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Anthologie

(1,754 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
A. Begriff und GegenstandsbereichSeit der Antike war das Sammeln und Kompilieren von Texten ein wichtiger Bestandteil des Literaturbetriebs, für den sich jedoch weder eine einheitliche Terminologie noch eine eindeutige Zielsetzung festmachen ließ: Gesammelt wurde aus praktischen, dokumentarischen oder ästhetischen Gründen in Form von (griechisch) anthologíai, chrēstomátheiai, leimṓnes, (lateinisch) coniectanea, excerpta, flores, florilegia, prata, silvae oder (deutsch) »Alben«, »Blumenlesen«, »Museen«, »Mustersammlungen«, »Schatzkammern« (etc.); auch di…
Date: 2020-07-23

Anthology

(2,010 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
A. Concept and subject areaCollecting and compiling texts was an important element of literary work from Antiquity onwards, but it was one in which no single standard terminology or purpose ever really emerged. People collected texts for practical, documentary or aesthetic reasons and compiled them into anthologiai, chrestomatheiai and  leimones in the Greek world,  coniectanea, excerpta, flores, florilegia, prata and  silvae in the Roman, and Alben (‘albums’),  Blumenlesen (‘garlands’), Museen (‘museums’), Mustersammlungen (‘model collections’) and  Schatzkam…
Date: 2021-01-25

Hero und Leander

(3,380 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
(ʿΗϱώ, lat. Hero; Λέανδϱος, lat. Leander) A. Mythos und Grundzüge der Rezeption H. und L. sind ein tragisches Liebespaar, dessen Geschichte wahrscheinlich auf eine hellespontinische Lokalsage zurückgeht und erste Bearbeitungen im Hellenismus erfuhr [12]. Seit dem 1. Jh. v. Chr. finden sich zahlreiche künstlerische und literarische Rezeptionszeugnisse bei griech. und vornehmlich röm. Schriftstellern, die auf die Beliebtheit und rasche Verbreitung des Mythos schließen lassen [5]. Zwei ausführliche, wahrschein…

Bernays, Jacob

(537 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
Dt. Klass. Philologe und Religionshistoriker. Geb. am 11. 9. 1824 in Hamburg, gest. am 28. 5. 1881 in Bonn. Studium der Philologie und Prom. sowie Habil. (beides 1848) in Bonn; dort PD. 1853–1856 Dozent am jüd.-theologischen Seminar in Breslau; ab 1866 Oberbibliothekar und ao.Prof. an der Univ. Bonn. B. war Schüler Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschls, Friedrich Gottlieb Welckers und Christian August Brandis’, Mitherausgeber des Rheinischen Museums (1850–1854) und ab 1864 korrespondierendes Mitglied der Preuß. Akad. der Wiss. Werk und Wirkung Obwohl B.’ (dessen Vater orthodoxer …

Rohde, Erwin

(566 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
Dt. Klass. Philologe. Geb. am 9. 10. 1845 in Hamburg, gest. am 11. 1. 1898 in Heidelberg. Studium der Klass. Phil. in Bonn, Leipzig und Kiel; Prom. 1869 und Habil. 1870 in Kiel, dort ab 1872 ao.Prof.; ab 1876 Prof. für Klass. Phil. in Jena, 1878–1885 in Tübingen, 1886 in Leipzig und im selben Jahr noch in Heidelberg. R. war Schüler Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschls, Otto Jahns, Alfred von Gutschmids und Otto Ribbecks sowie enger Freund Friedrich Nietzsche. Er wurde 1886 Mitglied der sächs. Akad. der Wiss. und 1897 korrespondierendes Mitglied der Münchener Akad. der Wiss. Werk und Wirkung Nach s…

Aesop

(2,596 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
(Αἴσωπος/ Aísōpos; Latin Aesopus) A. Historical dimension Nothing is known for certain of the life of A. whom Antiquity regarded as the father of the fable. He is first mentioned in Herodotus'  Histories (2,134,3) as a contemporary and fellow slave of the hetaera Rhodopis, which would suggest that he lived in the first half of the 6th cent. BC [01.134]. Herodotus calls A.  logopoiós ("writer, fabulist") and mentions his violent death at Delphi, to which Aristophanes also alludes in the  Wasps (422 BC) (1446–1448). The event may have taken place in 564/63 BC (Euseb. Chron…
Date: 2016-02-22

Anacreon

(2,664 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
(Ἀνακρέων/ Anakréōn or Ἀνακρείων/ Anakreíōn; Latin Anacreon) A. Historical dimension Very few verifiable details are available of the life of the Greek lyric poet A. ( c. 575–480 BC) [04.37–56]; [08.12–22]; [05.50–54]; [07.]. He came from the Ionian port of Teos, which he probably left fleeing the Persians around 540 (Str. 14,644). He is known to have spent time on Samos during the reign of the tyrant Polycrates, who engaged numerous poets and artists at his court in the years 533–522 BC (cf. Ael. VH 9,4; Str. 14,638; Ath. 1…
Date: 2016-02-22

Bernays, Jacob

(577 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
German classical philologist and historian of religion. Born 11. 9. 1824 in Hamburg, died 28. 5. 1881 in Bonn. Studied philology at Bonn, doctorate and habil. (both 1848), then priv.-doz. there. 1853–1856 lecturer at the Jewish Theological Seminar in Breslau; from 1866 senior librarian and prof. ext. at Univ. of Bonn. B. was a pupil of Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker and Christian August Brandis, co-editor of the Rheinisches Museum (1850–1854) and, from 1864, corresponding member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Work and influence Although B.’s scholarly…

Rohde, Erwin

(682 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
German classical philologist. Born Hamburg 9. 10. 1845, died Heidelberg 11. 1. 1898. Studied classical philology at Bonn, Leipzig and Kiel. Doctorate 1869 and habil. 1870, Kiel; prof. ext. ¶ there from 1872. From 1876, prof. of classical philology at Jena, 1878–1885 at Tübingen, 1886 at Leipzig and, still in the same year, at Heidelberg. R. was a student of Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, Otto Jahn, Alfred von Gutschmid and Otto Ribbeck, as well as a close friend of Friedrich Nietzsche. In 1886 he became a member of the Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften and in 1897 a corresponding mem…

Quintus of Smyrna, Posthomerica

(2,806 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel | Bär, Silvio F.
A. Work and author The Imperial-period epic Posthomerica ( P.; ‘The Events After Homer’) tells the story of the Greek conquest of Troy in fourteen books. Its title derives from the aim to continue from the final scene of Homer’s Iliad, the death of Hector and the return of his corpse to Troy. This is followed by depictions of the combats of Achilles and the Amazon queen Penthesilea and the Ethiopian Memnon, the death of Achilles and the dispute over his weapons, and the construction of the Trojan Horse. The epic ends with the destruct…

Hero and Leander

(3,706 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
(Ἡρώ [ Hērṓ], Latin Hero; Λέανδρος [ Léandros], Latin Leander) A. Myth and basis of reception H. and L. are star-crossed lovers whose story probably derives from a local legend of the Hellespont and was first adapted in the Hellenistic period [12]. It was the subject of numerous artistic and literary treatments by Greek and esp. Roman writers from the 1st cent. BC, attesting to the popularity and rapid spread of the myth [5]. Two substantial versions are preserved which probably developed separately [11.21–23]…

Peplos

(543 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(πέπλος; péplos). [German version] [1] Blanket, cloth, or shroud Blanket, cloth, or shroud (Hom. Il. 24,796; Eur. Tro. 627, cf. Eur. Hec. 432); later, women's outer garment or coat (Hom. Il. 5,734; Hom. Od. 18,292, cf. Xen. Cyr. 5,1,6). In the myth, the Trojan women place a peplos on the knees of the cult image of seated Athena (Hom. Il. 6,303). Peplos is also the term used for esp. magnificent robes, above all for the dress of Hera of Olympia which was newly woven every four years by 16 women (Paus. 5,16) and for that of Athena Polias in Athens, which wa…

Zosimus

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ζώσιμος; Zṓsimos). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, epigrammatist, probably between 150 BC and AD 50 Z. of Thasos. Greek epigrammatist, whose works are probably to be dated between 150 BC and AD 50: three (Anth. Pal 6,183-185; 6,15 is also ascribed to him, alternatively to Antipater [8] of Sidon) are variations on the theme of 'dedication to Pan' from the view of a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (cf. Satyrius). Another deals with the unusual theme of a shield saving its owner who uses it as a raft (Anth. Pal. 9,40, cf. Diocles [10]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 104-…

Neoteles

(130 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Νεοτέλης; Neotélēs). Greek grammarian, probably a pupil of Aristarchus [4] [1. 78]. The author of a commentary on the Iliad (fragments in the Homeric scholia): Didymus [1] mentions him in connection with Hom. Il. 24,110, and Nicanor [10] of Cyrene tells us of N.'s comment on the Teucer scene (Hom. Il. 8,325) in which he observes that Teucer strung his bow in the manner of the Scythians [2. 31f.]. Based on this passage, Porphyrius (1,123,11ff. Sch.) attributed to N. an entire work (ὅλην βίβλον/ hólēn bíblon) on archery (Περὶ τῆς κατὰ τοὺς ἥρωας τοξείας/ Perì tês katà toù…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Tauriscus

(252 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ταυρίσκος/ Taurískos). [German version] [1] Grammarian, 2nd cent. BC Grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC and pupil of Crates [5] from Mallus, to whom his definition of philological scholarship (κριτικὴ τέχνη, kritikḕ téchnē) can be traced [1. 56]. According to Sext. Emp. adv. math. 248-249, T. distinguished three sub-disciplines: grammar (λογικόν, logikón), dialectology and stylistic criticism (τριβικόν, tribikón) and commentary (ἱστορικόν, historikón) on content needing explanation. For T.' position within the classification of the grammatical discourse o…

Obelus

(132 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (ὀβελός/ obelós). Text-critical sign of Alexandrian philology in the shape of a line (- -) in the left margin [2. 204]. Its use goes back to Zenodotus of Ephesus [3. 9f.]. The obelus - originating in the textual criticism of Homer - was used primarily for marking poetic passages that were regarded as inauthentic or corrupted [4. 115; 5. 9]. In connection with the asterískos the obelus marks a versus iteratus (‘repeated verse’) regarded as interpolated. Correction marks; Critical marks; Emendation of texts; Text, corruption of the Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliogr…

Menippus

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος; Ménippos). [German version] [1] According to Plutarch sub-commander of Pericles In Plut. Pericles 13,10 (cf. Plut Mor. 812d) mentioned as a friend and sub-commander of Pericles (probably between 443 and 430 BC). Like the latter, he was mocked in the comedies. It is uncertain if M. really was a strategos. Plutarch's term for him ( hypostratēgṓn) is the Greek equivalent of the Latin term legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 mentions a M., whom the scholias identify as a horse dealer. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography PA 10033 Traill, PAA 646185 (vgl. 646190 und 646195). …

Timolaus

(536 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμόλαος/ Timólaos). [German version] [1] From Corinth, politician, c. 400 BC Leading politician of Corinth. At first on the side of the Spartans, he managed to convince Thasos in 411/10 BC to secede from Athens [1. 216-231]. Later, he changed course for personal reasons [2. 83 against 3. 73 f.]: in 395 BC, he advocated an alliance with Argos and due to his expertise [4. 411] became a moving force in the Corinthian Alliance (Stv 2, 225), for which he is claimed to have received plenty of funds from Timocr…

Protos heuretes

(768 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (πρῶτος εὑρετής/ prôtos heuretḗs, Lat. primus inventor). Term widely used as a topos from the 5th cent. BC on for one or more 'inventors' ( heuretḗs, pl. heuretaí) of particular objects or techniques, considered, by the connection of heurḗmata ('inventions') with his name , as their first ( prôtos) originator. The earliest witness to this usage can be found in the 7th-6th cent. BC Phoronis (fr. 2 Bernabé): οἳ πρῶτοι τέχνην πολυμήτιος Ἡφαίστοιο εὗρον ( hoì prôtoi téchn ēn polymḗtios Hēphaístoio heûron ("they <the Idaean Dactyls> were the first to invent the art…

Tyrannion

(277 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Τυραννίων/ Tyranníōn). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian, 1st cent. BC T. of Amisus, Greek grammarian of the 1st cent. BC (d. c. 25 BC). After training with Hestiaeus and Dionysius [17] Thrax, he probably worked at Rome from c. 68 BC [1. 29], where he came into contact with Caesar, Atticus and Cicero [2. 94]. Among his pupils was Strabo. T., with other grammarians (e.g. Tryphon [3]), marked the beginnings of normative grammar [3. 27]. On his role in the establishment of the grammatical quadripartite model, s. [4. 31-32]. Of …

Lysanias

(197 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Λυσανίας; Lysanías). [German version] [1] Tetrarch of Abilene, 1st half of the 1st cent. AD Tetrarch of Abilene who was introduced by the evangelist Luke (Lc 3:1) for the purpose of synchronization, in the 15th year of the emperor Tiberius = October 27 - September AD 28. He must have died before 37, since Caligula gave his territory to Herodes [8] Agrippa I at that time. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography L. Boffo, Iscrizioni Greche e Latine per lo studio della Bibbia, 1994, 171ff. PIR2 L 467. [German version] [2] Greek Grammarian, 3rd cent. BC Greek grammarian from Cyrene who lived in …

Theodoretus

(442 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Θεοδώρητος; Theodṓrētos). [German version] [1] Bishop of Cyrrhus, 1st half of the 5th cent. Bishop of Cyrrhus (born in c. 393, bishop in 423, died in c. 466). T. received a solid classical education in the monastic milieu of Antioch [1]. A devoted pastor in his diocese, he fought against heretics (Heresy) and worked towards improving living conditions. In the Christological conflict between Cyrillus [2] of Alexandria and Nestorius he joined the latter without reservations. He was dismissed by the Synod of Ephesus in 449…

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Menogenes

(69 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Μενογένης; Menogénēs). Greek grammarian. In Eust. 2,494 (ad Hom. Il. 2,494) he is mentioned alongside Porphyry and Apollodorus [7] as a commentator on the Homeric Catalogue of Ships. Nothing is preserved of his work, which was said to have encompassed 23 books. His dates are likewise unknown: [1] places him between Apollodorus and Porphyry. Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliography 1 A. Gudeman, s.v. Menogenes, RE 15, 917.

Tryphon

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Τρύφων/ Trýphōn). [German version] [1] The usurper Diodotus of Casiane, 2nd cent. BC Name assumed by the usurper Diodotus from Casiane near Apamea [3] (Str. 16,2,10). As strategos of Demetrius [7] I, D./T. went over to the pretender to the throne Alexander [II 13] Balas, betrayed Antioch [1] on the Orontes to Ptolemaeus [9] VI, occupied Apamea [3] and Chalcis, but then did not switch over to Demetrius [8] II, instead raising Alexander's [13] son to king as Antiochus [8] VI in 145 BC. He defeated Demetrius and allied with…

Eunapius

(531 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Εὐνάπιος; Eunápios). Greek sophist and historian from Sardeis ( c. AD 347-414) [8. 2-4], who, apart from a comprehensive philosophical and rhetorical eduction by  Chrysanthius and  Prohaeresius also possessed excellent medical knowledge and the favour of  Oribasius. In his writings E. was a determined opponent of Christianity, to which, an adherent of  Julian [11] the Apostate (Fr. 1,95-101 Blockley), he opposed the concept of a restored Greek   paideía . Of the ‘Histories’ (Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα/ Historikà hypomnḗmata, 14 vol.) that he wrote at the sugge…

Zenodotus

(1,870 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ζηνόδοτος/ Zēnódotos). [German version] [1] Of Ephesus, Alexandrian philologist Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus ( c. 325-260 BC; Suda s. v. Ζ. Ἐφέσιος). Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) [German version] I. Life Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus Z. was employed as tutor to the royal princes at the Ptolemaic court before his appointment in 285/4 BC as the first director [1. 147-148] of the library (II B 2.a) in Alexandria [1]. In addition to a classification of Greek poetry (most notably epic and lyric works), Z. developed in …

Mnesimachus

(228 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Μνησίμαχος; Mnēsímachos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy A comic poet whom both Athenaeus and the Suda attribute to Middle Comedy [1. test. 1, 2]. His name is on the victors' list of the Lenaean festival, immediately after Antiphanes [1. test. 3], and his creative period extends from the 360's into the  340's BC [2]. We still have the titles of seven of his plays: Ἀλκμαίων (or -έων), Βούσιρις, Δύσκολος, Ἱπποτρόφος, Ἰσθμιονίκης, Φαρμακοπώλης, Φίλιππος ( Alkmaíōn/éōn, Boúsiris, Dýskolos, Hippótrophos, Isthmioníkēs, Pharmakopṓlēs, Phílippos). By far the longest fra…

Lucillus

(404 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] [2] Roman wall painter, late 4th cent. AD Roman wall painter of late antiquity from the end of the 4th cent. AD. He decorated the house of the aristocratic orator and philosopher Q. Aurelius Symmachus, which the latter mentioned with praise in various letters (Symmachus, Ep. 2,2; 8,21; 9,50b). The nature and appearance of this painting may have resembled that of contemporary catacombs or mosaics from late Imperial villas. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography L. Guerrini, s.v. L., EAA 4, 721 S. Roda, Commento Storico al Libro 9 dell'Epistolario di Q. Aurelio Si…

Pamphila

(309 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Παμφίλη; Pamphílē) of Epidaurus. Important female philologist and writer at the time of Emperor Nero (mid-1st cent. AD); presumably the daughter of the grammarian Soteridas [1. 58-61; 2. 310-312]. Of her writings, only 10 fragments are extant from the main work, the Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα ( Historikà hypomnḗmata, 'Historical Memoirs') that comprised 33 bks. (FHG 3, 520-522). Of the other works, among which there were several Epitomaí, Suda mentions Περὶ ἀμφισβητήσεων ('On Controversies'), Περὶ ἀφροδισίων ('On Sexual Pleasures') and an epitome …

Xenon

(849 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Et al.
(Ξένων/ Xénōn). [German version] [1] From Athens, banker mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian banker of the 4th cent. BC, witness in a lawsuit for property damage ( blábēs díkē ) against Phormion [2] c. 350/49 (Dem. Or. 36,13 and 37). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11322  Traill, PAA 734715  A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 116 f. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Hermione, second half of the 3rd cent. BC Tyrant of Hermion(e), one of the tyrants in the Peloponnese who under pressure from Aratus [2] after the death of the Macedon…

Telephus

(789 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Τήλεφος /Tḗlephos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Auge Son of Heracles [1] and Auge [2] (Hes. fr. 165,8-10 M./W.). There are two legendary versions of his youth. According to one version (probably in essence epic, but also assumed by Euripides [1] in his T.), Auge of Tegea, a priestess of Athena, was made pregnant by Heracles [1], gave birth to T. and hid him in the sanctuary. When, as a consequence of this, the goddess imposed a famine and the child was discovered, Auge's father Aleus [1] had the child exposed (Exposure, myths…

Lysimachides

(70 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Λυσιμαχίδης; Lysimachídēs). Greek grammarian of the Augustan period (born in c. 50 BC). L. is considered to be the critic of his contemporary Caecilius [III 5] of Cale Acte [1. 168]. Of his work ‘On the Athenian Months’ (Περὶ τῶν Ἀθήνησι μηνῶν), three records are extant in Harpocration's [2] ‘Lexicon on the Ten Orators’ (FGrH 366). Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliography 1 E. Ofenloch, Caecilii Calactini fragmenta, 1907.

Zopyrion

(198 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Ζωπυρίων; Zōpyríōn). [German version] [1] From Macedonia, governor of Thrace, second half of the 4th cent. BC Macedonian of unknown origin, who as governor of Thrace allegedly undertook a campaign with 30,000 men across the Danube c. 325 BC, advanced as far as the Borysthenes (modern Dnieper), besieged Olbia [1], but as his army was severely worn down by bad weather, was defeated by the Scythae and killed (Curt. 10,1,43-45; Iust. Epit. 2,3,4; 12,1,4; 12,2,16f. with incorrect dating; 37,3,2; Macr. Sat. 1,11,33). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography Berve, vol. 2, Nr. 340  A. B. Boswort…

Salustios

(620 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Σαλούστιος). [English version] [1] griech. Grammatiker Griech. Grammatiker (vielleicht 4./5. Jh. n. Chr. [3. 31]); Verf. eines Komm. zu Kallimachos' [3] ‘Hekale (fr. 9; 29; 179 Hollis), dessen Gebrauch sich noch in der Suda feststellen läßt [4. 13-18]. Die Zuschreibung einer Ed. der Hymnen des Kallimachos [5. 78] sowie der Hypotheseis zu Sophokles' ‘Antigone und ‘Oidipus in Kolonos [6. 17-20] ist wahrscheinlich. Wohl mit dem von Stephanos von Byzanz s. v. Ἄζιλις erwähnten S. identisch. Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg) Bibliography Ed.: 1 A. S. Hollis, Callimachus. Hekale, …

Stesimbrotos

(536 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
[English version] (Στησίμβροτος) aus Thasos. Rhapsode und Homerexeget des 5. Jh. v. Chr.; Fr. aus drei seiner Schriften sind erh. (FGrH 107). S. gilt als einer der ersten Allegoriker und Mitbegründer der Gattung Biographie. Seine Schüler waren Nikeratos [1] (Xen. symp. 3,6) und Antimachos [3] (Suda s. v. Ἀντίμαχος). Bed. erlangte S. durch seine allegor. Ausdeutungen des Homeros: In Plat. Ion 530c-d wird er neben dem Allegoriker Metrodoros von Lampsakos als Autorität auf dem Gebiet der Homerinterpr…

Eunapios

(497 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel
[English version] (Εὐνάπιος). Griech. Sophist und Historiker aus Sardeis (ca. 347-414 n. Chr.) [8. 2-4], der neben einer umfassenden philos. und rhet. Ausbildung durch Chrysanthios und Prohairesios auch ausgezeichnete medizinische Kenntnisse besaß und in der Gunst des Oreibasios stand. In seinen Schriften erweist E. sich als entschiedener Gegner des Christentums, dem er als Anhänger des Iulianus [11] Apostata (fr. 1,95-101 Blockley) restaurativ das Konzept der griech. paideía entgegenstellt. Von den ‘Historien (Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα/ Historiká hypomnḗmata, 14 B.), die…

Telephos

(721 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz | Karttunen, Klaus | Baumbach, Manuel
(Τήλεφος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Herakles und der Auge Sohn des Herakles [1] und der Auge [2] (Hes. fr. 165,8-10 M./W.). Über seine Jugend existieren zwei Sagenversionen: Nach einer (im Kern wohl epischen, aber auch von Euripides [1] im ‘T. vorausgesetzten) Version wird Auge, die Athenapriesterin von Tegea, von Herakles [1] geschwängert, gebiert T. und versteckt ihn im Heiligtum. Als die Göttin daraufhin eine Hungersnot sendet und das Kind entdeckt wird, läßt Auges Vater Aleos [1] das Kind ausset…

Theodoretos

(390 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef | Baumbach, Manuel
(Θεοδώρητος). [English version] [1] Bf. von Kyrrhos, 1. H. 5. Jh. Bischof von Kyrrhos (* um 393, Bischof 423, † um 466). Im monastischen Milieu Antiocheias [1] erhielt Th. eine solide klass. Ausbildung. Als eifriger Seelsorger bekämpfte er in seinem Sprengel Häretiker (Häresie) und bemühte sich um die Verbesserung der Lebensverhältnisse. Im christologischen Streit zw. Kyrillos [2] von Alexandreia und Nestorios stellte sich Th. vorbehaltlos hinter letzteren. Seiner Absetzung durch die Synode von Ephesos 449…

Zopyrion

(182 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael | Baumbach, Manuel
(Ζωπυρίων). [English version] [1] aus Makedonien, Statthalter Thrakiens, 2. H. 4. Jh. v. Chr. Makedone unbekannter Herkunft, der als Statthalter Thrakiens um 325 v. Chr. mit angeblich 30 000 Mann einen Feldzug über die Donau hinaus unternahm, bis zum Borysthenes (h. Dnjepr) vordrang, Olbia [1] belagerte, dann aber mitsamt seinem durch Unwetter stark mitgenommenen Heer von den Skythen geschlagen wurde und fiel (Curt. 10,1,43-45; Iust. 2,3,4; 12,1,4; 12,2,16 f. mit falscher Datierung; 37,3,2; Macr. Sat. 1,11,33). Zahrnt, Michael Bibliography Berve, Bd. 2, Nr. 340  A. B. Boswor…

Mythologie

(11,064 words)

Author(s): Guthmüller, Bodo | Baumbach, Manuel
Guthmüller, Bodo I. Literatur (RWG) [English version] A. Einleitung (RWG) In der Encyclopédie der frz. Aufklärung (1751-1780) heißt es unter dem Stichwort M. ( mythologie, fable): ‘Ihr Studium ist für die Maler, die Bildhauer und insbesondere für die Dichter unentbehrlich. Die M. ist die Grundlage ihrer Werke, aus ihr entnehmen sie ihre wichtigsten Schmuckmittel (...). Unsere Schauspiele, unsere Opern und Theaterstücke, alle Gattungen der Dichtung spielen ständig darauf an; die Stiche, die Gemälde, die Statuen, die unse…

Lukillos

(174 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg)
[English version] (Λουκίλλος) aus Tarrha. Griech. Grammatiker aus Kreta; lebte in der Mitte des 1. Jh.n.Chr. Zu seinen wichtigsten Werken [1. 604 s.v. Τάρρα] zählte die grammatische Abh. Techniká (Τεχνικά) mit einem Kapitel über die Gesch. des griech. Alphabets (Περὶ γραμμάτων) sowie ein Sprichwörterbuch (Περὶ παροιμιῶν; Paroimiographoi), das neben dem seines Vorgängers Didymos [1] später auch dem Zenobios als Quelle gedient hat (vgl. Suda, s.v. Ζηνόβιος). Weiterhin wird ihm auch eine Schrift Περὶ Θεσσαλονίκης [1. 311f. …

Seleukos

(2,601 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris | Mehl, Andreas | Ameling, Walter | Hünemörder, Christian | Hübner, Wolfgang | Et al.
(Σέλευκος, lat. Seleucus). [English version] [1] Mitregent im Regnum Bosporanum, um 400 v. Chr. Mitregent des Satyros [2] I. im Regnum Bosporanum 433/2-393/2 v. Chr. (nach Diod. 12,36,1). Da an anderer Stelle (Diod. 14,93,1) Satyros als Alleinherrscher bezeichnet wird und andere Quellen seinen Namen nicht kennen, ist seine Existenz nicht gesichert. von Bredow, Iris Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 231  E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 1913, 571  R. Werner, Die Dynastie der Spartokiden, in: Historia 4, 1955, 419-421. [English version] [2] S. …

Obelos

(120 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg)
[English version] (ὀβελός). Textkritisches Zeichen der alexandrinischen Philologie in Form eines Striches (- -) am linken Textrand [2. 204], dessen Verwendung auf Zenodotos von Ephesos zurückgeht [3. 9f.]. Der o. wurde - ausgehend von der Homerkritik - vornehmlich in poetischen Texten zur Markierung von unechten oder für verderbt gehaltenen Textstellen verwendet [4. 115; 5. 9]. In Verbindung mit dem asterískos bezeichnet der o. einen für interpoliert gehaltenen versus iteratus (“wiederholter Vers”). Korrekturzeichen; Kritische Zeichen; Textv…

Zosimos

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia; Ü:L.FE. | Neudecker, Richard | Baumbach, Manuel | Wermelinger, Otto | Meier, Mischa | Et al.
(Ζώσιμος). [English version] [1] von Thasos, Epigrammatiker, wohl zw. 150 v. Chr. und 50 n. Chr. Z. von Thasos. Griech. Epigrammdichter, dessen Werke wohl zw. 150 v. Chr. und 50 n. Chr. zu datieren sind: drei (Anth. Pal 6,183-185; auch 6,15 wird ihm zugeschrieben, alternativ dem Antipatros [8] von Sidon) sind Variationen zum Thema “Weihung an Pan” von seiten eines Jägers, eines Vogelfängers und eines Fischers (vgl. Satyrios). Ein weiteres behandelt das ungewöhnliche Thema eines als rettendes Floß benutzten Schildes (Anth. Pal. 9,40, vgl. Diokles [10]). Albiani, Maria Grazia; Ü:…

Pamphila

(273 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg)
[English version] (Παμφίλη) aus Epidauros. Bedeutende Philologin und Schriftstellerin zur Zeit Kaiser Neros (Mitte 1. Jh.n.Chr.); verm. Tochter des Grammatikers Soteridas [1. 58-61; 2. 310-312]. Von ihren Schriften sind nur aus dem Hauptwerk, den 33 B. umfassenden Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα ( Historiká hypomnḗmata, ‘Histor. Denkwürdigkeiten), 10 Fr. erhalten (FHG 3, 520-522). Aus den übrigen Werken, unter denen sich mehrere Epitomaí befanden, nennt die Suda Περὶ ἀμφισβητήσεων (‘Über Meinungsverschiedenheiten), Περὶ ἀφροδισίων (‘Über Liebesfreuden) und eine…

Zenodotos

(1,614 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel | Eder, Walter | Albiani, Maria Grazia; Ü:L.FE. | Matthaios, Stephanos | Neudecker, Richard | Et al.
(Ζηνόδοτος). [English version] [1] aus Ephesos, alex. Philologe Alexandrinischer Philologe aus Ephesos (ca. 325-260 v. Chr.; Suda s. v. Ζ. Ἐφέσιος). Baumbach, Manuel [English version] I. Leben Alexandrinischer Philologe aus Ephesos Z. war als Prinzenerzieher am Hof der Ptolemäer tätig, ehe er im Jahr 285/4 zum ersten Vorsteher [1. 147-148] der Bibliothek (II. B.2.a.) von Alexandreia [1] ernannt wurde. Neben der Klassifizierung griech. Dichtung (v. a. epischer und lyrischer Werke) entwickelte Z. in seinen philol. Arbeiten ei…

Menogenes

(61 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg)
[English version] (Μενογένης). Griech. Grammatiker. Bei Eust. 2,494 (zu Hom. Il. 2,494) wird er neben Porphyrios und Apollodoros [7] als Kommentator des homer. Schiffskatalogs genannt. Von seinem Werk, das 23 B. umfaßt haben soll, ist nichts erhalten. Ebensowenig ist seine Lebenszeit bekannt: [1] setzt ihn zw. Apollodoros und Porphyrios. Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 A. Gudeman, s.v. M., RE 15, 917.

Lysimachides

(60 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg)
[English version] (Λυσιμαχίδης). Griech. Grammatiker der augusteischen Zeit (geb. ca. 50 v.Chr.). L. gilt als Kritiker seines Zeitgenossen Caecilius [III 5] aus Kale Akte [1. 168]. Aus seiner Schrift ‘Über die athenischen Monate (Περὶ τῶν Ἀθήνησι μηνῶν) sind in Harpokrations [2] ‘Lex. zu den zehn Rednern drei Zeugnisse erhalten (FGrH 366). Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 E. Ofenloch, Caecilii Calactini fragmenta, 1907.
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