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Tilataei

(62 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Praetor in 59 BC, thereafter probably governor of Africa (Cic. Flacc. 85). His relationship to the quaestor of Verres (T. V.; cf. V. [I 2]) and the tresvir monetalis (Tresviri [4]) T. V. Sabinus, whose dates are disputed (BMCRR, no. 3370; RRC, no. 404; MRR 2,455; 3,219), is unclear. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoričeska geografija na thrakijskite plemena, 1983, 19, 58.

Paerisades

(622 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Παιρισάδης/ Pairisádēs, Παρισάδης/ Parisádēs, Βηρισάδης/ Bērisádēs). Royal name of Iranian origin among the Bosporanean Spartocids (Spartocus) and the Thracian Odrysae. [German version] [1] P. I. Ruler of the Regnum Bosporanum Ruler of the  Regnum Bosporanum, son of Leucon [3] I., 'árchōn of the Sindi, of all Maeotae, Thataeans and Dosci' [1. no. 8], husband of Kamasarye. P. ruled from  349/8-344 BC together with his brothers Spartocu II. and Apollonius, dividing the territory of the kingdom between themselves. In 347/6, a trade agreement with Athens was renewed by them (Syll.3 …

Zygi

(77 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ζύγιοι/ Zýgioi). People on the eastern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) who lived between the Achaei [2] and the Heniochi (Str. 2,5,31; 11,2,1; 11,2,13 f.: Ζυγοί/ Zygoí; Dionys. Per. 687 with Eust. ad locum; Avien. Descriptio orbis terrae 871) and financed their way of life, tolerated by the Regnum Bosporanum, by means of piracy on the coasts of the Pontos Euxeinos (Str. 11,2,12). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1976, 311, 343.

Cicones

(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κίκονες; Kíkones). Tribal group on the northern Aegean coast between Nestus and Hebrus, the later settlement area of the Bistones and Sapaei, in the Homeric epics named as allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,846f.; 17,72f.). Homer distinguishes between the coastal C. and those in the northern mountains. Ismarus is described as a wealthy city of the C., and herds of sheep and cattle along with viticulture are also mentioned (Hom. Od. 9,39-59). It is doubtful whether the C. belonged t…

Prytanis

(191 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Πρύτανις; Prýtanis). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sparta Mythical king of Sparta, allegedly son of Eurypon (Hdt. 8,131), who was considered to be progenitor of the Eurypontid dynasty. The genealogy is fictitious, however, like the one of the Agiads before the 6th cent. BC. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of the Regnum Bosporanum in 310-309 BC King of the Regnum Bosporanum in 310-309 BC, the youngest son of Paerisades [1] I. After the death of his brother Satyrus [2] I, he fought against his eldest brother Eumelus [4] (D…

Sauromates

(249 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαυρομάτης; Sauromátēs). Name of Bosporan kings; see also Sarmatae. [German version] [1] King of the Regnum Bosporanum, c. 100 AD King of the Regnum Bosporanum, AD 93/4-123/4, son of Rhescuporis II; S. conducted successful wars against the Scythae (IOSPE 22 26) and pirates in the area of the northern Pontos. Many new buildings in Gorgippia and Panticapaeum attest to the increase in prosperity under his rule. There was a column in honour of S. in Sinope (IOSPE 22 40). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] King of the Regnum Bosporanum, c. 200 AD King of the Regnum …

Thynia

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Θυνία; Thynía). Island off the Bithynian southeastern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos;  Str. 12,3,7; Ptol. 5,1,15; Steph. Byz. s.v. Θυνιάς), modern island of Kefken, approximately 40 km to the west of the mouth of the Sangarius. There was a sanctuary to Apollo there (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,684). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Melinophagi

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελινοφάγοι/ Melinophágoi; ‘Millet-eaters’). Greek name of a Thracian tribe located between Salmydessus and Byzantium. According to Xen. An. 7,2, the M. settled to the east of the Melanditae, Thyni and Tranipsii (cf. Theop. FGrH 115 F 223). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoriceska geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 41, 108 f.

Edones

(349 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἠδωνοί; Ēdōnoí, Ἠδῶνες; Ēdônes). Thracian tribe on the lower reaches of the Strymon and on the Pangaeum. Their region was rich in mines and forests and therefore much embattled. Records of the E. exist for the 6th to the 4th cent. BC. They were subjugated in Megabazus' first European campaign. The Milesian tyrant Histiaeus received the settlement of Myrcinus from Darius and had a city built in its place (Hdt. 5,11; 23; 124). His son-in-law Aristagoras [1] fell in the fight against t…

Bisanthe

(127 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Βισάνθη; Bisánthē). Town on the Propontis, later Resisthon (both names in Plin. HN 4,43; 48; cf. It. Ant. 176,1), modern Rodosto; possibly a foundation from Samos (Mela 2,24). Hdt. 7,137 mentions B. for 484 BC, when it was part of Sitalces' kingdom. Later, it was possibly in the possession of Alcibiades (Nep. Alc. 7,4), then part of the kingdom of Seuthes II, who offered B., together with Ganus and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (Xen. An. 7,2,38). Fortified by Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,9; 17: Rhaidestos); destroyed by K…

Agathyrsi

(161 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγάθυρσοι; Agáthyrsoi). Scythian or northern Thracian tribe on the upper reaches of the Mureş, north-east of the  Neuri (Hdt. 4,48; 4,100; 102). For Scythian-Agathyrsian relations, see Hdt. 4,78: Spargapeithes, a king of the A.; 4,119; 125). Because of the importance of the Dacian tribes, little mention is made of the A. around the end of the 1st cent. BC (Ptol. 3,5,10). For the mythological eponymous hero Ἀγάθυρσος ( Agáthyrsos) in the Greek version of the Scythian myth regarding their origin, see Hdt. 4,10. Later references are strongly depende…

Crestones

(148 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κρηστῶνες, Κρηστωναῖοι, Γραστῶνες). Thracian tribe located south-east of the Mygdonia and in the south up to Lake Bolbe (Aristot. Mir. 122). Xerxes marched through their land on his approach from  Acanthus [1] to  Therme. The stream Echeidoros which rises near the C. could not provide enough water for his army (Hdt. 7,124; 127). At that time, the C. were led by a Bisaltaean king, which may point to the existence of an anti-Persian military alliance (Hdt. 8,116). The C. lived in s…

Nestus

(226 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Νέστος/ Néstos, Μέστος/ Méstos, Νέσσος/ Néssos). [German version] [1] River in Thrace River in Thrace which rises in the Rila mountain range, (according to mistaken classical belief from the Scomius mountains, the present-day Vitoša Mountains, : Aristot. Mete. 1,13,350b 16f.) and after 234 km flows through the swampy delta area near Abdera [1] and into the Aegean (Hdt. 7,109; Theophr. Hist. pl. 3,1,5; Ps.-Skyl. 67). N. is already known as a river god in Hes. Theog. 341. In Roman times, N. was the border between the provinces of Macedonia and Thracia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Biss…

Eion

(204 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(ᾘών; Ēiṓn). [German version] [1] City on the left shore of the Strymon This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (ἡ ἐπὶ Στρυμόνι). City on the left shore of the Strymon, harbour of Amphipolis (Thuc. 1,98; Dem. Or. 12,23; 23,199), archaeological traces near Ofrini (Greece). Phoenix is said to have been buried there by Neoptolemus (Lycoph. 417 with schol.). It became a military base under Darius I and was used as a supply camp under Xerxes, commanded by  …

Myrmecium

(235 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Patricius (Μυρμήκιον; Myrmḗkion). Harbour town on the European shore of the Bosporus [2] on Cape M. (Μ. ἄκρον; M. ákron), founded in the second quarter of the 6th cent. BC. It is uncertain whether M. had been an autonomous Ionian colony or a foundation by Panticapaeum (Ps.-Scyl. 68; Str. 7,4,5).  It is located close to the modern Karantinnaya. Quite early on, M. joined the  Bosporan League, led by Panticapaeum. M. experienced its greatest prosperity in the Hellen…

Venethi

(180 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] People between the central reaches of the Vistula (modern Wisła, German Weichsel) and the modern Daugava (German Düna), to the north of the Sarmatae and the Sciri (Plin. HN 4,97; Tac. Germ. 46,2; Ptol. 3,5,19: Οὐενέδαι/ Ouenédai). According to Iord. Get. 34 they settled between the Peucini and the Fenni and incorporated various Slav tribes in the region. It is assumed that the V. were bearers of the Przeworsk culture (2nd-6th cents. AD). From the term V. the name for a Slavonic people, the Wends, developed. It is un…

Sestus

(242 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Σηστός/ Sēstós). City on the European shore of the Hellespont (Hom. Il. 2,836) where it is narrowest (known as the Heptastádion, Str. 2,5,22; 7a,1,52), connected over a stretch of about 60 m by walls with the anchorage of Apobathra (Theop. FGrH 115 F 390; Str. 13,1,22), probably near modern Yalıkavat. Founded c. 600 BC on the site of a Thracian settlement by Lesbos (Ps.-Scymn. 709 f.). It was …

Aprus

(68 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Originally Thracian settlement on the   via Egnatia , near the modern Kestridze at the turn-off towards Aenus and Thracian Chersonesus (Plin. HN 4,47; Ptol. 3,11,7; on vessels found at Rogozen). Seat of a bishopric; in 312 noted by Hierocles as Theodosioupolis. Incursions by  Goths (Procop. Goth. 8,27,8). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Albani

(148 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀλβανοί; Albanoí). Group of tribes in  Albania (Str. 11,4), in modern Dagestan. They fought with  Darius against  Alexander III [4] (Arr. Anab. 3,8,5; 11,4; 13,1). A. appear again in connection with the 3rd Mithridatic War (74 to 63 BC): Oroizes, the king of A., attacked Pompey in 65 BC with 60,000 men infantry and 22,000 riders at Cyrus (today Kura), when the former was on the march from Armenia to the Caspian Sea through their land. Beaten, they made peace with Rome (Liv. Per. 1…

Thyni

(231 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Θυνοί/ Thynoí). Thracian tribe in the southeast of Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), to the north of Perinthus and Selymbria on the upper reaches of the Agrianes (modern Ergene; cf. Xen. An. 7,2,22; 7,4,2) probably as far as the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) coast to the north of Salmydessus [2]. Herodotus does not mention the T. among the tribes subjugated by Darius [1] I in Thrace in 513 BC, and this suggests that they did not consolidate there until after the withdrawal of the Achaemenid…
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