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Indonesia

(2,955 words)

Author(s): Peacock, James | Schumann, Olaf | Becker, Dieter
[German Version] I. Non-Christian Religions – II. Christianity A presidential republic since 1945, Indonesia is an archipelagic state in Southeast Asia (13,677 islands, 6,044 of them inhabited). Divided into 27 provinces, it comprises the Malay Peninsula, the Greater Sunda Islands (Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi [formerly Celébes]), the Lesser Sunda Islands (including Bali), the Moluccas, and Papua (western New Guinea; Irian Jaya 1969–2002). Its capital is Jakarta. Its population was 234 million in 2007. Some 360 ethnic groups are represented, including 3% Chinese. Indones…

Indonesian Missions

(319 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[German Version] Indonesian churches are limited in performing their missionary task by edicts issued by the ministry of religion in 1978 which prohibit “oral propaganda,” the “distribution of printed materials,” the use of material “means of enticement” or visiting the homes of fellow-citizens of recognized religions (Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity). On the other hand, the state calles upon adherents of the so-called tribal religions to join one of the recognized religions. The Indone…

Family

(5,614 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter | Gerstenberger, Erhard S. | Osiek, Carolyn | Klein, Birgit | Heun, Werner | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Medieval and Modern Judaism – V. The Law – VI. History and Sociology – VII. Social Ethics – VIII.  Socialization Theory – IX. Education – X. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The term family describes a varied network of relationships between parents, children and other persons in a social system. In ethnically shaped small-scale societies, family groups are bearers of religious rituals (Rite and Ritual) and centers of religious community. Fa…

Mission

(13,709 words)

Author(s): Sundermeier, Theo | Frankemölle, Hubert | Feldtkeller, Andreas | Collet, Giancarlo | George, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Judaism – IV. Buddhism – V. Islam I. Religious Studies 1. Overview. Mission is not a fundamentally universal phenomenon in the history of religions; neither is every form in which religion is passed on eo ipso mission. “Primary,” tribal religions are not missionary religions. Their domain is coterminous with their society and its way of life; they are handed down from one generation to the next in the course of natural life. The question of truth does not arise. An indivi…

Batak Churches

(672 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[German Version] The Batak churches of northern Sumatra essentially go back to the initiative of the Rhenish Mission (United Evangelical Mission), which started working there in 1861. The first missionaries, J.H. Meerwaldt and especially I.L. Nommensen, strove to strip the traditional legal and moral system ( Adat ) of its religious elements, in order that it might be integrated into the church order as “civil law.” As a result, particularly strong bonds wit…

Paganism

(2,417 words)

Author(s): Mohr, Hubert | Becker, Dieter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History – III. Missiology I. Religious Studies Paganism (from Lat. paganus “pagan, rustic, civilian”; Pagandom) is the modern scientific term for the deliberate resumption (“reception”) or revival (“revitalization,” “reconstruction”) of ancient or recent ethnic religious traditions or elements of them (Cults; myths, symbols) outside Christianity and biblical Judaism. Although the religious occupation of an outgroup is structurally conceivable in other exclusive religious ¶ communities, such as Judaism or Islam, paganism …

Simatupang, Tahi Bonar

(162 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[German Version] ( Jan 28, 1920, Sidikalang, North Sumatra – Jan 1, 1990, Jakarta), longtime chairman of the Communion of Churches in Indonesia (Batak churches) and one of its most eminent ecumenical pioneers. Dismissed from military service as chief of staff at the age of 39, he dedicated himself to bringing an open society to fruition on the basis of the Pancasila, calling on the church to contribute “positively, creatively, critically, and realistically” to building up the nation in the light o…

Pancasila

(233 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[German Version] From its first formulation by President Achmed Sukarno, the Pancasila (from Sanksrit pañcaśīla, “five principles”) has been understood as a ¶ “state philosophy” guiding the people of Indonesia’s various ethnic communities, able to unite them in a single nation. Since the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia in 1945, it has been in the preamble of all the various constitutions. In its original form, it read: “Belief in the one and only God. Just and civilized humanity. The unity of Indonesia. Demo…

Neuendettelsau Mission

(323 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[German Version] The Missionswerk der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche in Bayern (Mission ¶ Agency of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria, MWB), founded in 1972, has roots going back to various initiatives of the Neuendettelsau pastor W. Löhe (1808–1872). With the slogan: “Take the gospel to those far off, and you will preserve it for those close at hand,” he began in 1842 to send so-called “emergency helpers” to care for emigrants in North America, and later also pastors to Australia in 1875, and Br…

Nommensen, Ludwig Ingwer

(299 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[German Version] (Feb 6, 1834, island of Nordstrand – May 23, 1918, Sigumpar, North Sumatra), missionary who pioneered the development of the Batak churches, still honored in Indonesia today as its “apostle” and ompu (Batak: “grandfather” or “ancestor”). He began his missionary work in 1863 in Tapanuli (North Sumatra); despite initially massive resistance, within ten years he had baptized some 1,200 individuals. At his death, the church had some 180,000 members. This unparalleled growth went hand in hand with increasing opennes…

Christian Villages

(178 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[German Version] Attempts to resettle people in villages created specifically for them in order to “civilize” and “convert” them have a long tradition in the history of European colonialism (Colonialism and mission; Reductions). Similar projects in Africa and Asia dating from the end of the 19th century were undertaken primarily to resettle slaves that had been handed over to or ransomed by the missions. The pioneers of such settlements were the Holy Ghost…

Paganismus

(2,137 words)

Author(s): Mohr, Hubert | Becker, Dieter
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich P. (von lat. paganus, »Heide, Landbewohner, Zivilist«; Heidentum) ist der moderne wiss. Begriff für die bewußte Wiederaufnahme (»Rezeption«) oder Wiederbelebung (»Revitalisierung«; »Rekonstruktion«) antiker und rezenter ethnischer rel. Traditionen oder deren Teilelemente (Kulte; Mythen, Symboliken) außerhalb von Christentum und bibl. Judentum. Obwohl die rel. Besetzung der Außengruppe strukturell auch in anderen exklusiven rel. Gemeinschaften wie der j…

Neuendettelsauer Mission

(279 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[English Version] . Das 1972 entstandene Missionswerk der Ev.-Luth. Kirche in Bayern (MWB) hat Wurzeln, die auf verschiedene durch den Neuendettelsauer Pfarrer W. Löhe (1808–1872) begründete Werke zurückgehen. Gemäß dem Grundsatz »Bringe das Evangelium den Fernen, so erhältst du es den Nahen«, sandte er ab 1842 sog. »Nothelfer« zur Versorgung dt. Auswanderer in Nordamerika aus; später auch Pastoren nach Australien (1875) und Brasilien (1897). Die Ausbildung erfolgte seit 1846 in einer von Friedric…

Simatupang

(158 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[English Version] Simatupang,  Tahi Bonar (28.1.1920 Sidikalang, Nordsumatra – 1.1.1990 Jakarta), war als langjähriger Vorsitzender der Gemeinschaft der Kirchen in Indonesien (PGI; Batak-Kirchen) zugleich einer ihrer profiliertesten ökum. Vordenker. Als Stabschef der Streitkräfte mit 39 Jahren aus dem Militärdienst entlassen, widmete er sich der Verwirklichung einer offenen Gesellschaft auf der Grundlage der Pancasila und rief die Kirchen dazu auf, im Licht des Evangeliums »positiv, kreativ, krit. …

Pancasila

(225 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[English Version] . Von ihrer ersten Formulierung durch Präsident Achmed Sukarno an wurde die P. (von Sanskrit panca sila, »fünf Säulen«) als eine »Staatsphilos.« verstanden, die die Menschen der verschiedenen Volksgruppen Indonesiens prägt und sie deshalb in einer Nation zu vereinen vermag. Sie ist seit der Proklamation der Republik Indonesien i.J. 1945 Teil der Präambel der verschiedenen Staatsverfassungen und lautet in ihrer urspr. Formulierung: »Glaube an Gott den Einen; Achtung vor dem Mensch…

Nommensen

(249 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter
[English Version] Nommensen, Ingwer Ludwig(6.2.1834 Hallig Nordstrand – 23.5.1918 Sigumpar, Nordsumatra), stand als Pioniermissionar am Anfang der Batak-Kirchen und wird in Indonesien bis heute als ihr »Apostel« und »Ompu« (bataksch »Ahnherr«) geehrt. Trotz anfänglich großer Widerstände mündete seine 1863 in Tapanuli (Nordsumatra) begonnene Arbeit nach zehn Jahren bereits in die Taufe von etwa 1200 Menschen. In seinem Todesjahr umfaßte die Kirche etwa 180 000 Mitglieder. Das vergleichslos schnelle W…