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(1,832 words)

Author(s): Beck, Herman L. | Herrmann, Klaus | Molinski, Waldemar | Herms, Eilert | Krawietz, Birgit
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Judaism – III. Christianity – IV. Islam I. Religious Studies Casuistry (from Lat. casus, “case”) is a method of practical and dialectical reasoning and argumentation in which the formulation of a specific case that is perceived to be problematic is followed by the application of general moral principles, norms, and guidelines to the specific case at hand. The purpose of this method is to arrive, under changed and changing circumstan…


(434 words)

Author(s): Beck, Herman L.
[German Version] (Gk βλασφημία/ blasphēmía: “malicious remark”) refers to defamatory mockery, insult, slander and cursing of a deity in word, writings or actions. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, the prohibition of blasphemy goes back to Exod 22:28. On the basis of Lev 24:16, blasphemy became a sin and a crime that was punishable by death (Religious offense). Blasphemy, initially a verbal statement against God, is not precisely defined or explained in the Hebrew Bible though it has received various interpretations in the course of the history of Judaism and Christianity. In Judaism…