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Ur-dukuga (2.97)

(258 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian cone inscription of Ur-dukuga, the thirteenth king of the Isin I dynasty (who reigned ca. 1830–1828 bce), records the construction of a temple of the god Dagan in the royal city of Isin. Dagan was an important Mesopotamian and West Semitic deity with major cult centres at ancient Tuttul (modern Tell Biʿa near the junction of the Euphrates and Balih rivers) and Terqa (m…

Warad-Sin (2.101A)

(317 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian cone inscription of Warad-Sin (the thirteenth king of the Larsa dynasty who reigned from 1834–23 bce) records the construction of the chief storehouse in Ur. This building was apparently not a storeroom for grain, but rather a repository for precious objects donated to the city temples. Warad-Sin (2.101A) ( 1–4) For the god Nanna, lord who beams forth brightly in shining heaven, first…

Shu-ilishu (2.93)

(291 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary The name of what is probably the third year of Shu-ilishu (the second king of the Isin I dynasty, who reigned ca. 1984–1875 bce) commemorates the construction of a standard for the moon god Nanna, tutelary deity of Ur. The deed is recorded in a Sumerian school tablet copy excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley at Ur. Standards, with divine or animal images on their tops, were often used in ancient Mesopota…

Nur-Adad (2.99A)

(379 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian inscription from Ur belonging to Nur-Adad, eighth king of the Larsa dynasty (who reigned ca. 1865–1850 bce) deals with the king’s construction of a kir4-MAḪ “great (bread) oven” and a du8-MAḪ (possibly “great cauldron”) for the moon god Nanna. Copies of the text are inscribed on three copper cylinders and several clay cones that were found in a room northwest of t…

Ipiq-Adad II (2.103)

(158 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary One of the most energetic of the rulers of Eshnunna was king Ipiq-Adad II; during his lengthy reign he greatly expanded the territory controlled by Eshnunna, a fact proclaimed by his adoption of the title “king who enlarges Eshnunna.” A brick inscription from ancient Nerebtum (modern Ishchali) commemorates his donation of the city to the goddess Eshtar-Kititum. Ipiq-Adad II (2.103) ( 1) To the goddess Esh…

Simurrum — Iddi (n)-Sin (2.106)

(315 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary The city of Simurrum (for a possible location see Frayne 1997b), long the target of military campaigns waged by the Ur III kings Shulgi and Amar-Suena, gained its independence after the fall of the Ur III dynasty. In Early Old Babylonian times it served as the capital of a kingdom that likely stretched along the Zagros foothill road that ran fro…

Sin-kashid (2.104)

(109 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary German excavations at Uruk have unearthed a large palace built by Sin-kashid, the probable founder of the Old Babylonian period Uruk dynasty. Innumerable bricks and clay tablets found in the walls of the palace (and scattered over the surface of the mound) commemorate its construction in Sumerian. Of interest is Sin-kashid’s title “king of Amnanum,” an Amorite tribal name. Sin-kashid (2.104) ( 1–7) Sin-kas…

Ishme-Dagan (2.94)

(220 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian inscription found on various stamped or inscribed bricks from Nippur indicates that they originally came from a socle built by Ishme-Dagan (third king of the Isin I dynasty, who reigned c. 1953–1935 bce) for the ceremonial mace of the god Ninurta, the god Enlil’s second in command at Nippur. Isin-Larsa period account texts from Nippur record offerings made for this ma…

Anam (2.105)

(104 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian inscription found on small stone tablets from Uruk commemorates king Anam’s construction of the wall of Uruk, a structure said to have been built in ancient times by divine Gilgamesh. Anam (2.105) ( 1–4) Anam, chief of the army of Uruk, son of Ilan-shemea, ( 5–8) who restored the wall of Uruk, the ancient work of divine Gilgamesh, ( 9–12) constructed in baked brick (the moat) “Water roars as it…

Ishbi-Erra (2.92)

(144 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Ishbi-Erra, the first king of the Isin Dynasty, reigned ca. 2017–1985 bce. A Sumerian royal inscription known from a contemporary tablet copy from Nippur records the fabrication by the king of a lyre for the god Enlil of Nippur. Ishbi-Erra (2.92) Subject: Pss 33:2; 43:4; 49:4; 57:8; 71:22; 81:2; 92:3; 98:5; 108:2; 137:2; 147:7; 149:3 ( 1–3) For the god Enlil, lord of the foreign lands, his lord, ( 4–6) Ishbi-Err[…

Ur-Ninurta (2.96)

(164 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A tablet from Nippur contains the copy of one (or more) Sumerian royal inscriptions of Ur-Ninurta (the fifth king of the Isin I dynasty, who reigned ca. 1923–1896 bce). The excerpted section deals with the fashioning of a statue depicting the king holding a votive goat kid at his breast; the statue was set up in the courtyard of the goddess Ninlil (Enlil’s spouse) in Nippu…

Gungunum (2.98)

(197 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Gungunum, the fifth member of the Larsa dynasty and its first effective king, reigned from ca. 1931–1906 bce. A Sumerian cone inscription from Ur deals with the construction there of a storehouse for the sun god by En-ana-tuma, en-priestess of the moon god Nanna. Though installed by her father Ishme-Dagan of Isin (above, COSB.2.94), she was allowed to keep her p…

Rim-Sin (2.102A)

(430 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian cone inscription of Rim-Sin (the fourteenth king of the Larsa dynasty, who reigned ca. 1822–1763 bce) records the construction of a temple of the god Dumuzi in Ur. Dumuzi was in origin a Sumerian shepherd god who, with the goddess Inanna, served as tutelary deity of the ancient city of Badtibira (var.: Patibira), modern Tell al-Madaʾin. For the most recent discuss…

Lipit-Eshtar (2.95)

(189 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary Numerous clay cones found or excavated at Isin record the construction by Lipit-Eshtar (the fourth king of the Isin I dynasty, who reigned ca. 1934–1924 bce) of a storehouse (ganīnum) for the gods Enlil and Ninlil. This text provides us with the earliest Akkadian translation of the Sumerian royal title lugal ki-en-gi ki-uri, Akkadian šar māt šumerim u akkadim, “king of the land of Sumer and Akkad.” Lipit-Es…

Sin-iddinam (2.100)

(717 words)

Author(s): Frayne, Douglas
Subject: Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World; Akkadian Monumental Inscriptions; Building and Display Inscriptions; Early Old Babylonian Inscriptions Commentary A Sumerian inscription known from an Old Babylonian period tablet copy deals with the construction by Sin-iddinam (the ninth king of the Larsa dynasty, who reigned ca. 1849–1843 bce) of a throne for the storm god Ishkur/Adad. The inscription’s account of two butting bull (figures) standing on either side of the base of the throne (lines 75–78) can be compared with the passage in 1 Kings 10:14 describing two li…