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Leo I

(910 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
Leo I (d. 461), known as Leo the Great, was pope beginning in the summer of 440. Not much is known about Leo’s early years. Suggestions that he was born in Tuscany remain improbable as long as other signs point to an urban Roman origin. Before becoming pope, he was (arch)deacon at the papal ¶ court, and as early as 440 Empress Galla Placidia entrusted him with a political mission to Gaul. Leo devoted a great deal of energy to his urban Roman congregation, particularly through his sermons, and encouraged the production of narrative and pictorial cyc…

Tertullian

(762 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (ca. 160–ca. 225) was an African church father who wrote primarily in Latin. Texts available for a reconstruction of Tertullian’s biography include, next to his own writings, accounts by Eusebius (ca. 260–ca. 340) and Jerome (ca. 345–420). It has been shown, however, that information from the fourth-century authors should not be used uncritically. From his own writings it appears that Tertullian’s father possibly was in the military, and one could add Jerome’s account that his father was a centurio proconsularis, thus a centurion in the cohors …

Jerome

(956 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
Jerome (ca. 345–420), born Eusebius Hieronymus (perhaps as early as 333), was an outstanding translator, exegete, and theologian of the early church. He was the son of a well-to-do Christian family that owned property in Strido (near Emona, or modern Ljubljana, Slovenia). He was educated in Rome, and his teachers included, until 363, the famous grammarian Aelius Donatus (though not Marius Victorinus, neither does Jerome seem to have been closely acquainted with Ambrose in Rome; he did, however, …

Neunicaenismus

(481 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English Version] . Mit dem neuzeitlichen Begriff N. (bzw. den inhaltlich parallelen Ausdrücken »Jungnicaenismus« oder »Neonicaenismus«), der vermutlich auf F. Loofs zurückgeht, wird eine bestimmte trinitätstheol. Position des späteren 4.Jh. bez. (Arius/Arianismus), die allein schon durch ihre Normierung 381 auf dem zweiten Reichskonzil von Konstantinopel (: IV., 1.) und in anderen Bekenntnistexten (Symbolum Quicumque) zum identitätsbildenden traditionellen Lehrbestand der meisten christl. Kirchen und Glaubensgemeinschaften gehört. Freilich hat sich in den l…

Traditio Apostolica

(246 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English Version] (sog. Kirchenordnung des Hippolyt, TradAp). 1910 bzw. 1916 entdeckten E. Schwartz und Richard Hugh Connolly, daß sich einige spätantike Kirchenordnungen als Bearb. bzw. Übers. einer (verlorenen) Grundschrift stemmatisch zuordnen lassen. Beide Forscher nahmen an, daß diese den Titel TradAp ( ᾿Αποστολικη` παρα´δοσις/apostolikē´ parádosis, »apostolische Überlieferung«) getragen habe und von Hippolyt vf. wurde. Diese doppelte Hypothese wird heute nur noch von einer Minderheit als zutreffend angenommen. Bestätigt hat sich dagegen die Annahme eines…

Suger

(178 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English Version]   von St. Denis (um 1081 Argenteuil – 1151 St. Denis). S. stammte aus einer wohlhabenden Familie und wurde um 1091 Oblate im fränkischen Königskloster St. Denis vor den Toren von Paris. 1101 legte er die Profeß ab und verteidigte 1107 vor Papst Paschalis II. die Exemtion des Klosters. Nach verschiedenen polit. und kirchl. Aufgaben wurde er 1122 zum Abt gewählt. Er reformierte nicht nur sein Kloster, sondern amtierte auch als Regent von Frankreich (1137–1140 sowie 1147–1149). Berüh…

Origenes

(2,751 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English Version] (ca.185/186 Alexandrien – ca.253/254) I. Leben Für die Rekonstruktion der Biogr. des O. ist man auf Angaben bei seinem Enkelschüler Eusebius von Caesarea (h.e. VI 1–39) angewiesen, die einschlägigen Partien der »Apologie für O.« des Pamphilus von Caesarea (CPG 1, 1715) wurden durch Rufinus von Aquileia nicht ins Lat. übers. und sind mit dem griech. Original verloren; möglicherweise gehen aber einzelne Nachrichten bei Hieronymus, Rufinus und Photius von Konstantinopel (bibl. codex 118)…

Satornil

(156 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English Version] (Saturninus). Unter den frühen Gnostikern (Gnosis/Gnostizismus: III.,2.), die auf Simon Magus folgen, nennt Irenaeus von Lyon einen Saturninus aus Antiochien (haer. I 24, 1f.), der im frühen 2.Jh. gelebt haben dürfte. Er schreibt ihm die Lehre zu, daß Welt und Mensch von sieben bestimmten Engeln geschaffen wurden, der Mensch nach dem Bild »der höchsten Macht«, die dem Gebilde auch den »Lebensfunken« gab. Die Engel wiederum sind nach S. Geschöpfe des obersten unbekannten Vaters, d…

Paulus

(200 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[English Version] von Bēth Ukkāme (= Paulus, der Schwarze, oder Paulos Melanos; um 500 Alexandrien – 584 Konstantinopel). Der in Alexandrien aufgewachsene Archimandrit P. wurde 564 von Jakob Baradaeus zum antichalcedonensischen (jakobitischen) Patriarch von Antiochien geweiht (Monophysiten/Monophysitismus) und amtierte bis 577. Seine Amtszeit war durch schwere kirchenpolit. Auseinandersetzungen gekennzeichnet: Einer vorübergehenden Annäherung des Patriarchen an das Bekenntnis des Reichskonzils Cha…

Suger

(206 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1081, Argenteuil – 1151, St.-Denis), was born to a wealthy family; c. 1091 he became an oblate in the royal Frankish abbey of St.-Denis before the gates of Paris. In 1101 he took his solemn vows; in 1107 he defended the exempt status of the abbey before Pope Paschal II. After serving in various political and ecclesiastical offices, he was elected abbot in 1122. He reformed his own abbey and also served as regent of France from 1137 to 1140 and from 1147 to 1149. His partial reconstruction of the abbey church (1140–1144) is famous; he discussed it in his De consecratione and De o…

Celestine I, Pope

(122 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] (422–432). As the successor of Boniface I, Celestine attempted to consolidate the Roman primacy, but he encountered the resistance of the West African bishops. Moreover, he opposed Pelagianism (Pelagius) and from 430 Nestorius; the majority of his correspondence relates to this conflict. ¶ Eventually, he sent Germanus of Auxerre in 429 and “the Celtic bishop” Palladius in 431 to England and Ireland for the anti-Pelagian mission. Christoph Markschies Bibliography CPL 1650–1654 PL 50, 417–558 ACO I/1/7, 125–137; I/2/5, 5–101 On Celestine: E. Caspar, Geschichte des…

Early Church

(6,745 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] I. The Term – II. Periods of the Early Church – III. The History of the Church and of Christianity in Antiquity – IV. Review I. The Term The term “early church” is one of the most common English expressions used to designate the church during the times of the emperors in Greco-Roman antiquity, i.e. the Christian church from its beginnings until the end of antiquity or Late Antiquity. The end of this …

Montanism

(1,168 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] I. Terminology and Sources – II. History – III. Theology I. Terminology and Sources Since the late 4th century, the adherents of a prophetic movement in early Christianity dating from the 2nd century have been referred to polemically as “Montanists,” and the movement itself was called “Montanism” (e.g Cyril of Jerusalem, Catecheses XVI 8.6 or [Pseudo-?]Didymus, De trinitate III 18.23 and 41 [PG 39, 881 B, 924 C, also 984 B]). This terminology, which refers to a prophet Montanus, has been accepted by modern scholarship, although the m…

Ambrose of Milan (Saint)

(439 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] (333/334, Trier – 397) was an important bishop and is regarded as one of the four teachers of the Western Church since the end of the 7th century. Ambrose was from a prominent family of Roman (city?) Christians; educated in Rome, he was the governor of Aemilia Liguria with a seat in Milan between 372 and 374. In 374, as the compromise candidat…

Neo-Niceanism

(527 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] The modern term “neo-Niceanism” (Ger. Neunicaenismus), with its variants, is said to go back to F. Loofs. It denotes a specific Trinitarian position of the later 4th century (Arius) that was made normative in 381 at the Second Imperial Council of Constantinople (Constantinople, Council of: IV, 1) and in other confessional documents ( Symbolum Quicumque ). It belongs to the traditional corpus of teaching that shapes the identity of most Christian churches and faith communities. It is true that in the last 100 years the content of the expression “neo-Nicea…

Nestorianism

(956 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] The term Nestorianism can be used in two senses. First, it can designate the theology (and sometimes also the ecclesiastical organization) of today’s Holy Apostolic and Catholic Assyrian Church of the East, whose members are called Nestorians (or East Syrians or Chaldeans; Apostolic Church of the East) because in 484/486, in conscious departure from the Roman imperial church, they adopted the Christology of Nestorianism, which had been condemned at the Council of Ephesus in 431 (Nes…

Saturninus of Antioch

(162 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] Among the early Gnostic (Gnosis: III, 2) followers of Simon Magus, Irenaeus of Lyon mentions Saturninus of Antioch ( Haer. I 24.1f.), who probably lived in the early 2nd century. Irenaeus claims he taught that the world and humankind were created by seven individual angels and that humans were created in the image of “the supreme power,” which also gave them the “spark of life.” The angels in turn, according to Saturninus, were creatures of the supreme unknown father; the “God of the Jews” was one o…

Enhypostasis/Anhypostasis

(621 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] Leontius of Jerusalem and other neo-Chalcedonians (Neo-Chalcedonism) use the Greek adjective ἐνυπόστατος/ enhypóstatos from Late Antiquity to describe their view that the dogma of the human and divine natures of Christ as articulated by the Council of Chalcedon (Christology) is not referring to independent hypostases or persons, and that instead each of the two natures exists “enhypostatically” in relation to the one person of Christ and to the one hypostasis of the Trinity in three hypostases (Leontius, Adversus Nestorianos II 13 [PG 86, 1561 …

Lietzmann, Hans

(458 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1875, Düsseldorf – Jun 25, 1942, Locarno). After passing his Abitur in Wittenberg, Lietzmann went to Jena in 1893 to study classical philology and theology, but it was his studies at Bonn from 1894 to 1898 that enduringly influenced him. There his real academic mentor was H. Usener, a renowned scholar in classical philology and religious studies, from whom he acquired a love of philological detail, a particular concern for large-scale religio-historical relationships, and a great inte…

Paul Melanos

(230 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] of Bēth Ukkāme (Paul the Black, Paulos Melanos; c. 500 Alexandria – 584 Constantinople). In 564 Jacob Baradaeus consecrated Archimandrite Paul, who had grown up in Alexandria, as the anti-Chalcedonian (Jacobite) patriarch of Antioch (Monophysites), a position he held until 577. His tenure was beset by serious church-political conflicts. A temporary flirtation of the patriarch with the creed of Chalcedon affirming the two natures of Christ (c. 571) was followed by an abrupt dissoci…
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