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State and Religion

(2,721 words)

Author(s): Besier, Gerhard | Herms, Eilert | Kleine, Christoph
[German Version] I. The Problem In Western societies, the relationship between the state and religion is determined less by religion’s constitutional status – freedom of religion is a fundamental constitutional right everywhere – than by historical tradition. Where the major confessional bodies were (or still are) state churches, there is still a hierarchy of religions. Without regard to actual religious life, the state gives traditional religions a special status, materially and ideally. In the publ…

Mühler, Heinrich von

(351 words)

Author(s): Besier, Gerhard
[German Version] (Nov 4, 1813, Brieg, Silesia [today Brzeg, Poland] – Apr 2, 1874, Potsdam). Mühler, the son of the Prussian minister of justice Heinrich Gottlob Mühler, studied law and received his doctorate at Berlin. In 1837 he served as a judge in Naumburg/Saale, Halle, Berlin, and Cologne. In 1840 he was appointed to the Prussian ministry of culture by J.A.F. Eichhorn. When the portfolio of church affairs was spun off from the ministry and the Evangelischer Oberkirchenrat (EOK) was establishe…

Falk, Adalbert

(666 words)

Author(s): Besier, Gerhard
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1827, Metschkau, Silesia – Jul 7, 1900, Hamm). Falk was a pastor's son and studied jurisprudence. In March 1848 he joined the Breslau civic militia and the Patriotic Society. In 1850 he passed the civil service examination and became an assistant with the Breslau state prosecutor, then in 1853 state prosecutor in Lyck (East Prussia), where from 1858 he was also a parliamentary representative of the moderate liberal party. In 1861 he became state prosecutor at the Supreme …

Labor Movement

(2,324 words)

Author(s): Besier, Gerhard
[German Version] I. Concept and Structure – II. Aims – III. History I. Concept and Structure Since the 1840s, the phrase labor movement has been a commonly accepted collective term for all European and North American self-help movements and self-protection movements pursuing the economic, political, and cultural emancipation of workers. Its organizational forms have included parties, trade unions, associations, and cooperative societies, with sometimes substantial national and regional differences. Ideologically w…