Thracians' victory over the Celtic king Cavarus (Pol. 4,46). On the basis of Steph. Byz. s.v. Τύλις, T. is generally localized near Haemus, in the region around modern Tulovo (district of Kazanlăk in Bulgaria). A textual variant in Steph. Byz. loc.cit., however, suggests a location in the Late Antiquity province of Haemimontus in southeastern Thrace, where the fortress Τουλεοῦς/ Touleoûs (Procop. Aed. 4,11,20…

Tempyra

(96 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τέμπυρα; Témpyra). Settlement on the Thracian coast of the Aegaean (Aigaion Pelagos) to the east of Sale; founded by Samothrace. T. was a station on the Via Egnatia (Str. 7a,1,48;  It. Ant. 322,3: Timpiro;  It. Burd. 602,8: mutatio Ad Umimpara), the precise site is unknown (Str. 7, fr. 47 f.). Near T. there was a narrow unforested pass, at which pro-consul Manlius [I 24] Vulso, on his return march from Asia Minor in 188 BC, had to fight the Trausi (Liv. 38,41,5). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 489  Müller, 74.

Cercinitis

(152 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Patricius (Κερκινῖτις; Kerkinîtis). Ionian foundation from the 6th cent. BC in the north-western part of the Crimea near the modern village of Evpatorija (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 70; Str. 12,3,18; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 19,5), from the middle of the 4th cent. BC in the possession of Chersonesus [3] [1. 352] and closely linked with it; second largest town with an important port, agriculture and crafts, also Doric inscriptions [1. 339]. Fr…

Siraci

(162 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σιρακοί/ Sirakoí, Latin Sirachi). Sarmatian tribe, which inhabited the steppe regions to the west of the Caspian Sea between the Maeotae and the Thatei (Mela 1,114). Under their king Ariphanes they supported Eumelus [4] against his brothers (Diod. 20,22: here  Θρᾷκες is better read as Σ.). From the 1st cent. AD onwards the S. expanded southwards, where they are recorded on the Hypanis [1] (Ptol. 5,9,17: Σερακά). Their cavalry supported Pharnaces [2] II (Str. 11,5,8) and, under their…

Getae

(1,011 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γέται; Gétai). Greek term for the Thracian tribes south of the Lower Danube in modern Dobrudža and in the hinterland of the north-western Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast. Their region shows traces of settlement from the Stone Age onwards and was the centre of highly developed cultures from the time of the Copper Stone Age (cf. Varna, Durankulag). On the basis of the written sources and the language remnants attested in the Onomastikon, the G. are shown to be the northern Thr…

Aigos Potamos (Potamoi)

(78 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War (Αἰγὸς ποταμός; Aigòs potamós). Settlement on the Thracian  Chersonesus opposite Lampsacus. Width of the straits at that point c. 15 stades (Xen. Hell. 2,1,21). Location of Athens' defeat by  Lysander in 405 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,105). Also the point where the stream of the same name in the tribal territory of the  Dolonci flows into the sea. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Coralli

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κόραλλοι; Kóralloi). Tribe in the region of the  Getae, documented in literature only for the last cent. of the Roman Republic and the 1st cent. of the Imperial period (Ov. Pont. 4,2,37; 8,83; Str. 7,5,12). Appianus (Mith. 293) mentions the C. separately from the Iazyges and Thracians, but more likely meant the Sarmatae or Scythae instead. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M. Fluss, s.v. K., RE XI 2, 1377.

Rhombites

(141 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ῥομβίτης/ Rhombítēs). Two rivers flowing from the east into the Maeotis, where they are abundant in fish, distinguished by their epithets 'the Great' and 'the Lesser' (Str. 11,2,4; cf. Ptol. 5,9,3 f.; 26; Amm. Marc. 22,8,29). [German version] [1] R. Megas (ὁ μέγας Ῥ./ ho mégas R., 'the Great R.'). Further north, modern Jeja; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from the mouth of the Tanais (Don). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. Elatton (ὁ ἐλάττων Ῥ./ ho eláttōn R., 'the Lesser R.'). Further south; according to Str. ibid., 800 stadia from R. [1…

Drusipara

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δρουσιπάρα; Drousipára). Important station on the Amphipolis ─ Hadrianopolis ─ Byzantium road in south-east Thrace, east of Büyük Kariştiran/Turkey (earliest reference Ptol. 3,11,7; also in It. Ant. 137,7; 323,3; It. Burd. 569; Theophanes, 1,234,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Cabyle

(323 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Moesi, Moesia (Καβύλη, Kabýlē). City near today's Kabile on the bend of the river Tonzo in the district of Jambol/Bulgaria. Traces of settlements have been documented from the late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age. During the mid 5th cent., C. developed intensive connections to the Aegean region. A mountain sanctuary with Cybele relief was created on the acropolis. In 342/41 BC, C. was conquered by Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,44; 10,14)…

Pagrai

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Πάγραι). Hafensiedlung an der kaukasischen Küste des Pontos Euxeinos, 180 Stadien von Hieros Limen (Arr. per. p.E. 28; Anon. peripl. m. Eux. 10r 9; evtl. identisch mit Torikos bei Skyl. peripl. m. Eux. 74), beim h. Gelenǧik, 43 km südöstl. des h. Novorossijsk. Gehörte wohl zum Regnum Bosporanum. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 237f.  D.D. und G.T. Kacharava, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoy epochi, 1991, 207, 280f.

Bistones

(82 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Βίστονες). Thrakischer Stamm am Aigaion Pelagos um die Βιστονὶς λίμνη ( Bistonís límnē) bis zum Unterlauf des Nestos; Nachbarn der Kikones und Sapaioi. In ihrem Gebiet wurden Abdera, Dikaia und Stryme gegründet. Nur als Durchgangsstation des persischen Heeres genannt (Hdt. 7,110). Vielfach in myth. Erzählungen und Genealogien gen. (Strab. 7 fr. (43) 44 nennt von Diomedes beherrschte B. auf Thasos; Val. Fl. 3,159: Heimatland des Orpheus). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, T. Spiridonov, Istoričeska geografija, 1983, 24, 78.

Cicones

(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κίκονες; Kíkones). Tribal group on the northern Aegean coast between Nestus and Hebrus, the later settlement area of the Bistones and Sapaei, in the Homeric epics named as allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,846f.; 17,72f.). Homer distinguishes between the coastal C. and those in the northern mountains. Ismarus is described as a wealthy city of the C., and herds of sheep and cattle along with viticulture are also mentioned (Hom. Od. 9,39-59). It is doubtful whether the C. belonged t…
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