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Phocas

(521 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Φωκᾶς; Phōkâs). [German version] [1] Martyr around AD 305 Martyr († around AD 305 in Sinope; Fest: 22. 9.). He lived in Sinope as a gardener and suffered martyrdom by beheading. As early as the 4th cent. a church is said to have existed above his grave in Sinope. From there his cult spread throughout the entire Mediterranean area. He is depicted as a gardener. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henschenius et al. (eds.), Acta sanctorum, vols. 1ff., 1643ff.; 6, 293-299; 7.3, 629-632  PG 60, 36ff. [German version] [2] P. Diaconus Poet A poet of unknown date who is …

Philitas

(773 words)

Author(s): Sbardella, Livio (L'Aquila) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φιλίτας; Philítas). [German version] [1] P. of Cos Poet and philologist, Hellenistic Period (Φιλίτας/ Philítas, the correct form; also Philḗtas/Φιλήτας), ποιητὴς ἅμα καὶ κριτικός ( poiētḕs háma kaì kritikós/"both poet and philologist": Str. 14,2,19) of the early Hellenistic Period, regarded by learned poets of later generations as the founder of a school and an important reference point (cf. Callim. fr. 1,9-12 Pfeiffer and the schol. Florentina a.l.; Theoc. 7,37-41; Hermesianax fr. 7,75-78 Powell). Born c. 340 BC on Cos (his father's name was Telephus), P. was invite…

Perses

(346 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πέρσης; Pérsēs). [German version] [1] Son of the Titan Crius and Eurybea (or Persaeus [1]: H. Hom. 2,24). Son of the Titan Crius [1] and Eurybea, brother of Astraeus and Pallas (Hes. Theog. 375ff.; Apollod. 1,8), husband of Asteria [2], father of Hecate (Hes. Theog. 409ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Helios Son of Helios, brother of Aeetes (Hyg. Fab. 27). He seized power in Colchis from Aeetes, for which he was killed either by Medea (Apollod. 1,83) or her son Medus (Hyg. loc.cit.; Diod. Sic. 4,56,1). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Per…

Polyaenus

(604 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύαινος/ Polýainos). [German version] [1] Epicurean, c. 300 BC One of the four 'masters' (καθηγεμόνες; kathēgemónes) of the Epicurean School (with Epicurus, Metrodorus and Hermarchus). B. at Lampsacus (year unknown), d. at Athens in 278/7 BC. Epicurus inaugurated an annual festival in his honour in the month of Metageitnion. P. came into contact with Epicurus during the latter's sojourn at Lampsacus (311/10-307/6 BC), and thereafter devoted himself to philosophy. At first, he excelled as a mathematician; re…

Poseidippus

(953 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ποσείδιππος/ Poseídippos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Cassandrea, c. 290 BC Comic poet from the Macedonian city of Cassandrea [1. test. 1, 2], said to have begun performing plays in the third year after the death of Menander [4] (291/0 BC) [1. test. 1], four-time victor at the Dionysia [1. test. 7] and honoured with statues [1. test. 10. 11]. His Ἀποκλειομένη ( Apokleioménē, 'The Woman Shut Up [or Shut Out]') was revived several times in the 2nd cent. BC [1. test. 8, 9]. Of the 'up to 30' plays [1. test. 1] by P., 18 titles survive; along with th…

Piso

(128 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (derived in popular etymology from pisere, 'trample', Plin. HN 18,10), hereditary within the family of the Calpurnii (Calpurnius [I 8-23; II 12-24]) and transferred to the Pupii (Pupius); in many other families in the Imperial Period. Also the name of an Aquitanian prince who fell fighting for Caesar in 55 BC (Caes. B Gall. 4,12,3-6); his father or grandfather may have taken the name from L. Calpurnius [I 17] P. ( cos. 112 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 262. [German version] [2] Epigrammatist Otherwise…

Thomas

(669 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | G.KA.
(Θωμᾶς; Thōmâs). [German version] [1] One of the twelve disciples of Jesus The Apostle T. is 'one of the twelve' disciples of Jesus. T. is presented individually only in Jo: he called on the other disciples to emulate Jesus until their death (Jo 11:16). In response to his questions, Jesus is revealed as 'the path, the truth and the life' (14:5f.). After Easter, he first misses the appearance of the resurrected and does not want to believe ('unbelieving T.') until he has touched him. Upon Jesus' appearance, …

Maecius

(755 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
Italian family name [1. 185; 469], with an uncertain connection to the Roman tribus Maecia. M. is encountered first among Rome's Latin neighbours (Liv. 10,41,5), from the 2nd cent. BC on, also in inscriptions from Delos (ILS 9417; SEG 1,334) and Lucania (ILS 5665). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. Geminus Died in 340 BC in a duel with Torquatus From Tusculum, challenged T. Manlius [I 12] Torquatus to a duel and fell during the Latin War in 340 BC, according to legend (Liv. 8,7,2-12). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] M. Tarpa, Sp. Designed the game plan in 55 B…

Polystratos

(367 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος). [English version] [1] Begüterter Athener, Ratsherr 411 v. Chr. Begüterter Athener, bekleidete mehrfach Ämter, war 411 v. Chr. Ratsherr und nach dem oligarchischen Umsturz an der Auswahl der 5000 Bürger beteiligt, die künftig als einzige polit. Rechte besitzen sollten. In den Seegefechten bei Eretria gegen die Spartaner wurde er verwundet. Nach dem Sturz der 400 ( tetrakósioi ) wurde P. zu einer hohen Geldbuße verurteilt und um 410/409 im Alter von 70 J. erneut wohl wegen seiner polit. Tätigkeit angeklagt; von seiner…

Sabinos

(310 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Σαβῖνος). [English version] [1] hippokratischer Arzt und Hippokrateskommentator, 1.-2. Jh. Hippokratischer Arzt und Hippokrateskommentator, der im 1. bis 2. Jh. n. Chr. wirkte. Er war der Lehrer des Metrodoros [8] und des Stratonikos, der wiederum Lehrer des Galenos war, welcher in S. einen sorgfältigeren und klareren Ausleger des Hippokrates [6] sah als in seinen Vorläufern (CMG 5,10,2,1, p. 17, 329-330; 5,10,2,2, p. 510). Zu S.' Schwächen zählten ein Mangel an anatomischen Kenntnissen und Sektionserfah…

Marianos

(194 words)

Author(s): Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[English version] [1] Dichter, um 500 Frühbyz. Dichter zur Zeit des Kaisers Anastasios I. (491-518 n.Chr.). Nach Suda s.v. M. verfaßte M., der (urspr. aus einer röm. Senatorenfamilie stammend) mit seinem Vater nach Eleutheropolis in Palaestina ausgewandert und unter Anastasios Patríkios war, jambische Paraphrasen zu Werken hell. Autoren (Theokritos; Apollonios [2] Rhodios' ‘Argonautika; Kallimachos' ‘Hekale, ‘Hymnen, ‘Epigramme; Aratos [4]; Nikandros' ‘Theriaka). Möglicherweise identisch mit M. [2]. Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 J. Geffcken, s.v. M.…

Polyainos

(557 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύαινος). [English version] [1] Epikureer, um 300 v. Chr. Einer der vier “Meister” (καθηγεμόνες) der Epikureischen Schule (neben Epikuros, Metrodoros und Hermarchos). Geb. in Lampsakos (Jahr unbekannt), gest. in Athen 278/7 v. Chr. Zu seinen Ehren veranstaltete Epikuros ein jährliches Fest im Monat Metageitnion. P. kam mit Epikuros während dessen Aufenthaltes in Lampsakos in Kontakt (311/10-307/6 v. Chr.) und wandte sich darauf der Philos. zu. Zuerst tat er sich als Mathematiker hervor; Reste einer an…

Philitas

(726 words)

Author(s): Sbardella, Livio (L'Aquila) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φιλίτας). [English version] [1] Ph. aus Kos Dichter und Philologe, hell. Zeit (Φιλίτας: so die korrekte Form; daneben auch Philḗtas/Φιλήτας), ποιητὴς ἅμα καὶ κριτικός, (‘Dichter und zugleich Philologe’: Strab. 14,2,19) aus der Zeit des frühen Hell., von gelehrten Dichtern nachfolgender Generationen als Schulgründer und bedeutender Bezugspunkt angesehen (vgl. Kall. fr. 1,9-12 und schol. Florentina z.St.; Theokr. 7,37-41; Hermesianax fr. 7,75-78 Powell). Um 340 v.Chr. in Kos geboren (sein Vater hieß Telephos), wurd…

Phokas

(445 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
(Φωκᾶς). [English version] [1] Märtyrer um 305 Märtyrer († um 305 n.Chr. in Sinope; Fest: 22. 9.). Lebte in Sinope als Gärtner und erlitt durch Enthauptung das Martyrium. Bereits im 4. Jh. soll sich über seinem Grab in Sinope eine Kirche befunden haben. Von dort verbreitete sich sein Kult im gesamten Mittelmeerraum. Er wird als Gärtner dargestellt. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henschenius u.a. (ed.), Acta sanctorum, Bde. 1ff., 1643ff.; 6, 293-299; 7.3, 629-632  PG 60, 36ff. [English version] [2] Ph. Diakonos Dichter Nur durch ein Monodistichon bek…

Leonides

(416 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Λεωνίδης). Vgl. auch Leonidas. [English version] [1] General Ptolemaios' I., um 300 v. Chr. General Ptolemaios' I., 310/309 v.Chr. stratēgós in Kilikia (Diod. 20,19,4). L. weihte wohl 309/308 einen Helm in Delos (IG XI 2, 161 B 77), und wurde 308 von Ptolemaios als Kommandant seines griech. Besitzes eingesetzt. 307/306 fungierte L. als stratēgós in Sikyon und Korinth; nach 301 kommandierte er zusammen mit Philokles (?) ptolem. Söldner in Pamphylien (SEG 17, 639; Aspendos). Es ist unklar, ob er mit Berve, Bd. 2, Nr. 470 zu identifizieren ist. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Ba…

Piso

(123 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[English version] [1] Röm. Cognomen Röm. Cognomen (volksetym. von pisere, “stampfen”, abgeleitet, Plin. nat. 18,10), erblich in der Familie der Calpurnii (Calpurnius [I 8-23; II 12-24]) und von dort auf die Pupii übergegangen (Pupius); in der Kaiserzeit auch in zahlreichen weiteren Familien. Auch Name eines aquitanischen Fürsten, der 55 v.Chr. auf seiten Caesars gefallen ist (Caes. Gall. 4,12,3-6); sein Vater oder Großvater dürfte von L. Calpurnius [I 17] P. ( cos. 112 v.Chr.) den Namen übernommen haben. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 262. …

Maecius

(668 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
Ital. Familienname [1. 185; 469], in unklarer Beziehung zur röm. Tribus Maecia. M. begegnet zuerst unter Roms latin. Nachbarn (Liv. 10,41,5), vom 2. Jh. v.Chr. an auch auf Inschriften aus Delos (ILS 9417; SEG 1,334) und Lucanien (ILS 5665). I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] M. Geminus starb 340 v. Chr. im Zweikampf mit Torquatus Aus Tusculum, forderte nach der Legende T. Manlius [I 12] Imperiosus den Torquatus im Latinerkrieg 340 v.Chr. zum Zweikampf und fiel (Liv. 8,7,2-12). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [English version] [I 2] M. Tarpa, Sp. entwarf den Spielplan für…

Perses

(334 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πέρσης). [English version] [1] Sohn des Titanen Krios und der Eurybeia (oder Persaios : Hom. h. 2,24). Sohn des Titanen Krios [1] und der Eurybeia, Bruder des Astraios und des Pallas (Hes. theog. 375ff.; Apollod. 1,8), Gatte der Asteria [2], Vater der Hekate (Hes. theog. 409ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [English version] [2] Sohn des Helios Sohn des Helios, Bruder des Aietes (Hyg. fab. 27). Er raubt Aietes die Herrschaft in Kolchis und wird deshalb entweder von Medeia (Apollod. 1,83) oder deren Sohn Medus (Hyg. l.c.; Diod. 4,56,1) getötet. Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) …

Poseidippos

(901 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ποσείδιππος). [English version] [1] Komödiendichter aus Kassandreia, um 290 v. Chr. Komödiendichter aus der maked. Stadt Kassandreia [1. test. 1, 2], der im dritten Jahr nach dem Tod des Menandros [4] (291/0 v. Chr.) mit dem Aufführen von Stücken begonnen haben soll [1. test. 1], viermal an den Dionysien erfolgreich war [1. test. 7] und mit Standbildern geehrt wurde [1. test. 10. 11]; seine Ἀποκλειομένη (‘Die Aus-/Eingesperrte) wurde im 2. Jh. v. Chr. mehrmals wiederaufgeführt [1. test. 8, 9]. Von P.' ‘bi…

Pancrates

(537 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παγκράτης/ Pankrátēs). [German version] [1] Musician, archaic style Musician; according to Aristoxenus [1] an enthusiast of the archaic style ( trópos) of Pindar and Simonides (Plut. De Musica 1137f). Harmon, Roger (Basle) [German version] [2] Poet, 3rd-2nd cent. BC Hellenistic poet (3rd-2nd cent. BC), author of the didactic poem Θαλάσσια ἔργα ( Maritime works), of which three fragments, dealing with the pilotfish, the wrasse and the salp and their 'common' names, are preserved by Athenaeus (who always refers to him as Arkás). Identification with the homonymous author of a Bokchorē…

Hecataeus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑκαταῖος; Hekataîos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Cardia, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of  Cardia, kept in office by  Alexander [4] although  Eumenes [1] made an effort to free the city (Plut. Eumenes 3). In the Lamian War, he supported  Antipater [1] (Diod. Sic. 18,14,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Henchman of Alexander [4] the Gr., 4th cent. BC One of the  hetairoi of Alexander [4], entrusted by him in 336 BC with the removal of  Attalus [1], whom he murdered (Diod. Sic. 17,2,5; 5,2). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 292 (not identical with …

Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Marianus

(317 words)

Author(s): Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
I Greek [German version] [1] Poet c. AD 500 Early Byzantine poet, contemporary of emperor Anastasius I (AD 491-518). According to Suda s.v. M., he originally was a descendent of a Roman family of senators, emigrated to Eleutheropolis in Palestine with his father and was a patríkios under Anastasius, composed iambic paraphrases of the works of Hellenistic authors ( Theocritus; Apollonius [2] Rhodius' ‘Argonautica; Callimachus' ‘Hecale, ‘Hymns, ‘Epigrams; Aratus [4]; Nicander's‘Theriaka). Possibly identical with M. [2]. Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 J. Geffcken,…

Pytheas

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πυθέας; Pythéas). [German version] [1] P. from Aegina 5th cent. BC, his son proposed revenge measures after the battle of Plataeae After the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) his son Lampon [1] proposed desecrating the corpse of  Mardonius [1] in revenge for Leonidas [1]  (Hdt. 9,78). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. from Aegina Persian POW after a battle at Sciathos, freed after Salamis Fought so bravely in a skirmish at Sciathos that he inspired wonder in the victorious Persians, who consequently treated him with the greatest respect a…

Cosmas

(834 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς; Kosmâs). [German version] [1] C. and Damianus Doctor's saints and patrons of healing Doctor saints and patrons of healing. The Greek Synaxarion (ed. by H. Delehaye) contains three different pairs of saints with these names: 1) the sons of Theodata, who were born in Asia Minor and buried in Pelusium, whose feast day is 1 November; 2) the Roman martyrs stoned during the rule of  Carinus (283-285), whose feast day is 1 July; 3) the Arab martyrs killed with their three brothers under the emperor Diocleti…

Secundus

(301 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
Common Roman cognomen, originally designating the second-born child. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Saturninius S. Salutius Praef. praet. Orientis 361-365 and 365-366 ( iterum), from a non-senatorial family in Gallia, a non-Christian. Between 324 and 350, he held several offices at court as well as governorships in the western part of the empire. In 355-359, he held the quaestura sacri palatii at the court of Caesar Iulianus [11] (CIL VI 1764 = ILS 1255) in Gallia who came to trust S. and, upon his rise to Augustus after the death of Co…

Cyrus

(2,651 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Κῦρος; Kŷros, Lat. Cyrus). [German version] [1] C. I. (the Elder) Grandfather of  Cyrus [2] (the Great), known from the cylinder inscription of his grandson (TUAT I 409,21). Here he is given the title ‘great king, king of Anšān’ ( šarru rabû šar Anšān;  Anshan) and called ‘descendant’ ( liblibbu) of  Teispes. The genealogical link C. (I.) ─ Cambyses (I.) ─ C. (II.) is also mentioned in Hdt. 1,111. C. the Elder may accordingly be interpreted as a petty king of Persian descent, ruling over (a part of (?) the formerly Elamite) Fārs in the 7th/…

Theophanes

(1,115 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Θεοφάνης/ Theophánēs). [German version] [1] T. of Mytilene Close confidant and historiographer of Pompey (Pompeius [I 3]). As a recently-discovered inscription [1. 377-383] shows, T., the son of Hieroitas, was already active as prytanis at Mytilene (FGrH 188 T 1) before making the acquaintance of Pompey, whom he accompanied on the campaign against Mithridates [6] in 67 BC (T 2). He received Roman citizenship from Pompey in 62 BC (cf. Cic. Arch. 24 = T 3a) at an army gathering, and he therefore appears in IG XII 2, 150 as Cn. Po…

Glaucus

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γλαῦκος; Glaûkos). The name means ‘glossy blue’, also ‘luminous’ [1];  Glauce: Hom. Il 16,34). [German version] [1] Sea demon A sea demon, into which a Boeotian fisherman from Anthedon was transformed after consuming a magical herb. The place of his jump into the sea after the transformation, Γλαύκου πήδημα ( Glaúkou pḗdēma, ‘Glaucus' jump’), was indicated (Paus. 9,22,6-7). Representations are known by Evanthes, Hedyle and Nicander (Ath. 7,295b-297c), by Callimachus (Suda s.v.), Q. Cornificius (Macrob. Sat. 6,5,13) and Cicero (Plut. Cic. 2,3,86…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Quintus

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Common Roman praenomen Common Roman praenomen ; abbreviation: Q.; Greek Κόιντος/ Kóintos. It is identical to the ordinal quīntus (‘fifth’); in Oscan-Umbrian, this name is represented by Pompo and the like, with the nomina gentilicia Pomponius, Pompeius, Pontius. Like other so-called ‘numeral praenomina’, the former individual name could be given to children according to their birth order in the early period. In no case is Q. derived from quīntīlis (‘July’) because the name of this month is in turn already a derivative of quīntus (Months, names of the). The nomen ge…

Nicarchus

(380 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νίκαρχος; Níkarchos). [German version] [1] General of Antiochus III, 218 BC Active at the beginning of the Fourth  Syrian War as one of  Antiochus  [5] III's generals. In 218 BC he took part in Antiochus advance into southern Syria at the occupation of the narrows on the River  Lycus  and later at the conquest of Rabbatamana (Rabbat Ammon) and became commander of the garrison there. In the battle of  Raphia in 217 he led the part of Antiochus' phalanx whose weakness contributed to the downfall of the Seleucids (Pol. 5,68,9-11; 71,6-11; 79,5; 83,3; 85,10). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibli…

Flaccus

(255 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
Roman cognomen (‘floppy-eared’), probably originally an individual cognomen, in the Republican period especially widespread in the senatorial families of the Fulvii, Norbani and Valerii, and in the Imperial period also among numerous other families. Nickname of the poet Q.  Horatius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Statilius F. Writer of epigrams Writer of epigrams. The cognomen F. is often mentioned in combination with the nomen Statilius (Στατύλλιος Φλάκκος; Statýllios Phlákkos). He lived at the beginning of the 1st cent. AD, if the Latin ver…

Macedonius

(746 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Writer of a paean, c. 300 BC? Author of a paean to Apollo and Asclepius passed down to us in inscriptions (1st cent. BC) in Delphi, created perhaps already around 300 BC [1; 2], in dactylic metre [3]. Probably not identical with M. [2] (thus still [4]). The content and structure of the paean closely follow the Erythraean paean and Isyllus; cf. Ariphron. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W. Peek, Att. Versinschr. (Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wiss. Leipzig, Philol.-histor. Klasse 69/2), 1980, 45f. (Text) 2 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 200-206, 383f. (text…

Hermodorus

(407 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἑρμόδωρος; Hermódōros). [German version] [1] Critic of his fellow citizens in a fragment of Heraclitus In a fragment of the philosopher  Heraclitus [1] of Ephesus, the latter criticizes his fellow citizens because they had banished H., the ‘most estimable man’ among them, with the justification that among them ‘no one should be the most estimable’ (Diels/Kranz 22,121 = Str. 14,1,25; Cic. Tusc. 5,105). According to later tradition, H., who went into exile in Italy, was involved in the drawing up of the Twelve …

Nicodemus

(296 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νικόδημος; Nikódēmos). [German version] [1] Prosecutor of Demosthenes, probably died after 349 BC Athenian from Aphidna, prosecutor of Demosthenes [2] (Aeschin. 2,148), friend of Meidias [2] and of Eubulus [1], was killed by Aristarchus, the son of Moschus (Idomeneus FGrH 338 F 12) in 352 BC: [2]; (according to [1. 112] and [3. 9-12] the preferred date is more likely after 349 BC), for which deed Meidias held Demosthenes responsible (also [1. 102-105]; Aristot. Rh. 1397b 7 see [2]). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Schäfer, vol. 2 2 H.E. Stier, s.v. Nikodemos (2), RE 1…

Kosmas

(774 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς). [English version] [1] K. und Damianos Ärzteheilige und Heilungspatrone Ärzteheilige und Heilungspatrone. Das griech. Synaxarion (hrsg. von H. Delehaye) überl. drei unterschiedliche Heiligenpaare mit diesen Namen: 1) die in Asia minor geb. und in Pelusion begrabenen Söhne der Theodota, deren Festtag der 1. November ist; 2) die röm., unter der Herrschaft des Carinus (283-285) gesteinigten Märtyrer, deren Festtag der 1. Juli ist; 3) die arab., unter Kaiser Diocletian (284-305) im kilikischen Aigai …

Serapion

(769 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Σεραπίων; Serapíōn). [German version] [1] S. of Antioch Mathematical geographer, 1st cent. BC Mathematical geographer to whom Plin. HN 1,2 referred to as gnomonicus ('measurer of shadows'). In 59 BC, Cicero (who was his contemporary) received S.'s geographical treatise from Atticus as the newest source for his planned Geographica but was hardly able to understand the content (Cic. Att. 2,4,1). In the treatise, Cicero encountered S.'s fierce criticism of Eratosthenes [2] (ibid. 2,6,1). S. estimated the circumference of the sun to be 18 times t…

Xenocritus

(409 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ξενόκριτος/ Xenókritos). [German version] [1] Choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC Choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC from Locri (in lower Italy). In the generation after Terpander he, Thaletas and Xenodamus took part in various musical reforms in Sparta (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like the other two he was a composer of paeans (Plut. loc.cit.), which were also classed as dithyrambs (Dithyrambos) in Antiquity because of their mythical and heroic subject matter (Plut. De musica 10,1134e; [1. 41], cf. [2. …

Hegesippus

(950 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἡγήσιππος; Hēgḗsippos). [German version] [1] Athen. rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Hegesias from Sunium, Athenian rhetor and envoy from a wealthy family. In 357/6 BC he spoke in the ekklesia as a champion of aid for Eretria (IG II2 125 = Tod, 154), in 356/5 of the Athenian symmachy with Phocis (Aeschin. In Ctes. 118; Dem. Or. 19,72-74 with schol.) and between 346 and 340 of further decrees for foreign policy (Dem. Or. 18,75). In the year 345 he defended Timarchus against  Aeschines [2] (Aeschin. In Tim. 71) together with his br…

Parmenion

(607 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ax, Wolfram (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παρμενίων/ Parmeníōn). [German version] [1] General under Philippus [4] II Son of Philotas from Upper Macedonia, born in 400 BC, successful general under Philippus[4] II (cf. Plut. Mor. 177c); involved in 346 in the peace treaty with Athens (Dem. Or. 19,69; Philocrates [2]). After Philippus' marriage to Cleopatra [II 2], the niece of Attalus [1], P. gave him his daughter, shared with him command of the troops in Asia in 336 and then had him killed at the command of Alexander [4] the Great (Curt. 7,1,3). Thus he established his Hausmacht. Under Alexander he was the leader of the w…

Kyros

(2,401 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena)
(Κῦρος, lat. Cyrus). [English version] [1] K. I. (d.Ä.) Großvater Kyros' [2] (d.Gr.), aus der Zylinder-Inschrift seines Enkels (TUAT I 409,21) bekannt. Dieser weist ihm dort den Titel “großer König, König von Anšān” ( šarru rabû šar Anšān; Anschan) zu und nennt ihn einen “Nachkommen” ( liblibbu) des Teispes. Die genealogische Verbindung K. (I.) - Kambyses (I.) - K. (II.) kennt auch Hdt. 1,111. K. d.Ä. dürfte demnach als Kleinkönig pers. Abstammung über (einen Teil (?) des ehemals elam.) Fārs im 7./6. Jh. v.Chr. zu interpretieren sein. Ob …

Hekataios

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑκαταῖος). [English version] [1] Tyrann von Kardia, 4. Jh. v.Chr. Tyrann von Kardia, von Alexandros [4] im Amt belassen, obwohl sich Eumenes [1] um die Befreiung der Stadt bemühte (Plut. Eumenes 3). Im Lamischen Krieg unterstützte er Antipatros [1] (Diod. 18,14,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [English version] [2] Berater von Alexandros [4] d.Gr., 4. Jh. v.Chr. Einer der Hetairoi von Alexandros [4], von ihm 336 v.Chr. mit der Kaltstellung von Attalos [1] beauftragt, den er ermordete (Diod. 17,2,5; 5,2). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 292 (nicht mit N…

Hegesippos

(835 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg)
(Ἡγήσιππος). [English version] [1] athen. Rhetor und Gesandter, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Sohn des Hegesias aus Sunion, athenischer Rhetor und Gesandter aus reicher Familie. 357/6 v.Chr. beantragte er in der Ekklesia Hilfe für Eretria (IG II2 125 = Tod, 154), 356/5 die athenische Symmachie mit Phokis (Aischin. Ctes. 118; Demosth. or. 19,72-74 mit schol.) und zwischen 346 und 340 weitere Dekrete zur Außenpolitik (Demosth. or. 18,75). Im J. 345 verteidigte er mit seinem Bruder Hegesandros [1] den Timarchos gegen Aischines [2] (Aischin. Tim. 7…

Hermodoros

(370 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἑρμόδωρος). [English version] [1] Kritiker seiner Mitbürger in einem Heraklit-Fragment In einem Frg. des Philosophen Herakleitos [1] von Ephesos kritisiert dieser seine Mitbürger, weil sie H., den ‘wertvollsten Mann’ unter ihnen, mit der Begründung verbannt hätten, bei ihnen solle ‘niemand der wertvollste sein’ (Diels/Kranz 22,121 = Strab. 14,1,25; Cic. Tusc. 5,105). Nach späterer Trad. soll der nach It. ins Exil gegangene H. an der Abfassung der Zwölftafelgesetze (Tabulae duodecim) beteiligt gewesen sei…

Pankrates

(508 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παγκράτης). [English version] [1] Musiker, archaischer Stil Musiker, gemäß Aristoxenos [1] Nacheiferer des archa. Stils ( trópos) von Pindar und Simonides (Plut. de musica 1137f). Harmon, Roger (Basel) [English version] [2] Dichter, 3./2. Jh. v. Chr. Hell. Dichter (3./2. Jh.v.Chr.), Verf. des Lehrgedichts Θαλάσσια ἔργα (‘Meereswerke), von dem drei Fr. über den Lotsenfisch, den Lippfisch und die Salpe und ihre “volkstümlichen” Namen durch Athenaios überliefert sind (der sie immer als Arkás bezeichnet). Sehr unsicher ist die Gleichsetzung mit dem gleichnamigen Verf. einer Bok…

Nikarchos

(349 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νίκαρχος). [English version] [1] Feldherr Antiochos' III., 218 v.Chr. Wirkte zu Beginn des 4. Syrischen Krieges als Feldherr Antiochos' [5] III. 218 v.Chr. bei dessen Vormarsch nach Südsyrien an der Besetzung der Engstellen am Lykos-Fluß und später an der Eroberung von Rabbatamana (Rabbat Ammon) mit und wurde dort Kommandant der Besatzung. In der Schlacht von Raphia 217 befehligte er den Teil von Antiochos' Phalanx, der durch sein Weichen zur Niederlage des Seleukiden beitrug (Pol. 5,68,9-11; 71,6-11; 79,5; 83,3; 85,10). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 B. Bar-Koch…

Kleobulos

(320 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος). [English version] [1] Dichter und Tyrann von Lindos, einer der Sieben Weisen, 7./6. Jh. v. Chr. Tyrann von Lindos (Rhodos), Blütezeit 7.-6. Jh. v.Chr., wird zu den Sieben Weisen gezählt [1]. Er verfaßte ‘Lieder und Rätsel in etwa 3000 Versen’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Abgesehen von 20 Sprüchen (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK) und einem kurzen Brief an Solon (epist. p. 207 Hercher) sind unter seinem Namen ein Fr. eines Skolions in moralisierendem Ton (SH 526) und ein Grabepigramm in Hexametern auf König Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a) erh., …

Glaukos

(2,148 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γλαῦκος). Der Name bedeutet “blauglänzend”, auch “leuchtend” [1]; Glauke: Hom. Il. 16,34). [English version] [1] Meerdämon ein Meerdämon, in den sich ein boiotischer Fischer aus Anthedon nach Genuß eines Wunderkrautes verwandelte. Die Stelle seines Sprunges ins Meer nach der Verwandlung, Γλαύκου πήδημα ( Glaúku pḗdēma, “Glaukossprung”), wurde gezeigt (Paus. 9,22,6-7). Man weiß von Darstellungen bei Euanthes, Hedyle und Nikandros (Athen. 7,295b-297c), bei Kallimachos (Suda s.v.), Q. Cornificius (Macr. Sat. 6,5,13) und Cicero (Plut. Cic. 2…

Parmenion

(570 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ax, Wolfram (Köln) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παρμενίων). [English version] [1] General unter Philippos [4] II. Sohn des Philotas aus Ober-Makedonia, geb. 400 v.Chr., unter Philippos [4] II. erfolgreicher General (vgl. Plut. mor. 177c); 346 am Friedensschluß mit Athen beteiligt (Demosth. or. 19,69; Philokrates [2]). Nach Philippos' Vermählung mit Kleopatra [II 2], der Nichte des Attalos [1], gab P. seine Tochter an ihn, befehligte mit ihm 336 die Truppen in Asien und ließ ihn dann auf Alexandros' [4] d.Gr. Befehl ermorden (Curt. 7,1,3). So veranker…
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