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Sophaenetus

(205 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σοφαίνετος/ Sophaínetos). From Stymphalus; despite his advanced age one of the leaders of Cyrus [3] the Younger's mercenaries in his struggle with his brother Artaxerxes [2] II (Xen. An. 5,3,1; 6,5,13): He recruited mercenaries among the Greeks (1,1,11; 1,2,1) and took 1000 hoplites to Cyrus in Sardis or Celaenae (1,2,3 or 1,2,9). On the return journey he led a convoy of ships from Trapezus to Cerasus (5,3,1), but because of his casual attention of finances had to pay a fine (5,8,1). Only Stephanus [7] from Byzantium mentions an Anábasis Kýrou by S. (F 1-4). It is he…

Terillus

(87 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τήριλλος; Tḗrillos). Son of Crinippus, tyrant of Himera, was deposed by Theron c. 483 BC. A call for help by T. and his father-in-law Anaxilaus [1] of Rhegium led in 480 to an invasion of Sicily by the Carthaginians under Hamilcar [1], a guest-friend of T.; Hamilcar and his army were decisively defeated by Gelon [1] and Theron at Himera (Hdt. 7,165-167). Of the later fate of T. nothing is known. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 134, 156.

Xenodicus

(195 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ξενόδικος; Xenódikos). [German version] [1] Uncle of the tyrant Theron of Acragas Son of the Emmenid Telemachus and uncle of Theron of Acragas. His sons Hippocrates and Capys rebelled against Theron in 476 BC, who defeated them at Himera, whereupon they settled in Sicanian Camicus (schol. Pind. P. 6,5a and O. 2,173f-g). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 135. [German version] [2] From Acragas, second half of the 4th cent. BC X. (also Xenodocus) from Acragas (both forms of the name can be found in Diod. 20,31,4; 32,2; 56…

Charax

(136 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Χάραξ; Chárax). A. Claudius C. from Pergamum; Greek historian. He lived during the 2nd cent. AD under Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, was a priest and in AD 147 consul. C. wrote a universal history in 40 books, covering especially Greek and -- from book 12 -- Roman history up to the period of ‘Nero and his successors’ (Suda s.v. = T 1). The work was later summarized and used by Stephanus of Byzantium under the title Chroniká. The fragments relate mostly to mythological times, as it was mainly for his euhemeristic and allegorical interpretation…

Phylarchus

(390 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] P. from Athens or Naucratis (FGrH 81 T 1), Greek historian of the 3rd cent. BC, one of the main representatives of 'tragic' or 'mimetic' historiography (II C) [1. 93-108; 2. 95-102; 222 note 22]. P. wrote Historíai in 28 books, extending from the death of Pyrrhus (272 BC) to the death of king Cleomenes [6] III of Sparta (220/119 BC) (FGrH 81 T 1). 60 fragments survive (FGrH 81 with comm.). His work continues that of Duris of Samos (see historiography II C) and Hieronymus [6] of Cardia. Polybius [2] (Pol. 2,56-63 =…

Promathidas

(78 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Προμαθίδας; Promathídas). Greek local historian from Heraclea [7] on the Pontus. As a source for Apollonius [2] of Rhodes (cf. FGrH 430 T 1) he can be dated before c. 250 BC; he was also probably used by Nymphis and Memnon [5]. Some fragments of his work Heraclea, about the mythical era, survive. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography FGrH 430 with comm.  P. Desideri, Studi di storiografia eracleota, in: Studi Classici e Orientali 16, 1967, 366-416.

Duketios

(328 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] Einer der wenigen namentlich bekannten Sikeler, von dem allein Diodoros berichtet (11,76-12,30, nach Timaios), und zwar in dramatisch überhöhter Darstellung (s. [1. 50ff.] und [2. 99ff.]). D. versuchte, gestützt auf die Sikeler, die chaotischen Zustände nach dem Sturz der Tyrannen 466-461 v.Chr. (vgl. Diod. 11,72,3-73; 76,4-6; 86,2-87) zum Aufbau einer Machtstellung in Sizilien zu nutzen. 461/0 zog er mit Syrakus gegen Aitne [2] und vertrieb die Söldner des Tyrannen Hieron. Zwei …

Diyllos

(152 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Δίυλλος) von Athen. Griech. Historiker, 1. H. 3. Jh.v.Chr., Sohn des Atthidographen Phanodemos. Verf. von Historíai in 27 B., einer Universalgeschichte in zwei Teilen (vgl. FGrH 73 T 1 und 2), die Ephoros fortsetzte und die Zeit vom 3. Hl. Krieg (357/6) bis zum Tod von Kassandros' Sohn Philippos behandelte. D. wurde wiederum von Psaon von Plataiai (FGrH 78 T 1) weitergeführt. Nach Plutarch gehörte D., der ganz in “tragischer” Manier schrieb (Plut. mor. 345E und F), zu den ‘nicht unbedeutenden in der Geschichtsschreibung’ (Plut. mor. 862B =…

Damokles

(73 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Δαμοκλῆς). Höfling und Schmeichler des Tyrannen Dionysios [1] I. (nach Timaios FGrH 566 F 32 des Dionysios II.). Die Anekdote vom “Damoklesschwert” wurde durch Cicero (Tusc. 5,61f.) berühmt: Da D. den mächtigen und reichen Tyrann für den glücklichsten Menschen hielt, ließ dieser ihm ein luxuriöses Mahl bereiten, doch über seinem Nacken ein Schwert an einem Roßhaar aufhängen, um ihm das wahre “Glück” des Tyrannen zu zeigen. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Lindische Tempelchronik

(200 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] Die Anagraphḗ von Lindos (auf Rhodos), 1904 entdeckt, ist ein hervorragendes Beispiel für ein lokalgesch. Werk, das einem Spezialthema gilt. Die Inschr. wurde 99 v.Chr. auf Antrag des Hagesitimos, Sohn des Timachidas, durch Beschluß des Rates im Heiligtum der Athena Lindia aufgestellt: Sie enthält den Wortlaut dieses Beschlusses (= A), ein Inventar von 45 Weihgeschenken, die (angeblich) im Tempel aufgestellt waren (= B und C), und die Beschreibung von vier Epiphanien (“Erscheinung…

Akestoridas

(48 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀκεστορίδης). Aus Korinth. Ca. 323/2 v. Chr. von den Syrakusiern zum Strategen gewählt, um Oligarchen und (gemäßigte) Demokraten miteinander zu versöhnen, suchte er angeblich den der Tyrannis verdächtigten Agathokles [2] zu beseitigen (Diod. 19,5,1). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography K. Meister, CAH 7.1, 21984, 387 f.

Polycritus

(54 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολύκριτος/ Polýkritos) of Mende, historian from western Greece c. middle of the 4th cent. BC and author of a History of (the Young) Dionysius [2] and a History of Sicily (Sikeliká), whose compass, perspective and extent in time are unknown; only 3 fragments survive (FGrH 559 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Phanodemus

(149 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανόδημος; Phanódēmos). Atthidographer, father of the historian Diyllus and follower of Lycurgus' [9] restoration policy (FGrH 325 T 2-5). As a member of the Council he was honoured with a gold wreath in 343/2 BC (IG II2 223 = Syll.3 227). Several inscriptions from the years 332/1 to 329/8 (IG VII 4252-4254) testify to his espousing the cult of Amphiaraus of Ephesus. His Atthís, comprising at least 9 books, which appeared in about 330 and of which 27 fragments survive, also reveals a strong interest in issues of cult. The fragment datable as…

Nymphis

(221 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Νύμφις; Nýmphis). N. from Heraclia [7] on the Pontus, son of Xenagoras, historian, b. c. 310 BC, d. after 246. He played an eminent role among the exiles who returned to their home in 281 BC after the end of the tyranny under Clearchus [3] and the death of Lysimachus [2] (FGrH 432 T 3 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 7,3). In 250, N. was the leader of the delegation that induced the Galatians to withdraw from Heracleotis (T 4 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 16,3). Works: 1) ‘On Heraclia in 13 bks.: Extensive local history of his home town, connected with the ‘great’ history and pr…

Heloris

(139 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἕλωρις; Hélōris). Syracusan, close friend, perhaps even the adoptive father of the older  Dionysius [1] (Diod. Sic. 14,8,5). During an uprising of the Syracusans against the tyrant in 404/3 BC he uttered, according to Diodorus (loc. cit.), the remark that was quoted right through to late antiquity: ‘Tyranny is a beautiful shroud’ ( kalòn entáphiòn estin hē tyrannís). Later banished for unknown reasons, he fought in 394 in Rhegium against Dionysius, laid siege to Messana in vain in 393 and defended Rhegium successfully in 392 against th…

Agatharchides of Cnidus

(340 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀγαθαρχίδης; Agatharchídēs). [German version] A. Life Historian and geographer. Particulars about his life and work in a vita by Photius 213. As a consequence of a self-attestation in Photius 250 in 132/1 BC (or already 145?) an old man. Birth therefore before 200. Active as reader and secretary of Heracleides Lembos in Alexandria. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] B. Works 1. History of Asia ( Asiatiká) in 10 books, reaching up to the era of the Diadochi. From book two (as well as book eight of Artemidorus' description of the earth) comes the depict…

Local chronicles, local history

(563 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Historical or antiquarian works on particular areas or localities, often dated according to eponymous officials. According to [1], Greek local chronicles and local historiography grew out of official lists and indices (officials, priests, victors in competitions) in which notes on all sorts of events were scattered. From these preliterary town chronicles, local chronicles and histories supposedly developed in the 6th/5th cents. BC, with the Hóroi (Annual Books) of Samos being the earliest; later the Atthís followed. This opinion, whic…

Damocles

(90 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δαμοκλῆς; Damoklês). Courtier and sycophant of the tyrant  Dionysius [1] I (according to Timaeus FGrH 566 F 32 of Dionysius II). The anecdote of the ‘sword of Damocles’ became famous through Cicero (Tusc. 5,61f.): as D. considered the powerful and rich tyrant to be the happiest person in the world, the latter had a sumptuous meal prepared for him but above his head had a sword suspended on a horse hair in order to demonstrate to him the true ‘happiness’ of a tyrant. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Mnesiptolemus

(93 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Μνησιπτόλεμος/ Mnēsiptólemos). Son of Calliarchus from Cyme, a city in Asia Minor (IG XI 697), Greek historian at the court of king Antiochus [5] III of Seleucia (222-187 BC). In his Historía, now completely lost, he was ‘probably more concerned with the deeds of Antiochus the Great than with the entire history of the Syrian kings’ [1]. Because of the many trivial details about the court in his writings, he was ridiculed in comedy (cf. Ath. 10,40 p. 432bc = T 2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 FGrH 164 with commentary.

Terias

(48 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηρίας; Tērías). River on the eastern coast of Sicilia with Leontini on its upper reaches (Scyl. 13; Diod.  Sic. 14,14,3;  cf. Thuc. 6,50,3; 6,94,2; Plin. HN 3,89), modern San Leonardo di Lentini. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 125.
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