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Cosmas

(834 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς; Kosmâs). [German version] [1] C. and Damianus Doctor's saints and patrons of healing Doctor saints and patrons of healing. The Greek Synaxarion (ed. by H. Delehaye) contains three different pairs of saints with these names: 1) the sons of Theodata, who were born in Asia Minor and buried in Pelusium, whose feast day is 1 November; 2) the Roman martyrs stoned during the rule of  Carinus (283-285), whose feast day is 1 July; 3) the Arab martyrs killed with their three brothers under the emperor Diocleti…

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…

Palladas

(329 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Παλλαδᾶς; Palladâs). Important exponent of pre-Byzantine epigrammatic poetry and probably the author of a collection of mostly satirical epigrams (cf. Anthology E.); he lived in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. AD in Alexandria (numerous allusions to an Egyptian context in P,. whose name appears on several occasions with the ethnikon Ἀλεξανδρεύς/ Alexandreús). Dating is made possible by Anth. Pal. 11,292 (attack on Themistius, in 384 praefectus urbi of Constantinople); 10,90 (presumably written after the destruction of the Serapeum in 391, cf. 9,37…

Secundus

(301 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
Common Roman cognomen, originally designating the second-born child. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Saturninius S. Salutius Praef. praet. Orientis 361-365 and 365-366 ( iterum), from a non-senatorial family in Gallia, a non-Christian. Between 324 and 350, he held several offices at court as well as governorships in the western part of the empire. In 355-359, he held the quaestura sacri palatii at the court of Caesar Iulianus [11] (CIL VI 1764 = ILS 1255) in Gallia who came to trust S. and, upon his rise to Augustus after the death of Co…

Polystratus

(387 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος/ Polýstratos). [German version] [1] Wealthy Athenian, councillor 411 BC Wealthy Athenian, frequent office-holder, member of the boulḗ in 411 BC. After the oligarchic coup, he took part in the selection of the 5,000 citizens to whom political rights would in future be restricted. He was wounded in the naval battles against the Spartans off Eretria. After the fall of the Four Hundred (Tetrakosioi), P. was fined heavily; he was prosecuted again c. 410/409 at age 70, probably for his political activities. Parts of his defence survive in the 20th speech of t…

Cyrus

(2,651 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Κῦρος; Kŷros, Lat. Cyrus). [German version] [1] C. I. (the Elder) Grandfather of  Cyrus [2] (the Great), known from the cylinder inscription of his grandson (TUAT I 409,21). Here he is given the title ‘great king, king of Anšān’ ( šarru rabû šar Anšān;  Anshan) and called ‘descendant’ ( liblibbu) of  Teispes. The genealogical link C. (I.) ─ Cambyses (I.) ─ C. (II.) is also mentioned in Hdt. 1,111. C. the Elder may accordingly be interpreted as a petty king of Persian descent, ruling over (a part of (?) the formerly Elamite) Fārs in the 7th/…

Theophanes

(1,115 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Θεοφάνης/ Theophánēs). [German version] [1] T. of Mytilene Close confidant and historiographer of Pompey (Pompeius [I 3]). As a recently-discovered inscription [1. 377-383] shows, T., the son of Hieroitas, was already active as prytanis at Mytilene (FGrH 188 T 1) before making the acquaintance of Pompey, whom he accompanied on the campaign against Mithridates [6] in 67 BC (T 2). He received Roman citizenship from Pompey in 62 BC (cf. Cic. Arch. 24 = T 3a) at an army gathering, and he therefore appears in IG XII 2, 150 as Cn. Po…

Gabriel

(320 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] (Archangel) Archangel In the Jewish tradition, the angel G. (‘man of God’) is one of the six archangels, together with Uriel, Rafael, Raguel, Michael, and Sariel (1 Enoch, 20:1-7; for seven archangels cf. Tob 12:12-15; for four archangels: 1 Enoch 9-10; 40:9f.). In the biblical tradition, G. appears already together with Michael in the role of angelus interpres, who interprets the seer's visions (Dan 8:16; 9:21), and who announces the births of John the Baptist and Jesus (Lc 1:19.26). According to 1 Enoch 20:7, G. is placed above the…

Numenius

(1,828 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νουμήνιος/Noumḗnios). [German version] [1] Author of didactic poems from Heraclea, c. 300 BC N. from Heraclea, physician and poet, end of the 4th cent. BC. He was a pupil of the physician Dieuches [1] (Ath. 1,5), wrote on cookery and composed didactic poems on fishing (Ἁλιευτικόν/ Halieutikón, SH 568-588), on the theriac (Θηριακόν/ Thēriakón: SH 589-594), on medicinal prescriptions (SH 595) and ‘On Banquets (Δείπνων ἀναγραφαί/ Deípnōn anagraphaí: Ath. 1,5a). He may be the source on Nicander [4] (cf. schol. Theriakon 237; 257; 519; 637) and Archigenes. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibl…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Musicius

(81 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Μουσίκιος; Mousíkios). Epigrammist whose existence is uncertain (the name is not found elsewhere: [2] suspects a corruption of Μούκιος ( Moúkios), i.e. Q. Mucius [I 10] Scaevola, author of Anth. Pal. 9,217); the poem Anth. Pal. 9,39 (a lively dispute between Cypris and the Muses containing an abundance of colloquialisms) has been attributed to him (Diog. Laert. 3,33,  however, attributes it to the philosopher ‘Plato’). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography 1 FGE 165f. 2 R. Reitzenstein, Epigramm und Skolion, 1893, 182.

Phalaecus

(335 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φάλαικος; Phálaikos). [German version] [1] Phocian army officer Son of Onomarchus. P., while a minor, was deployed in 352 BC by his uncle Phayllus [1] as fourth stratēgòs autokrátōr ('general or executive with special powers of authority') of the Phocians in the 3rd Sacred War. Mnaseas [1] was appointed as his guardian but died as early as 351 (Diod. Sic. 16,38,6f.). After an inconclusive series of battles against Thebes, P. was deposed in 347, apparently because of his opposition to the Phocians' attempts to make peace (…

Glaucus

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γλαῦκος; Glaûkos). The name means ‘glossy blue’, also ‘luminous’ [1];  Glauce: Hom. Il 16,34). [German version] [1] Sea demon A sea demon, into which a Boeotian fisherman from Anthedon was transformed after consuming a magical herb. The place of his jump into the sea after the transformation, Γλαύκου πήδημα ( Glaúkou pḗdēma, ‘Glaucus' jump’), was indicated (Paus. 9,22,6-7). Representations are known by Evanthes, Hedyle and Nicander (Ath. 7,295b-297c), by Callimachus (Suda s.v.), Q. Cornificius (Macrob. Sat. 6,5,13) and Cicero (Plut. Cic. 2,3,86…

Gallus

(209 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[I] (Γάλλος; Gállos). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia River in Bithynia, modern Mudurnu Çayı, rises near Modrene (modern Mudurnu) in Phrygia Epictetus (Str. 12,3,7; [2], differently [1]) and flows into the lower course of the  Sangarius. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] [2] Small river through Pessinus Small river that originally flowed through  Pessinus to the  Sangarius [3]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. G., RE 7, 674 2 S. Şahin, Stud. über die Probleme der histor. Geogr. Kleinasiens, in: EA 7, 1986, 125-151 3 Belke, 165f. …

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Piso

(128 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (derived in popular etymology from pisere, 'trample', Plin. HN 18,10), hereditary within the family of the Calpurnii (Calpurnius [I 8-23; II 12-24]) and transferred to the Pupii (Pupius); in many other families in the Imperial Period. Also the name of an Aquitanian prince who fell fighting for Caesar in 55 BC (Caes. B Gall. 4,12,3-6); his father or grandfather may have taken the name from L. Calpurnius [I 17] P. ( cos. 112 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 262. [German version] [2] Epigrammatist Otherwise…

Serapion

(769 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Σεραπίων; Serapíōn). [German version] [1] S. of Antioch Mathematical geographer, 1st cent. BC Mathematical geographer to whom Plin. HN 1,2 referred to as gnomonicus ('measurer of shadows'). In 59 BC, Cicero (who was his contemporary) received S.'s geographical treatise from Atticus as the newest source for his planned Geographica but was hardly able to understand the content (Cic. Att. 2,4,1). In the treatise, Cicero encountered S.'s fierce criticism of Eratosthenes [2] (ibid. 2,6,1). S. estimated the circumference of the sun to be 18 times t…

Xenocritus

(409 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ξενόκριτος/ Xenókritos). [German version] [1] Choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC Choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC from Locri (in lower Italy). In the generation after Terpander he, Thaletas and Xenodamus took part in various musical reforms in Sparta (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like the other two he was a composer of paeans (Plut. loc.cit.), which were also classed as dithyrambs (Dithyrambos) in Antiquity because of their mythical and heroic subject matter (Plut. De musica 10,1134e; [1. 41], cf. [2. …

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Nicias

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας; Nikías). [German version] [1] Important commander in the Peloponnesian War, c.470-413 BC Son of Niceratus of Athens, born c.470 BC, died 413; one of the most important commanders in the Peloponnesian War. After the death of Pericles, N. competed with Cleon [1] for influence in the popular assembly and the assignment of military commands. His policy was directed towards ending the aggressive Athenian politics of expansion and towards reconciliation with Sparta. From 427, N. was regularly elected stratēgós . He led expeditions against Minoa [4…

Nilus

(410 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νεῖλος/ Neîlos, Latin Nilus). [German version] [1] N. of Ancyra Author of monastic letters and stories, c. 400 A number of monastic letters, stories, apophthegmata, treatises and fragments are attributed to a N. of Ancyra or an ascetic N. in MSS. The question of authorship is hardly fully resolved in any of the texts. If the autobiographical data in the Dihēgḗmata [1. 6044] are not held to be authentic (but so in [4]), little more is known of N. than that he lived in Galatia at the turn of the 4th and 5th cents. AD  (but cf. the critique of this in [7. …

Philitas

(773 words)

Author(s): Sbardella, Livio (L'Aquila) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φιλίτας; Philítas). [German version] [1] P. of Cos Poet and philologist, Hellenistic Period (Φιλίτας/ Philítas, the correct form; also Philḗtas/Φιλήτας), ποιητὴς ἅμα καὶ κριτικός ( poiētḕs háma kaì kritikós/"both poet and philologist": Str. 14,2,19) of the early Hellenistic Period, regarded by learned poets of later generations as the founder of a school and an important reference point (cf. Callim. fr. 1,9-12 Pfeiffer and the schol. Florentina a.l.; Theoc. 7,37-41; Hermesianax fr. 7,75-78 Powell). Born c. 340 BC on Cos (his father's name was Telephus), P. was invite…

Perses

(346 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πέρσης; Pérsēs). [German version] [1] Son of the Titan Crius and Eurybea (or Persaeus [1]: H. Hom. 2,24). Son of the Titan Crius [1] and Eurybea, brother of Astraeus and Pallas (Hes. Theog. 375ff.; Apollod. 1,8), husband of Asteria [2], father of Hecate (Hes. Theog. 409ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Helios Son of Helios, brother of Aeetes (Hyg. Fab. 27). He seized power in Colchis from Aeetes, for which he was killed either by Medea (Apollod. 1,83) or her son Medus (Hyg. loc.cit.; Diod. Sic. 4,56,1). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Per…

Theaetetus

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Θεαίτητος; Theaítētos). [German version] [1] T. of Athens, mathematician, c. 400 BC Mathematician, a native of Athens, pupil of Theodorus [2] of Cyrene and later a member of Plato's Academy ( Akadḗmeia ). In Plato's [1] dialogue named after him, T. appears (together with the aged Theodorus [2]) as about fifteen years old in 399 BC; he was therefore born c. 414. Plato describes him as gentle, courageous and quick to apprehend. After he had been wounded in the battle of Corinth, T. contracted dysentery and died in 369. T. contributed substantially to the theory of irrational quantiti…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Nicomachus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Νικόμαχος/ Nikómachos). [German version] [1] Healing hero See Gorgasus and Nicomachus Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian official, 410-404 BC Allegedly the son of a slave and only later accepted as an Athenian citizen. In 410-404 BC, N. led the commission for recording the laws ( anagrapheîs tôn nómōn). Exiled under the Thirty ( triákonta ), he returned in 403 and again became anagrapheús. In 399/8 BC, N. was accused of manipulating the laws, thus e.g. contributing to the sentencing of the demagogue Cleophon [1] in 404, evading his …

Satyrus

(1,465 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros). [German version] [1] S. I King of the regnum Bosporanum from 433/2 to 389/8 BC. Son of Spartocus I. S.' co-regent may have been (until 393/2) his brother Seleucus [1]. S. directed his attention at the Asiatic coast of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Bosporus [2]). He restored the Sindian King Hecataeus following a revolt, and allied with him through a dynastic marriage. S.'s divorced wife then sent the King of the Ixomates against him (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,55). S. died during the siege of Theodosia. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Da…

Zosimus

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ζώσιμος; Zṓsimos). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, epigrammatist, probably between 150 BC and AD 50 Z. of Thasos. Greek epigrammatist, whose works are probably to be dated between 150 BC and AD 50: three (Anth. Pal 6,183-185; 6,15 is also ascribed to him, alternatively to Antipater [8] of Sidon) are variations on the theme of 'dedication to Pan' from the view of a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (cf. Satyrius). Another deals with the unusual theme of a shield saving its owner who uses it as a raft (Anth. Pal. 9,40, cf. Diocles [10]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 104-…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Michaelios Grammatikos

(97 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Otherwise unknown author of an epigram praising the image of Agathias (whom he extols as an orator and poet), of his brother and of his father Memnonius (Anth. Pal. 16,316). The poem will presumably have been affixed to the base of a statuary group in Myrina [4] (the town in l. 1), perhaps not long after the death of Agathias (after AD 580). Identification with later poets of the same name is improbable. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography Av. and A. Cameron, The Cycle of Agathias, in: JHS 86, 1966, 8, Note 18.

Plato

(7,761 words)

Author(s): Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πλάτων/ Plátōn). [German version] [1] The philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Athenian philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) [German version] A. Life The Seventh Letter (which is not intended to constitute a complete autobiography) and scattered reports from various ancient authors (of these, Plutarchus' [2] Life of Dion and Philodemus' Academica Gaiser/ Academicorum Historia Dorandi are particularly instructive) are our most important sources of information on the life of P. To these should be added the chronological accounts in Apuleius, De Platone et eius d…

Polyaenus

(604 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύαινος/ Polýainos). [German version] [1] Epicurean, c. 300 BC One of the four 'masters' (καθηγεμόνες; kathēgemónes) of the Epicurean School (with Epicurus, Metrodorus and Hermarchus). B. at Lampsacus (year unknown), d. at Athens in 278/7 BC. Epicurus inaugurated an annual festival in his honour in the month of Metageitnion. P. came into contact with Epicurus during the latter's sojourn at Lampsacus (311/10-307/6 BC), and thereafter devoted himself to philosophy. At first, he excelled as a mathematician; re…

Quintus

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Common Roman praenomen Common Roman praenomen ; abbreviation: Q.; Greek Κόιντος/ Kóintos. It is identical to the ordinal quīntus (‘fifth’); in Oscan-Umbrian, this name is represented by Pompo and the like, with the nomina gentilicia Pomponius, Pompeius, Pontius. Like other so-called ‘numeral praenomina’, the former individual name could be given to children according to their birth order in the early period. In no case is Q. derived from quīntīlis (‘July’) because the name of this month is in turn already a derivative of quīntus (Months, names of the). The nomen ge…

Panteleius

(140 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Παντέλειος; Pantéleios). Epic writer, estimated to have lived before the 5th cent. AD; nine hexameters are extant (cf. Stob. 3,7,63): a rhetorical encomium, put into the mouth of a Persian, to the Athenian polemarch Callimachus [1] who on the battlefield of Marthon was supported by the same arrows that had lethally pierced him. The short fragment that was published in the 16th cent. in the appendix to Wechel's edition of epigrams (cf. [1]) is sometimes included without justification in the Anthologia Planudea ([2], also [3]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliogra…

Mnasalces

(164 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Μνασάλκης; Mnasálkēs) of Sicyon. One of the epigrammatists in Meleager's ‘Garland’ [8] (Anth. Pal. 4,1,16), probably around 250 BC. He is attributed with 18 poems: dedicatory (ibid. 6,110: more likely by Leonidas [3] of Tarentum), funerary (ibid. 7,488 = PKöln 204: this papyrus possibly contained a collection dedicated exclusively to M.) and epideictic epigrams, all of which are mainly modelled on those of Anyte. In 17 G.-P. (cf. Ath. 4,163a) M. reworks the subject of one of Ascle…

Honestus

(121 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Epigrammarian from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus, under whose rare name Ὅνεστος (probably an assimilation of the Roman cognomen H.) - he is sometimes called Korínthios (cf. Anth. Pal. 9,216) and sometimes Byzántios (cf. ibid. 7,274) - ten mostly epideictic poems are extant, which often relate to Boeotia and are distinguished by antitheses and both lexically and phraseologically original coinings of words. It is almost certain he was the H. who wrote the epigrams which came to light in Thespiae, of which nine are dedicated to the Muses, one to Thamyris and one to a Σεβαστή ( Seb…

Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Rarus

(56 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Otherwise unknown author of an aphoristic epigram (the Anthologia Planudea attributes it to Palladas): an unfaithful friend is more to be feared than an open enemy (Anth. Pal. 10,121). The motif is quite common (see, e.g., Anth. Pal. 10,36; 95; 11,390; as early even as Thgn. 91 f.). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)

Nossis

(161 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Νοσσίς; Nossís). Female epigrammatist from Locri Epizephyrii; most of her writing took place at the beginning of the 3rd century BC (cf. Anth. Pal. 7,414: epitaphios on Rhinthon; 6,132: praise for the victory of the Locrians over the Bruttians), of noble descent (cf. 6,265). Her poems were found in the ‘garland’ of Meleager [8], who emphasises her inspiration by Eros (4,1,9f.), which N. herself revealed in the programmatic poem 5,170. The 12 poems, each with four lines (6,273 is u…

Laureas

(126 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Λαυρέας; Lauréas). Epigrammatist, probably identifiable with Cicero's freedman M. Tullius L., author of five elegant distichs in Latin about a Cymaean mineral spring (FPL 80). The Anthologia Palatina ascribes three poems to him: the funerary epigrams 7,17 (fictitiously to Sappho) and 7,294 (to a fisherman, in the style of Leonidas) which are preceded by the gentilicium Týllios, and the paederastic epigram 12,24, whose authenticity, however, is doubtful (cf. Anth. Pal. 12,25-27 of Statilius Flaccus [1] whose gentilicium Statýllios may have caused attributi…

Gauradas

(68 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Γαυράδας). Author of an ingenious epigram in iambic trimeters in the form of a dialogue between Echo and her lover (Anth. Pal. 16,152). The popular theme (cf. also Archias, Anth. Pal. 9,27; Evodus, ibid. 16,155; Satyrus, ibid. 16,153; Anon., ibid. 16,156) is developed in an original fashion; dating the poet, whose obviously barbarous name is unique, is impossible. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 111f.

Tymnes

(138 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Τύμνης; Týmnēs). Epigrammatist with a Carian name from the 'Garland' of Meleager [8] (Anth. Pal. 4,1,19), perhaps 3rd or 2nd cent. BC. Seven poems survive, each consisting of two couplets, with the exception of an epideictic six-line poem Anth. Pal. 7,433 on the 'Spartan mother' (imitated by Erycius, Anth. Pal. 7,230 and Antipater [9], Anth. Pal. 7,531). Two of the four epitaphs are considered to be on animals, cf. Anyte (Anth. Pal. 7,199,211). The Priapic poem Anth. Pal. 16,237 i…

Hedylus

(179 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Ἥδυλος; Hḗdylos). Epigrammatist of the Garland of Meleager (Anth. Pal. 4,1,45), son of the female elegiac poet  Hedyle, lived on Samos and under Ptolemy II in Alexandria (283/282-243 BC). Of his poems (dedicatory, funerary, epideictic, sympotic and derisive epigrams) eight are passed down in Athenaeus and five in the Anthologia Palatina (Anth. Pal. 11,123 and 414 are probably not authentic; 5,161 is perhaps from  Asclepiades [1]; cf. Ath. 7,297a; Str. 14,683; EM 72,16 for other possible works in verse and prose). These few epigr…

Pinytus

(72 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Πίνυτος/ Pínytos). Author of a conventional, one-distich funerary epigram on Sappho (Anth. Pal. 7,16; inclusion in the Garland of Philippus [32] highly doubtful). The rarity of the name suggests identification with the grammarian P. of Bithynium, freedman of Epaphroditus and secretary to Nero (Steph. Byz. s.v. Βιθύνιον). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA II 1, 438f.; II 2, 464f.  M. Lausberg, Das Einzeldistichon. Studien zum antiken Epigramm, 1982, 261, 265.

Hegemon

(288 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Ornella (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἡγέμων; Hēgémōn). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, poet of Comedies, first professional parodist, 5th cent. BC of Thasos. Poet of the Old Comedy (preserved is a fragment of the Philínna, cf. PCG V 547) and first professional parodist (παρῳδός/ parōidós, Aristot. Poet. 1448a 12f.). Parodizing literature became a literary genre through him, a funny appendix at the rhapsode games, similar to the satyr play at the tragedy agons (cf. [1]). In the only preserved fragment, H., known by the nickname ‘Lentil’ (φακῆ; phakê), recalls with humour the difficult beginnings of his own caree…

Irenaeus Referendarius

(93 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] 6th-cent. AD poet of epigrams, author of three erotic epigrams that originate in the Cycle of Agathias: Anth. Pal. 5,249 (love with the haughty Rhodope is represented as the merging of soul and body); 5,251 (about an unnamed woman whose pride is not even broken by the evanescence of her beauty) and 253 (appeal to the coy Chrysilla to submit to Cypris' wishes). This last poem was imitated by Niketas Eugenianos. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography Al. and Av. Cameron, The ‘Cycle of Agathias, in: JHS 86, 1966, 8.

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 a…

Phaennus

(109 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Φάεννος; Pháennos). Epigrammatic poet of the 'Garland' of Meleager [8] (Anth. Pal. 4,1,29f.), probably 3rd cent. BC. Preserved are one funerary epigram for the Spartan Leonidas [1] who fell at Thermopylae (Anth. Pal. 7,437; belongs to the Laconophile school of Hellenistic epigrammatic poetry, cf. Epigram I E ), and another for a cricket buried by its owner (7,197); although the subject is a topos (cf. 7,189; 190; 192; 198; 364), this poem seems to depend on Mnasalces (Anth. Pal. 7,194). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA I 1, 159; 2, 457f.  G. Herrlinger, T…
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