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Staienus, C.

(147 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Usurped the name of Aelius Paetus (Cic. Brut. 241; Cic. Clu. 72). S. was quaestor of consul Aemilius [I 14] Lepidus in 77 BC and provoked a mutiny in his army (Cic. Clu. 99). In 76 in a court case in Atella he is said to have embezzled 600 000 sesterces intended for bribing the judge (Cic. Clu. 68; 99). In 74 he was a juror in the case against Abbius Oppianicus and attempted to enrich himself. Abbius had provided him with money to bribe sixteen judges, but he attempted to make per…

Vettienus

(54 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Roman gens name [2]. The businessman V. ([1]: presumably an argentarius [2]) is recorded in 49-44 BC; he had business connexions with Pomponius [I 5] Atticus and Cicero (cf. Cic. Att. 10,5,3; 10,11,5; 10,13,2; 10,15,4; 12,3,2; 15,13,3; 15,13a,1; 15,20,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography 1 J. Andreau, Patrimoines, échanges et prêts d'argent, 1997, 115 2 Schulze, 101.

Visellius

(219 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile (Gentile) for which there is certain evidence from the 2nd cent. BC onwards (Schulze, 256; 441; 445). [German version] [1] V. Aculeo, C. Roman equestrian, presumably from Arpinum, who was married to the sister of Cicero's mother Helvia [1]. V. was considered a connoisseur of civil law and was quite a close acquaintance of the rhetor L. Licinius [I 10] Crassus (Cic. De or. 1,191; 2,2; 2,262; Cic. Brut. 264). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Varro, C. (before 103 - before 55 BC). Son (?) of V. [1] and cousin of Cicero (Cic. Brut. 264; Cic. Prov…

Tertulla

(93 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Wife of M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus Married before 87 BC to M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus, after previously being married to his  elder brother (who was dead when she remarried). Alongside public praise (Cic. Cael. 9) there were also rumours of affairs (Plut. Cicero 25,5; Suet. Iul. 50,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] Grandmother of Vespasian Wife of T. Flavius Petro, a veteran of the Civil War, and grandmother of the emperor Vespasianus, whom she raised on her estate in Cosa (Suet. Vesp. 1 f.). Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Volturcius

(78 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Gentile of Etruscan origin (Schulze, 260). Most important representative: V., T., a supporter of Catilina. In 63 BC, V. who was from Croton was arrested when, on behalf of P. Cornelius [I 56] Lentulus, he went with ambassadors of the Allobroges to deliver a letter to Catilina. For his willingness to provide information he was granted immunity from prosecution (Cic. Cat.. 3,4; 4,5; Sall. Catil. 44-47; 50,1; Flor. 2,12,9; App. B Civ. 2,13-15). Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Volteius

(77 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Roman gentile presumably of Etruscan origin (Schulze, 259). The best-known representative is V. Mena. The auctioneer, evidently of non-free origin, who by gift of L. Marcius [I 13] Philippus becomes a farmer and thereby ultimately falls into misfortune (Hor. Epist. 1,7,46-95), is a constructed figure. Horace uses him as his fourth and most detailed example of the problems gifts from patrons could cause. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography O. Hiltbrunner, V. Mena, in: Gymnasium 67, 1960, 289-300.

Sornatius, C.

(36 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Documented for 72-68 BC as legate of Licinius [I 26] Lucullus in the 3rd Mithradatic War (Mithridates [6] VI.; Plut. Lucullus 17,1; 24,1; 30,3; 35,1; IPerg 431; MAMA 6,260). Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Vestorius

(54 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Roman gens name [1]. Only known representative: C. V., recorded  56-44 BC, versatile businessman (credit broker, pigment producer and long-distance trader) from Puteoli, who had close relations with Pomponius [I 5] Atticus and Cicero. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 254 2 J. Andreau, Patrimoines, échanges et prêts d'argent, 1997, 99-118 3 D'Arms, Index s. v. V.

Pilia

(25 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] From 56 BC (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,3,7) wife of T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus, mother of Caecilia [2]. Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Verres, C.

(1,096 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] ( c.115-43 BC), son of the senator C. V. († c. 71 BC) and probably one Tadia. Nearly all information about V. derives from Cicero’s speeches in 70, during V.’ trial (Cic. Div. Caec.; Cic. Verr. 1; 2), and, in view of this context, is accordingly to be treated with great caution. Apart from the usual accusations, such as a passion for gambling, consorting with prostitutes and prostituting himself ( ibid. 2,1,32 f.; 2,5,33 f.), virtually nothing is known of his youth. V. was married to Vettia, sister of his later quaestor T. Vettius and of P. Vettius [I 2] Chilo. In 84 BC, V. was q…

Pilius Celer, Q.

(52 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Probably related to Pilia, appears quite often in the milieu of Caesar and the Caesarians in Cicero's letters in 54-43 BC. He also makes an appearance as a prosecutor (Cic. Fam. 8,8,2f.; Cic. Att. 6,3,10). In 46 a candidate for political office (Att. 12,8)? Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Scaptius

(110 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] S., M. Praef. of Ap. Claudius [I 24] Pulcher who had five members of the council of Salamis in Cyprus starve when he was to enforce a loan repayment for M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus. In 51 BC Cicero put an end to this and in 50 achieved repayment at an annual interest rate of 12 %, but S. rejected this and insisted on an annual rate of 48 %  (Cic. Att. 5,21,10 ff.; 6,1,5 ff.; 6,2,7 f.). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] S., M. In 50 BC agent for M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus' loans to king Ariobarzanes [5] (Cic. Att. 6,1,4; 3,5). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography W. Will, Julius …

Publilia

(84 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Presumably from an equestrian family; at the end of 46 BC (Cic. Fam. 4,14,1-3) she was married for her inheritance by her trustee Cicero. The marriage was short and unhappy: It earned Cicero mockery because of the great age difference between them, and the young woman was shunned by him because he suspected her of insufficiently mourning the death of his daughter Tullia  (Plut. Cicero 41; Cass. Dio 46,18,3 f.). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography M. Gelzer, Cicero, 1969, 288; 292 f.

Plania

(24 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Supposedly the lover who was the subject of Tibullus elegies under the pseudonym Delia (Apul. Apol. 10). Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Spurinna

(71 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Etruscan haruspex famous in Rome in the middle of the 1st cent. BC (Haruspices). In 44 he prophesied the danger threatening Caesar (Cic. Div. 1,119; Suet. Iul. 81; Val. Max. 8,11,2); he is presumably the summus haruspex who warned him in 46 against an early crossing to Africa (Cic. Div. 2,52). Evidently, however, such prophecies were not taken very seriously ( cf. Cic. Fam. 9,24,2). Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Terrasidius

(52 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Uncommon Roman nomen gentile (Schulze, 373). [German version] T., T. Served as an equestrian prefect or military tribune under Caesar in Gaul. While requisitioning grain in the winter of 57/6 BC he and other officers were captured by Breton tribes who were then subjugated (Caes. Gall. 3,7-16). Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Umbrenus

(71 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Italic nomen gentile derived from the Umbri people (Schulze, 257; 523). [German version] [1] U., P. Freed slave whose former business activities had made him familiar with Gaul, and because of this in 63 BC he was supposed to win the Allobroges over to Catilina (Cic. Catil. 3,14; Sall. Catil. 40). When the Senate resolved he should be executed he took to flight (Sall. Catil. 50,4). Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Volcatius

(234 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] V. Tullus, C. Recorded in 53-48 BC as a junior officer of Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 6,29,3: adulescentem; 8,46,4(?); Caes. B Civ. 3,52,2). Brother or cousin of V. [3]. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Tullus, L. (before 109 - after 46 BC). Although he failed to be elected aedile, in 66, V. succeeded in gaining a consulship (Cic. Planc. 51);during his year of office, his most memorable deed appears to have been his rejection of Catilina's candidacy for a consulship (Sall. Catil. 18,3). In 56, he spoke up for…

Vinnius

(63 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Variant of the nomen gentile Vinius (Schulze, 425). The most important representative is V. Asina (MSS and scholia record various cognomina), addressee of Hor. Epist. 1,13 who is asked to forward works by Horace to Augustus. The social status of the messenger, who is not represented very flatteringly, is not revealed; V. may also be fictional. Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Varenus

(185 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens of Etruscan origin (Schulze, 248). [German version] [1] V., L. was accused c. 80 BC of murder and defended by Cicero, who claimed that the deed had been in the interest of the accuser Ancharius [2] Rufus and that hence he was the murderer, but lost the case (Prisc. Institutiones grammaticae 7,70; 12,29; Quint. Inst. 5,13,28; 7,1,9; 7,2,36; 9,2,56). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Rufus A senator; he represented the province of Bithynia et Pontus in the Senate against the proconsul Iulius [II 28] Bassus, who had been accused of extortion (…

Satrius

(208 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian, presumably a family name from Etruria (Schulze 80; 225). Cf. also Satyrius. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., M. As the son of L. Minucius Basilus's sister, he was adopted by him, but was bypassed by means of a forged will (Cic. Off. 3,73 f.; Minucius [I 4]). In 44/43 BC he is recorded as patron of the Picentes and Sabines and a follower of M. Antonius [I 9] (Cic. Off. 3,74; Cic. Phil. 2,107). He cannot be identified with the legate of C. Trebonius in Cicero (Ad Brut. 1,6,3). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1] S. Rufus Senator in the reign of …

Tettius

(287 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Old and frequently attested Roman nomen gentile (Schulze, 242; 425). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., T. As praef. of the Pompeians, he took part in the fortification of Curubis in c. 47 BC (ILS 5319). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] T. Damio Owned a vestibulum (hallway) on the via Sacra in Rome into which Cicero fled from P. Clodius [I 4] in 57 BC (Cic. Att. 4,3,3). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1] C. T. Africanus Cassianus Priscus Eques, from Asisium. Under Vespasianus praefectus vigilum and praefectus annonae; under Titus [II …

Saufeius

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Italic nomen gentile. The family was from the ancient local aristocracy of Praeneste (CIL I2 279-290; 1467-1471; 2439) and is attested in Rome itself and as traders on Delos from the end of the 2nd cent. BC onwards (RRC 204). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S., L. Appears in Cicero's letters 67-44 BC as an Epicurean (Cic. Att. 7,2,4) and a friend of Pomponius [I 5] Atticus (Cic. Att. 7,1,1). In 43 the latter rescued S., who had been proscribed because of his wealth  (Nep. Att. 12,3). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] S., M. Leader of Annius [I 14] Milo's followe…

Vinius

(342 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Vinnius). Roman gentile , recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards (Schulze, 380; 425). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. (Rufus?), T. was proscribed in 43 BC, but was rescued by his wife Tanusia and his freed slave V. [I 2] and then pardoned (App. B Civ. 4,187; Cass. Dio 47,7,4 f.; Suet. Augustus 27,2). He is presumably the grandfather of T. V. [II 1] (Tac. Hist. 1,48,2: incorrectly maternus avus), who attained a praetorship. V. may also be identical to the VIIIvir (Octoviri) T. V. Rufus from Amiternum, which is presumably where the family was then from (ILS 3701). Barte…

Turranius

(198 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name (Schulze, 429), sometimes confused with T(h)oranius. [German version] [1] T., C. Praetor in 44 BC (Cic. Phil. 3,25). He was presumably proscribed and killed at his son's instigation (Val. Max. 9,11,5; App. B Civ. 4,71). Not identical with the also outlawed (Suet. Aug. 27; App. B Civ. 4,47) guardian of Augustus, C. Toranius. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] C. T. Gracilis Eques from Gades (modern Cadiz) (Plin. HN 3,3). He had the confidence of Augustus, who made him praef. Aegypti, recorded between 7 and 4 BC [1. 475]. In AD 14, at the time of Aug…

Sosius

(767 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic family name [1], which first appears in senatorial circles at the end of the 1st cent. BC. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Two brothers who were fairly well known publishers at the time of Horace (Hor. Epist. 1,20,2; 2,3,345). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., C. First attested by the coins he minted in 39 BC as quaestor of Antony [I 9] (BMCRR 2,504), for whom he was governor of Syria and Cilicia from 38 BC. With Herod [1] he successfully fought Antigonus [5] who had been installed in Iudaea by the Parthians (…

Valgius

(303 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Valg(i)us Father-in-law (Cic. Leg. agr. 3,3) of Servilius [I 26] Rullus. Under Cornelius [I 90] Sulla V. had appropriated estates in Ager Hirpinus and in Casinum (ibid. 2,69; 3,8-14). He may be identical to the C. Quinctius Valgus recorded as patronus (D.) of the Hirpinian Aeclanum, as quinquennalis of a town near Frigento and as a duumvir of Pompeii and in Casinum (ILLRP 523; 565; 598; 645; 646). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography P. Harvey, Socer Valgus, Valgii and C. Quinctius Valgus, in: E. Borza, R. Carrubba (eds.), Classics and the Classical Trad., 197…

Vargunteius

(163 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile, recorded from the 2nd cent. BC onwards (AE 1997,283; Schulze, 160). [German version] [1] Recitator, 2nd cent. BC Roman recitator of the 2nd cent. BC, who recited the Annales of Ennius [1] to large crowds on particular days (Suet. Gramm. 2) and who was understood in later times as a grammarian. Obtaining a textual edition from the Anecdoton Parisinum (GL 7,534) by conjecture on the name is problematic. Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) Bibliography HLL 1, § 38. [German version] [2] Legate, fell in 53 BC Died in the Parthian War in 53 BC, when, as a legate of M. Licinius …

Plaetorius

(163 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Name of a Roman plebeian family (occasionally confused with Laetorius); attained some distinction only in the 2nd cent. BC; insignificant in the Imperial Period. [German version] [1] P. Cestianus, L. Quaestor 43/2 BC Quaestor in 43/42 BC under M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus; issued denarii depicting a pilleus between two daggers, with the legend Eid(ibus) Mar(tiis), thus celebrating the assassination of Caesar on the Ides of March of 44 BC (RRC 508). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P. Cestianus, M. Probably governor of Macedonia in 63/2 Quaestor before 69 BC (Cic. Font…

Vinicius

(833 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Vinucius). Italian nomen gentile , recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards (Schulze, 110; 380). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., L. Mint master between 54 and 52 BC (RRC 436; MRR 2, 455), tr. pl. in 51 (Cic. Fam. 8,8,6) and cos. suff. in 33 BC (InscrIt 13,251; 254 f.). He was presumably the procos. Asiae who in 27 or shortly after enacted a decree of the consuls Agrippa [1] and Augustus in Cyme [3] [1]. Attribution of other procos. named V. in inscriptions is uncertain [2]. If AE 1988,20 refers to him he must still have been alive in 17 BC. V. [II 1] was his son. Bartels, Jens (…

Plancius

(420 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
A rare Roman family name, probably derived from Plancus. We know of Plancii from Atina (P. [1-2]) in the 1st cent. BC, and of Plancii from Perge in the 1st -2nd cents. AD. [German version] [1] P., Cn. Tax farmer, 1st cent. BC Of an old equestrian family from Atina (Cic. Planc. 32; cf. CIL X 5075; 5119). He served under Licinius [I 15] Crassus in Spain, probably in 96-93 BC. Thereafter active as a tax farmer ( P ublicani ). In 61-59 BC he distinguished himself as the spokesman for the tax farmers of Asia in a dispute about an inheritance concerning tax…

Dicta

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Bartels, Klaus (Bonn RWG)
Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] A. Generic Concept (CT) Long before Büchmann there existed a body of familiar 'famous quotations' from the ancient languages. Vast numbers of such quotations from lost works fill our collections of fragments: Solon's “γηράσκω δ' αiεi πολλὰ διδασκόμενος”, "I grow old and ever go on learning" may stand as one example for hundreds of others. Macrobius in the Saturnalia 5,16,7, gives a series of quotations from Virgil "which are used proverbially by all" (“vice proverbio…

Vatinius

(772 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., P. Ancestor of V. [I 2] from Reate, who was told of a victory over Perseus [2] in a dream in 168 BC (Cic. Nat. D. 2,6; 3,13; Val. Max. 1,8,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., P. Born c. 95 BC, d. after 42 BC. Presumably from Reate (Cic. Nat. D. 2,6 on V. [I 1]), V. achieved a political rise in Rome under the patronage of the Iulii Caesares: since he was married (schol. Bobiensia 149 St.) to Antonia, a niece of L. Iulius [I 6] Caesar, the latter as consul in 64 may have sponsored…

Voconius

(439 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Naso, Q. In 66 BC, V. was the judge in a lawsuit against A. Cluentius [2] Habitus (Cic. Clu. 147 f.), hence presumably an aedile in 67. Before 60, V. was a praetor (Cic. Flac. 50). His relationships to a certain V., who was governor in 49 (Cic. Att. 8,15,3) and to Naso, augur presumably in 45 ( ibid. 12,17) are unclear. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V. Saxa, Q. As people's tribune ( tribunus [7] plebis) in 169 BC, with the support of M. Porcius Cato [1] he had a plebiscitum passed ( lex Voconia ) according to whi…

Annia

(257 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna († 84), then of M. Pupius Piso Frugi, cos. 61 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,41,2). Perhaps sister of A. [I 12] and daughter of C.  Annius [I 15] Rufus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Aurelia Galeria Lucilla see Lucilla Aug. Spouse of L. Verus  Lucilla Aug. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2a] A. Fundania Faustina daughter of M. Annius [II 9] Libo, married to T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius [4] Pollio; executed under Commodus (AD 180-192, HA Comm. 7,7). PIR2 A 713. Eck, Werner…

Pythodorus

(519 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος/ Pythódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian, paved the way (in 411BC) for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 Athenian who, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,1-2 (cf. Thuc. 8,67,1), in 411 BC made a motion in the public assembly to elect a further 20 'preliminary counselors' ( próbouloi) to draw up proposals for saving the state. He thus paved the way for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). Diog. Laert. 9,54 (= Diels/Kranz 80 A 1) names him as the prosecutor of Protagoras [1]. P. may be identical with the …

Sestius

(572 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile, sometimes confused with Sextius. The family surfaced as patrician with S. [1] and [5] in the mid 5th cent. BC. In the late Republic, it had only (politically insignificant) plebeian members. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S., L. In order to illustrate the just administration of the first collegium of decemviri , especially the justice of C. Iulius [I 13] Iullus, Livy (3,33,9 f.) and Cicero (Rep. 2,61) tell the anecdote that after a corpse was found buried in the house of S., Iulius - who,…

Pindarus

(2,907 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πίνδαρος/ Píndaros). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Ephesus (c. 560 BC) Tyrant of Ephesus ( c. 560 BC), nephew of Croesus. When Croesus laid siege to Ephesus, P. is said to have advised fastening the gates and walls of the town to the columns of the Artemisium (Ephesus with map) with ropes. Croesus, bound by a vow to the shrine, spared the town and promised safety and freedom but forced P. to leave; his son was spared and his fortune left untouched (Hdt. 1,26; Polyaenus, Strat. 6,50; Ael. VH 3,26). Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) Bibliography U. Muss, Bauplastik des archaischen Artemisions, 1…

Sentius

(937 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum)
Italian family name, attested at Rome from the 1st cent. BC, but of political importance only from the time of Augustus, with S. [II 4-6] (Schulze, 228). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., L. Mint magistrate in 101 BC (RRC 328) and praetor urbanus c. 93-89 (ILS 8208; Syme, RP 2, 608 f.). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S. Saturninus Vetulo Proscribed in 43 BC, took refuge on Sicily (Val. Max. 7,3,9). With his cousin Scribonius [I 7] Libo he led the embassy to Antonius [B I 9] for Sex. Pompeius [I 5] in 40 B…

Servilius

(3,846 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman patrician family (epigraphically also Serveilius), said to have migrated to Rome from Alba Longa under king Tullus Hostilius [4] (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7). The oldest branches are the Ahalae and Fidenates in the 5th and 4th cents. BC; the Caepiones and Gemini, from whom the Vatiae (Isaurici) descended, appear in the 3rd cent. The last prominent member of the Servilii Caepiones was the murderer of Caesar, M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, son of Servilia [1], and himself adopted into the family. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A fleet commander in the B…

Varius

(1,160 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from Varus. Name-bearers first attested in the 1st cent. BC, but only in the Imperial period did they attain any prominence. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Cotyla, L. Aedile in 48, 47 or 44 BC (Cic. Phil. 13,26), emissary at Rome for M. Antonius [I 9] in 43, and his legate in Gallia transalpina (Cic. Phil. 5,5-7; 8,24-32; Plut. Antonius 18,8). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V. Rufus, L. Roman poet, c. 70-15 BC Renowned Roman poet (Hor. Ars P. 55) of the Augustan period (c. 70-15 BC). Wi…

Publilius

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Benz, Lore (Kiel) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Plotke, Seraina (Basle)
I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. Relative of Cicero's second wife Publilia A close relative (brother?) of Cicero's second wife Publilia; for this reason, he is frequently mentioned in Cicero's letters to T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] P., Volero People's tribune in 472 and 471 BC People's tribune in 472 and 471 BC (MRR 1, 29 f.). P. is said to have introduced a bill in 472 to have the election of the tribunes of the plebs take place not in the comitia curiata, which were dominated by patricians and their clients, but in the comitia tributa (Co…

Salvius

(1,168 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common given name of Oscan or Umbrian origin not used by the Roman upper class (abbreviated in inscriptions as Sa. or Sal.), later appears as a nomen gentile; also a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Era [German version] [I 1] Slave leader (Slave leader) see Tryphon [2]. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Centurion named only by Plutarch as one of Pompeius' murderers Centurion named only in Plut. Pompeius 78,1 and 79,4 as one of Pompey's murderers. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 3] Freedman and probable agent of Caesar Freedman probably active as …

Publicius

(869 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Poblicius, Poplicius, Populicius). Name of a Roman plebeian family, known from the 3rd cent. BC onwards, but not politically significant. During the Late Republic the name was often assumed by public slaves ( servi publici) after manumission as a token of their former status. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Praetor between 69 and 66 BC; after that, presumably governor in Asia Praetor between 69 and 66 BC; after that, presumably governor of the province of Asia (Cic. Clu. 126; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,2,14?; MRR 2,143; 150). Bartels, Jens (Bon…

Quinctilius

(2,074 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman patrician family, derived from the praenomen Quintus; in inscriptions and MSS also Quintilius. In the annalistic tradition the family was one of Rome's oldest, supposed to have arrived in Rome under the king Tullus Hostilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7; cf. Liv. 1,30,2, though he has Quinctii); of a consul recorded in 453 BC and a consular tribune in 403 nothing further is known. In the historical period, members of the family are known from the end of the 3rd cent. on (bearing the inherited cognomen Varus), but they achieved no lasting noble status. The most promin…

Pinarius

(949 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(In an older form also Peinarius, CIL I2 1357; 2469f.). Name of a patrician gens. According to tradition, they maintained a cult for Hercules at the Ara Maxima together with the Potitii (further evidence there). Hercules himself - or Evander [1] - is said to have transferred the cult to them at an extremely early time. The derivation of the name from πεινᾶν ( peinân, 'starve') is a scholarly construction based on the P. having had the smaller share in the sacrifices for Hercules (Serv. Aen. 8,270, i.a.). The family was also traced back to Pinus, the ostensib…

Volumnius

(521 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Name of an originally Etruscan plebeian family (Etruscan form Velimna) that was significant in the early Republic. The Volumnii of the 1st cent. BC are not its descendants. The tomb of the V. in Perusia (modern Perugia) with bilingual inscriptions (CIL XI 1963 - CIE 3763) was used from the 2nd cent. onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V., P. Fought in 42 BC as a friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in the battle of Philippi, and wrote about it in a now lost work (Plut. Brutus 48; 51). Possibly identical to V. [4]? Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Amintinus Gallus…

Septimius

(3,206 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Et al.
Nomen gentile, probably originally Etruscan, occurred at Rome only from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A certain S. from Camerinum was commissioned to recruit followers for Catilina at Picenum in 63 BC, presumably because he was of the Umbrian-Picenan municipal nobility (cf. CIL I2 1921; 1929) (Sall. Catil. 27,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Friend of Horace's; he hoped to enter the cohors amicorum of a member of the imperial household through his relationship with the latter (Hor. Carm.…

Vettius

(1,947 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
Widespread Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., L. Roman equestrian from Picenum, c. 106-59 BC. In 89 BC, V. probably served on the staff of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo (ILS 8888; [1. 161 f.]) and subsequently enriched himself as a favourite of L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla (Sall. Hist. 1,55,17). He later joined the conspiracy of Catilina (Q. Tullius Cic. commentariolum petitionis 10), but betrayed it to Cicero in 63 BC (Cass. Dio. 37,41; Oros. 6,6,7). In 62, it seems that opponents o…

Pupius

(528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Günther, Matthias (Bielefeld) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile, possibly connected to the Etruscan pupu. The family is otherwise politically insignificant; the adoptive father of the consul for 61 BC, P. [I 3], is unknown. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republic [German version] [I 1] In Horace, the author of tragedies, 1st cent. BC The only source for the author P. is Horatius (Epist. 1,1,67). According to this, P. was probably an author of tragedies. He lived in the 1st cent. BC. The scope and precise content of his poetry is unknown. Günther, Matthias (Bielefeld) Bibliography Bardon, vol. 2, 47  Courtney, 307. …
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