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Zarʾā Yāʿeqob

(413 words)

Author(s): Böll, Verena
[German Version] (1399–1468), emperor of Ethiopia (1434–1468). Zarʾā Yāʿeqob’s reign was marked by wars of conquest and domestic political reforms. By restructuring the administration and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, he centralized the kingdom, establishing his residence in Dabra Berhān. The coastal regions (Massawa) were absorbed and a fleet was built. In the north (Eritrea), he created the office of the Bāḥr nagāš, who ruled there in his stead. In 1445 he defeated Sultan ¶ Badlāy ibn Saʿd ad-Din and conquered the East. He supported the church, restructured the lit…


(448 words)

Author(s): Böll, Verena
[German Version] (Abū ʿl-Fatḥ; 1470, Iraq [or Yemen] – 1565, Ethiopia), a Christian author and translator of many works into Ethiopic, was abbot of Dabra Libānos. Because of his oeuvre, Enbaqom is venerated as a saint in Ethiopia, and the anniversary of his death and memorial day is listed in the Synaxarium as the 21st of Miyāzyā (Apr 29). Enbaqom was a Muslim; he journeyed …

Tewodros II

(473 words)

Author(s): Böll, Verena
[German Version] (Theodorus; 1818/1820, Q wārā, Ethiopia – Apr 13, 1868, Maqdalā, Ethiopia), emperor ( aṣe) of Ethiopia from 1855 to 1868). His mother Wayzaro Atteṭāgab and his father daǧǧāzmāč̣ Hayla Māryām named him Kasa Haylu. After a Christian upbringing and a period as a shifta (“outlaw”), he became a soldier under Ras Ali Alula. In 1845 he married Tawābač Ali (died 1858), a granddaughter of Empress Manan (1840–1853), and attained mastery over Q wārā. Military victories and additional marriages (in 1860 to Etēge Ṭēru Warq [Ṭerunaš], who died in 1868) enabled T…