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Machares

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαχάρης; Machárēs). Son of Mithridates VI; M. went over to the Roman side as early as 70 BC as amicus et socius (Plut. Lucullus 24). He sent Lucullus ( Licinius [I 26]) auxiliary troops and food at the siege of Sinope. In 65 he attempted to flee Mithridates from Panticapaeum to the Chersonesus [3], burnt the ships behind him in the harbour and committed suicide in view of the hopelessness of his situation (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 37f.; App. Mith. 102) or was murdered (Cass. Dio 36,50). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Rei…

Dunax

(52 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δοῦναξ; Doûnax, Dunuca, Dinax). Mountain range in western Thrace, probably the Rila mountains in Bulgaria (Ptol. 34,10,15 = Str. 4,6,12; Liv. 40,58,2: battle of the Thracians with the Bastarnae, 179 BC). It is not really possible to link homonymous personal names with this name. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Myrcinus

(163 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Μύρκινος; Mýrkinos). Edonian settlement (Edones), later Greek polis, east of the lower Strymon; both its ancient and its modern name is M. (Str. 7a,1,33). In 513 BC, Darius [1] gave M. to Histiaeus [1] who expanded and fortified the town. After the collapse of the Ionian Revolt,   Aristagoras [3] led more colonists to M.; after his death (497 BC), the Edonians regained M.  (Hdt. 5,11; 124ff.; Thuc. 4,102,2). In 423 BC, after …

Saumacus

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Killer of Paerisades [6] V, who surrendered the Regnum Bosporanum to Mithridates [6] VI. According to the decree honouring Diophantus [2] (IOSPE 12 no. 352, 34-35), S. had begun a rebellion with the Scythae, which gripped the European part of the empire. He was captured by Diophantus and handed over to Mithridates. This rebellion was evidently directed against the new political leadership. The view that S. was a slave is based on a wrong translation. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Gavrilov, Skify Savmaka - vosstanie ili vtorženie?, i…

Getae

(1,011 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γέται; Gétai). Greek term for the Thracian tribes south of the Lower Danube in modern Dobrudža and in the hinterland of the north-western Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast. Their region shows traces of settlement from the Stone Age onwards and was the centre of highly developed cultures from the time of the Copper Stone Age (cf. Varna, Durankulag). On the basis of the written sources and the language remnants attested in the Onomastikon, the G. are shown to be the northern Thr…

Sauromates

(249 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαυρομάτης; Sauromátēs). Name of Bosporan kings; see also Sarmatae. [German version] [1] King of the Regnum Bosporanum, c. 100 AD King of the Regnum Bosporanum, AD 93/4-123/4, son of Rhescuporis II; S. conducted successful wars against the Scythae (IOSPE 22 26) and pirates in the area of the northern Pontos. Many new buildings in Gorgippia and Panticapaeum attest to the increase in prosperity under his rule. There was a column in honour of S. in Sinope (IOSPE 22 40). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] King of the Regnum Bosporanum, c. 200 AD King of the Regnum …

Panda

(37 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] [1] Unidentifiable river east of the Maiotis Unidentifiable river east of the Maiotis, three days' march from Tanais [2] (Tac. Ann. 12,16,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] see Sondergötter see Sondergötter

Taurike Chersonesos

(24 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ταυρικὴ Χερσόνησος; Taurikḕ Chersónēsos) see Chersonesus [2]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography J. M. Mogaričev (Hrsg.), Problemy istorii i arheologii Krymy, 1994.

Agathyrsi

(161 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγάθυρσοι; Agáthyrsoi). Scythian or northern Thracian tribe on the upper reaches of the Mureş, north-east of the  Neuri (Hdt. 4,48; 4,100; 102). For Scythian-Agathyrsian relations, see Hdt. 4,78: Spargapeithes, a king of the A.; 4,119; 125). Because of the importance of the Dacian tribes, little mention is made of the A. around the end of the 1st cent. BC (Ptol. 3,5,10). For the mythological eponymous hero Ἀγάθυρσος ( Agáthyrsos) in the Greek version of the Scythian myth regarding their origin, see Hdt. 4,10. Later references are strongly depende…

Cimmerii

(943 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κιμμέριοι; Kimmérioi, Lat. Cimmerii). Nomadic tribe probably of Iranian descent, attested for the 8th/7th cents. BC. The Assyrian and Babylonian forms of the name were Ga-mir, Gi-mir-a-a and similar; in the OT they were referred to as gmr, in the Masora Gȯmär. According to a document from the time of Sargon II [1. no. 30-32], the Urartian King Rusa I invaded the land of Gami(ra) (between 720 and 714 BC) and was defeated there. A further document from the same period attests to a Cimmerian intrusion into  Urartu from the region south of La…

Astae

(213 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀσταί; Astaí). Thracian tribe in south-east Thrace, between Apollonia [2] and  Salmydessus in the Strandža mountains, with the royal capital of  Bizye. Politically independent after the decline of Odrysian rule at the end of the 4th cent. BC, the A. increasingly gained in importance following the withdrawal of the Celts in 278 BC (Ps.-Scymn. 729; Pol. 13,10,10). They had good relations with the Greek colonies (IGBulg 312). The A. fought alongside the Maduateni, the  Caeni, and the…

Gepidae, Gepidi

(393 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γήπαιδες; Gḗpaides). Germanic tribe, related to the  Goti according to Iord. Get. 17,94. The original area of settlement was located in the Vistula-Nogat Delta. Groups of G. began to move south-east from the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. AD onward. In 249, the son of Philippus Arabs was defeated by the G. in Dacia (Chron. pasch. 503 de Boor). The G. participated in the great anti-Roman coalition of the Germani in c. 263. C. 290, battles erupted between the G. and the Vandali against the Taifali and the Visigoths (Pan. Lat. 287 Baerens). The G. took part in…

Eupator

(81 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Ti. Julius E., king of the  Regnum Bosporanum, from AD 154/5 to c. 174, follower of  Rhoemetalces. Coins to 170. Roman vassal, financially supported by the Romans (Lucian, Alex. 57). As the first king of the Bosporus he had a Sarmatic sign as his emblem. Most of the inscriptions come from  Panticapaeum where his residence was located (IOSPE 2, 422, 438 et al.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 348 n. 42; 351.

Aigos Potamos (Potamoi)

(78 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War (Αἰγὸς ποταμός; Aigòs potamós). Settlement on the Thracian  Chersonesus opposite Lampsacus. Width of the straits at that point c. 15 stades (Xen. Hell. 2,1,21). Location of Athens' defeat by  Lysander in 405 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,105). Also the point where the stream of the same name in the tribal territory of the  Dolonci flows into the sea. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Xanthea

(95 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξάνθεια; Xántheia). City in Thrace between the Bistonis limne (modern Lake Vistonida) and Maronea [1] on the northern coast of the Aigaion Pelagos (Str. 7a,1,44) on the southern slopes of Rhodope, not precisely locatable. In the Byzantine city of the same name no remains suggesting Antiquity have been discovered; it was on the Via Egnatia (Nikephoros Gregoras 727,24; 814,19); modern Xanthi. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography S. P. Kyriakidis, Περὶ τὴν ἱστορίαν τῆς Θρᾴκης, 1960, 27-32  P. A. Pantos, Ἱστορικὴ τοπογραφία τοῦ νομοῦ Ξάνθης…

Aegissus

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Αἰγισσος; Aígissos). Thracian fortress (1st cent. BC, Ov. Pont. 1,8,13), modern Tulĉa (Romania) in the Danube delta. Necropolis from the 6th to 1st cents. BC. Under  Rhoemetalces at the time of Augustus controlled by Rome (Cass. Dio 54,20,1-3). In about 12 BC destroyed by northern tribes, but rebuilt; from the 2nd cent. BC onwards, growing in military and civilian importance.   Statio between Noviodunum and Salsovia (It. Ant. 226,2). Fortified under Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,7,20). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Simion, Les Gètes de …

Pelagones, Pelagonia

(257 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πελαγόνες/ Pelagónes, Πελαγονία/ Pelagonía). Inhabitants and region in northern Macedonia, the plateau between the south of modern Macedonia and northwestern Greece, surrounded by hilly country and mountain chains with an extent of c. 100 km north-south and c. 20 km east-west. Originally P. was taken to relate only to the region around modern Prilep on the middle reaches of the Erigon (Str. 7,7,8f. [1. 283]; Str. 7a,1,20; 38f.; 9,5,11.). There were only four simple ways of reaching P. Among those living in P. beside…

Melas Kolpos

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (‘Black Gulf’) Now the Gulf of Saros between the Thracian Chersonesus [1] and the mouth of the River Hebrus (Str. 7, fr. 52). From the south it could be controlled from Alopeconnesus, and from the north from Aenus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Apsinthii

(81 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀψίνθιοι; Apsínthioi). Thracian tribe on the Thracian  Chersonesus, east of the Dolonci. It was against them that  Miltiades had a wall built from Cardia to Pactye (Hdt. 6,36 f.). After the conquest of Sestus by the Athenians in 478 BC, the A. took the Persian Oiobazos prisoner and sacrificed him to their god Pleistorus (Hdt. 9,119). The A. took their name from the River Apsinthus (=  Melas). The  Hieron oros was in Apsinthis.  Sestus von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Maeotis

(144 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαιῶτις; Maiôtis, Latin lacus or palus Maeotis). The Asov Sea north-east of the Krim with an area of c. 38,000 km2, with an outlet to the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos in the south through the Cimmerian Bosporus [2], in the north-east confluence of the Tanais in the M. The M. is exceptionally shallow (average depth 9 m) so that it easily freezes over. In spring, south-west winds drive the water of the Pontos Euxeinos into the M. Many rivers flow into the M., which has an abundance of fish (Str. 7,4,6).…
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