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Constantia

(304 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Flavia Iulia C. Daughter of Constantinus [1], wife of Licinius Daughter of Constantius [1] I and Theodora, half-sister of Constantine [I], betrothed in 312 to  Licinius (Lactant. De mort. pers. 43,2). The wedding took place early in 313 when Constantine and Licinius met in Milan (Lactant. De mort pers. 45,1; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 10,5,3; Anon. Vales. 13; Zos. 2,17). The issue of this marriage was a son, Licinianus Licinius, born in July 315. In 316 she accompanied her husband in his war against her half-brother, and fled with h…

Eutropia

(83 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Wife of emperor Maximianus, about AD 320 Wife of Emperor Maximianus. Mother of Maxentius and Fausta ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 40,12). After AD 324, she spent some time as a Christian pilgrimess in Palestine and drew Constantine's attention to the desecration of the holy place of Mambre (Eus. Vita Const. 3,52). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Half-sister of Constantine Half-sister of Constantine. Mother of Nepotianus, who in AD 350 was declared Augustus in Rome. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)

Fausta

(104 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Flavia Maxima F., daughter of Emperor Maximian and Eutropia; when still a minor, at the end of AD 307, she was married to Constantinus [1] in order to reinforce the alliance between Maximian and Constantine, after the former had returned to politics. Mother of three emperors: Constantinus [2], Constantius [2] and Constans [1]. At the end of 324 she was elevated with Helena to the rank of Augusta, but a little later, in circumstances that remain unexplained, killed by order of her imperial husband. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography PLRE 1, 325f. J. W. Drijvers, F…

Constantina

(154 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Eldest daughter of Constantine [1] the Great, she was married in 335 to  Hannibalianus and presumably not meant to be made Augusta until after Constantinus'death (Philostorg. Hist. Eccl. 3,22). After the murder of Hannibalianus she lived in the part of the empire ruled by Constans [1]. She was involved in Vetranio’s elevation to Caesar in 350 and in the following year married her cousin  Gallus, by then Caesar. She reigned with him in Antioch and took active part in matters of gov…

Romula

(118 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Mother of the emperor Galerius [5] Maximianus. According to Lactantius, her devotion to the mountain gods strongly influenced her son's anti-Christian politics (De mort. pers. 11,1 f.). Her significance in Galerius's dynastic self-presentation is evident in an anecdote about his conception (Ps.-Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 40,17) which was modelled after that of Alexander [4] the Great (Olympias [1]) as well as in the fact that he named the imperial residence Romuliana (modern Gamzigrad…

Maxentius

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] From 28 October 306 to 28 October 312, Valerius Maxentius ruled over Italy and Africa as emperor but was not recognised by his co-rulers of the 3rd tetrarchy. As the son of the western Augustus, Maximianus [1], and Eutropia [1] he could be seen as successor (Pan. Lat. 10,14,1), especially since - through his marriage (certainly later than 293) to Valeria Maximilla [1], the daughter of Galerius [5] and (through Valeria) granddaughter of Diocletianus - he was also connected to the I…

Panes aedium

(97 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] ('House-bread') was a special bread ration granted - within the general framework of the system of grain and bread distribution ( annona civica) to the civilian populations of the two capitals, Rome and Constantinople  - to individuals who had built a house at Constantinople. The privilege, established by Constantine (Constantinus [1]) and confirmed by Constantius [2] II, served to ensure the rapid growth of Constantinople. Legislation (Cod. Theod. 14,17,1 and 12) regulating whether the privilege could be passed on to heirs or purchasers is contradictory. Bleckm…

Temonarius

(203 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] ( temonarius equus, literally 'leading horse of a team'). One responsible for payment of taxes. From the time of Diocletianus (AD 284-305) onwards the conscription of recruits was to some extent integrated into the capitatio- iugatio taxation system: Land owners, usually several, belonging to a taxation unit had to supply one recruit annually or advance the sum needed to raise recruits ( adaeratio ). In yearly rotation one from among the land owners was designated temonarius or capitularius (payer of poll tax), who provided the recruit or the corresponding…

Laterculus Veronensis

(76 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] List - named after a badly corrupted MS from Verona of the 7th cent. AD - of the Roman provinces classified according to dioceses directly in accordance with the new order of Diocletianus (with map; c. AD 313) as well as (§ 13) of the ‘barbarian’ peoples on the northern border of the Roman empire. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine, 1982, 202f. (ed.).

Musonianus

(123 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Fl. Strategius M., of humble origin, served as an interpreter at the court of Constantinus [1] I and received from him the cognomen M. because of his learnedness (Amm. 15,13,1-2). He continued his career under Constantius [2] II: as a comes he supported the emperor in ecclesiastical policy. In AD 349 he was praeses (governor) of Thebes, in 350 proconsul of Constantinople, in 353 proconsul of Achaia, finally in 354-358  praefectus praetorio Orientis, with seat of office in Antioch. From there he conducted secret negotiations with the satrap Tamsapor o…

Senecio

(51 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Brother of Bassianus [3], allegedly incited him to rebel against Constantinus [1] (Anon. Vales. 15). Whether he can be identified with the dux S. recorded by ILS 664 as in Noricum in 310 AD is the subject of discussion. PLRE 1, 820 (S. 1). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)

Calocaerus

(53 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Magister camelorum (Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,11: perhaps in the sense of ‘leading shepherd slave’) on Cyprus. The revolt of AD 334 (?), which he led, was of only local significance and quickly suppressed, C. himself sentenced in Tarsus by  Dalmatius (PLRE 1, 177). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography Kienast, 21996, 308f.

Hannibalianus

(197 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Afranius H. Cos. ord. AD 292 Officer in Probus' staff (HA Probus 22,3), in AD 285, praefectus praetorio alongside Asclepiodotus, in 292 consul ordinarius again with Asclepiodotus, in 297-8 praefectus urbi. Perhaps the father of Maximian's stepdaughter  Theodora. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Half-brother of Constantinus [1] beginning 4th cent. AD Half-brother of  Constantinus [1] († AD 337) from the marriage between Constantius [1] and Theodora. Unlike his brothers Dalmatius [1] and Iulius Constantius [4], H…

Martinianus

(62 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Magister officiorum of Licinius [II 4]; after the fall of Hadrianopolis [3] (3 July AD 324), Licinius made him Augustus (incorrectly Caesar in the literary sources). After Licinius's capitulation, Martianus was banished to Cappadocia, where he was executed in 325. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography PLRE 1, 563 M. Clauss, Der magister officiorum in der Spätantike (4.-6. Jh.), 1980, 171.

Diocletianus

(1,598 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] A. Origin and career Roman emperor AD 284-305. Full name (first adopted after his elevation): C. Aurelius Valerius D. (CIL III 22), previously Diocles (Lactant. De mort. pers. 9,11; 19,5; 52,3; Lib. Or. 19,45f.; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 39,1; POxy 3055). Born in 241 or 244 in Dalmatia (Malalas 311 Bonn; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 39,1), presumably in Salona (Theoph. 10,13 de Boor). In a purely military career he advanced to the position of dux Moesiae (Zon. 12,31) and after that to commander of the bodyguard ( protectores domestici) of Emperors Carus and Numerianus (Zo…

Theotecnus

(83 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] (Θεότεκνος; Theóteknos). Curator civitatis ( logistḗs; Logistaí ) of Antioch [1]  c. 312 AD; instigated there a city petition to Maximinus [1] Daea to resume the persecution of Christians (Tolerance E.); later, as governor of Syria (?) and initiator of an oracle site of Zeus, he was a leading adviser of Maximinus on religious policy; Licinius [II 4] had him executed, because of his closeness to Maximinus rather than his religious conviction, in 313 AD (Eus. HE 9,11,6). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)

Crispus

(224 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iulius C. Son of the Emperor Constantine, 317 AD The eldest son of Constantine [1] from the liaison with Minervina, born c. AD 300; elevated together with his half-brother Constantius [2] II and Licinianus Licinius to the rank of caesar on 1 March 317 in Serdica. Unlike his brother he also became a princeps iuventutis in the same year and in 318 he was the first of the newly elevated caesars to be made consul. C., who was obviously groomed to be the successor, was sent to Gaul with his own praef. praet. after his elevation as caesar. He married Helen, an otherw…

Anastasia

(140 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Half-sister of Constantine the Great Half-sister of Constantine the Great and wife of  Bassianus. She must have still been alive during the founding of Constantinople; the Thermae Anastasianae are named after her (Amm. Marc. 26,6,14). From time to time, her name, which refers to belief in the Resurrection, was regarded as circumstantial evidence of the fundamentally Christian convictions of her father  Constantius (PLRE 1, 58, A.1). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Daughter of the emperor Valens Daughter of the emperor Valens. She and…

Iovius

(182 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Cognomen of Diocletian Cognomen of Diocletian,  Tetrarchy. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Praetorian prefect of emperor Honorius [3] Praetorian prefect under emperor  Honorius [3]. In 407, he was made Praefectus Praetorio Illyrici by Stilicho, in order to wrest this prefecture from the eastern empire, but remained dependent on the Gothic king  Alaricus [2] (Sozom. Hist. eccl. 8,25,3; 9,4,3; Zos. 5,48,2). In 409, he became Praef. Praet. Italiae and Patricius (Cod. Theod. 2,8,25; 16,5,47; Zos. 5,47,1). As the most influential…

Dioikesis

(730 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
(διοίκησις ; dioíkēsis, Lat. dioecesis). [German version] I. Greece ‘Housekeeping’ in the sense of administration, especially in the financial realm. Dioikesis is used for the administration of the state in general (for example, Pl. Prt. 319d; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 43,1), also for the financial administration (for example, Xen. Hell. 6,1,2; Dem. Or. 24,96f.), and, in an extended sense by the author of the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia, for maintenance payments made by the state (24,3). In later 4th-cent. BC Athens, an office for the upper financial administr…

Dalmatius

(366 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Fl. D. Half-brother of the Emperor Constantine I Son of  Constantius [1] and Theodora, half-brother of Constantine I. Nothing is known of his role in the initial period of Constantine's rule, although presumably he was given Toulouse as his abode during the tensions with Licinius in c. AD 320-324 (Auson. Prof. 16,11-12). Consul in 333, he was sent to Antioch at around the same time with the archaizing title of censor (Athan. c. Ar. 65,1ff.). There he was concerned with murder accusations against Athanasius. In Tarsus he had  Calocaerus burnt to d…

Maximilla

(148 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] [1] Valeria Maximilla Daughter of Galerius and wife of Maxentius Daughter of Galerius [5] and wife of Maxentius. The marriage produced two sons, Valerius Romulus (died 309?) and another son who is mentioned along with her as late as 312 (Pan. Lat. 12,16,5). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography PLRE 1, 576 [German version] [2] Cofounder of Montanism in the 2nd cent. AD In the middle of the 2nd. cent. AD she founded, together with Montanus and Priscilla, the Christian revivalist movement of Montanism. She was also a writer (Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haeresium 8,…

Prisca

(360 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Missionary, 1st cent. (Πρίσκα/ Prísca, in Acts Πρίσκιλλα/ Prískilla; Latin Prisca, Priscilla). In the middle of the 1st cent. AD, P. and her husband Aquila [4] worked as Christian missionaries. As a result of the edict of emperor Claudius [III 1] (expulsion of the Jews, Acts 18:2; Suet. Claud. 25), the Jewish-Christian couple left Rome to continue their tent making in Corinth (spreading the Gospel whilst supporting themselves through additional, unrelated work). They encountered Paulus [II 2] c. AD 50, accompanying him to Ephesus. P.’s importance as a …

Aradius Rufinus

(196 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praef. urbi 304-5, 312-13 AD Q. (?). Member of the African family of the Aradii Rufini, which had arisen to Senate membership early in the 3rd cent. AD. Presumably praef. urbi. already from 4.1.304 - 12.2.305 A. R. held this office again under Maxentius (9.2. - 27.10.312), after he had been consul together with  Ceionius in the last months of 311. After the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, A. was again praefectus urbi from 29.11.312 to 8.12.313. His proving himself under the various emperors was praised by Avianius Symmachus (Symmachus, Ep. 1; 2; 3). Bleckmann, Br…

Theodora

(850 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Θεοδώρα; Theodṓra). [German version] [1] Roman empress, about AD 300 Roman empress; stepdaughter (Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,25; Eutr. 9,22,1) or daughter (Anon. Vales. 1,1; Philostorgius 2,16) of Maximianus [1]. Contrary to the assertions of later sources, she was already married to Constantius [1] even before he was elevated to the rank of Caesar in AD 293  ( tetrárchēs IV.), and probably when he was praefectus praetorio to Maximianus (unclear Paneg. 2,11,4). The six children of their marriage represent the younger branch of the Constantinian imperial fam…

Valeria

(553 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] First priestess of Fortuna Muliebris, 5th cent. BC Sister of P. Valerius [I 45] Poplicola, said to have saved Rome in 488 BC from Coriolanus (Plut. Coriolanus 33; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,39; 8,43,1 f.); first priestess of Fortuna Muliebris (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,55,3-5; Fortuna B.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography Latte, 181. [German version] [2] Daughter of P. Valerius [I44], ca. 500 BC Daughter of P. Valerius [I 44] (elected belatedly cos. for the year 509 BC), sent to Porsenna with 19 other hostages (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,32,3). They …

Nepotianus

(177 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Son of Flavius N. (cos. AD 336) Son of the half-sister of Constantinus [1], Eutropia [2], and Flavius N. ( cos. AD 336). As a member of the Constaninian dynasty, he rose up in Rome against Magnentius. He defeated the army of the latter's praef. praet., Anicius (or Anicetus), in Italy and claimed to be the ruler for a while (June 350), until Magnentius's magister officiorum, Marcellinus [5], defeated him. Magnentius's retribution against N.'s supporters was bloody. PLRE 1,624, No. 5. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Father of the Emperor Nepos,…

Galerius

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] C. G. Eques, Rom. official, praefectus Aegypti probably AD 16-31 Eques, who probably came from Ariminum. Of his public offices only the praefectus Aegypti is known, which he held for 16 years, probably AD 16-31. [1; 2]; P. Oxy 3807. Died returning from Egypt. Married to Helvia, Seneca's aunt. PIR2 G 25. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Bastianini, in: ZPE 17, 1975, 270 2 I. Cazzaniga, in: Analecta Papyrologica 4, 1992, 5ff. [German version] [2] M. G. Aurelius Antoninus Son of the later emperor Antoninus Pius, died before AD 138 Son of the later emperor …

Tetrarches, Tetrarchia

(1,200 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
(τετράρχης/ tetrárchēs, τετραρχία/ tetrarchía). [German version] I. Definition The noun tetrarches (from τετράς/ tetrás = 'entity of four parts' and ἄρχειν/ árchein = 'rule') designates a military rank, but specifically the head of a tribal area within a fourfold alliance ( tetrás or tetrarchía); subsequently a ruler of lesser rank (see below III.). The two meanings were brought together at the time of Diocletian, so that the term now meant rule in four parts of the Roman Empire, but with differentiated competencies for each ruler (see below IV.). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) …

Maximianus

(1,672 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Nauerth, Claudia (Heidelberg) | Stroh, Wilfried (Munich)
[German version] [1] M. Aurelius Valerius M. Herculius Roman emperor, 286-305 AD Roman emperor, AD 286-305 or 310; on 13 December 285 (?) proclaimed Caesar by Diocletianus and employed in the fight against the Bagaudae (Eutr. 9,22,1; Pan. Lat. 7,8,3); after proving himself he was proclaimed Augustus on 1 April (Chron. Min. I, p. 229 f.) or 1 May 286 (cf. [1. 22]). Diocletian received him as a brother in his family, with M. acquiring the epithet Herculius while Diocletian became Iovius ( Tetrarchy). As Augustus, M. continued military operations in the western part of the empire,…

Constantinus

(2,742 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] C. I. The Great, Roman Emperor AD 306-337 ‘the Great’, Roman emperor from AD 306-337. Born c. 275 (Euseb. Vita Const. 4,53; Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,16; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,15, differently Euseb. Vita Const. 2,51) at Naïssus (Anon. Vales. 2) the son of Constantius [1] I and of Helena. After his father was made Caesar, Constantine served on the staff of  Diocletian and of  Galerius (Pan. Lat. 7[6] 5,3; Lactant. De mort. pers. 18,10; Anon. Vales. 2). In 305 he left the court of Galerius to jo…

Constantius

(1,565 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] C. I, Flavius Valerius C., C. Chlorus, Roman Emperor (Augustus) AD 305-306 or M., Caesar (293-305) and Augustus (305-306), in later times nicknamed Chlorus; born c. 250 in what would become Dacia Ripensis. On the staff of the Illyrian soldier emperors, first protector, then tribunus. Under the rule of  Carinus attained equestrian rank as praeses Dalmatiarum (Anon. Vales. 1; SHA Car. 17,6). It seems likely that even before 293 (thus Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,24; Eutr. 9,22,1), and in fact before 289, when he was praefectus praetorio to  Maximianus, he had to divorce h…

Achilles

(2,497 words)

Author(s): Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) | Ley, Anne (Xanten) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Myth Hero from Greek mythology (Ἀχιλλεύς, Ἀχιλεύς [ Achil(l)eús], Etruscan Αχλε [ Achle], Latin Achilles). Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) [German version] A. Etymology We still lack a reliable explanation of A.'s name, which is presumably of pre-Greek origin. Explanations from antiquity vary: Schol. Il. 1,1 derives the name from the ‘sorrow’ ( áchos) caused by A. to the Trojans (i.e. the ‘Ilians’). Another explanation (e.g. Tzetzes, Lycoph. 178) derives the name from χεῖλος ( cheîlos; ‘lip’) and α- privativum; A. meaning ‘without lip’, as he is said to hav…

Bassianus

(184 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Caesar for Italy around 316 AD Married to  Anastasia [1], named Caesar for Italy by  Constantinus the Great shortly before the war against Licinus (AD 316), but was then spurred on by his brother Senecio to…

Constans

(591 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iulius C. Roman Emperor (Augustus), 337-350 AD Roman Emperor, born c. 320 AD, the youngest son of Constantine [1] and Fausta, elevated to Caesar on 25 December 333 and at about the same time betrothed to Olympias, the daughter of  Ablabius [1]. From 9 September 337 Augustus. At a meeting of the brothers in Pannonia (Julian Or. 1,19a) C. received Italy, Illyricum and Africa (Zon. 13,5). He refused to acknowledge the guardianship of his eldest brother Constantine [2] II [1]. Constan…

Silvanus

(1,338 words)

Author(s): Mihály-Lorand, Dészpa | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Roman god of the forest Male deity. Mihály-Lorand, Dészpa I. Cult and places of worship Roman god of the forest [German version] A. Etymology and origin Based on the etymology of the name, four hypotheses have so far been put forward regarding the origins of this god: S. is identical with the Etruscan god Selvan [4. 54-59; 12. 200]; S. is an adjectival derivation of the word silva ('forest') and was originally an epithet of either Faunus [14. 213] or Mars [6. 132]; S. is a direct derivative of the Latin silva ('forest'), with the suffix -no- adding the meaning of 'mas…

Ceionius

(1,308 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] C. Commodus, L. Cos. ord. 78 AD A native of Etruria; senator from the time of Nero; cos. ord. 78; governor of Syria from AD 78/79; married to Appia Severa (PIR2 C 603) [1. I 308; 2. 45 A. 22]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C. Commodus, L. Cos. ord. 106 AD Son of [1]. Cos. ord. AD 106 (PIR2 C 604). Married to one Plautia, their son being C. [3]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] C. Commodus, L. = Aelius Caesar, L. Cos. ord. 136 AD Son of [2]. His maternal half-brother was M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus [3. 845]. Born on 13 January in about AD 1…

Domitius

(5,665 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman plebeian family name, attested from the 4th cent. BC onwards (ThlL, Onom. 3,217-227). The most important families into the 1st cent. AD are the Ahenobarbi [I 1-8] and the Calvini [I 9-12]. Identification of some members of the family in the 2nd cent. BC is uncertain. I. Republican period [German version] Domitii Ahenobarbi Family history in Suet. Ner. 1-5. Legend of the origin of the cognomen (ThlL, 1,135; in manuscript also Aenobarbus) ‘Red-beard’, ‘Bronze-beard’ in Suet. Ner. 1,1; Plut. Aem. 25. The family was probably accorded patrician st…

Helena

(1,535 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑλένη; Helénē, Lat. Helena). [German version] [1] Beautiful wife of Menelaus ('Helen of Troy') Goddess who was worshipped at various cult sites in and around Sparta, especially in the Menelaion in  Therapne (Hdt. 6,61; Paus. 3,15,3; Hsch. s.v. Ἑλένεια, [1]). In  Rhodes she had a cult as H. Dendritis (Paus. 3,19,10), in  Cenchreae and  Chios she is attested as a deity of springs (Paus. 2,2,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἑλένη). There is no completely reliable etymology for her name [2. 63-80]. For evidence of her cult i…

Maximinus

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] M. Daia Roman emperor, AD 305-313 Roman emperor, AD 305-313. The son of Galerius' [5] sister and like Galerius born in Dacia ripensis, possibly in Šarkamen (modern Serbia), he rose from protector to tribunus (Lactant. De mort. pers. 19,6); as Galerius' adoptive son he became Caesar in the change of rulers of 305 (thereafter: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). As co-ruler over the diocese Oriens he continued the persecutions of Christians (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 8,14,9). Like Constantinus [1] not content with the title …

Lollianus

(1,348 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Λολλιανός; Lollianós) [German version] [2] addendum to the family name Hedius. [German version] [3] Q. Hedius L. Plautius Avitus Consul ord. 209 AD For the form of the name, in which Gentianus is also recorded once, cf. [1. 232f.]. Patrician, brother of the virgo Vestalis maxima Terentia Flavola; son of L. [8]. L.'s career up to the consulate is known from CIL VI 32412 = ILS 1155. It is conspicuous that as patrician between the praetorship and office of consul, he was also iuridicus Asturicae et Callaeciae as well as legate of the legio VII Gemina, both in Hispania citerior. Cos. ord. in AD 20…

Romulus

(2,313 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Küppers, Jochem (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Legendary founder of Rome The legendary founder of Rome. Perhaps literally 'the Roman'. A possible correspondence between the Etruscan nomen gentile Rumelna (Volsinii, 6th cent. BC: ET Vs 1,35) and the alleged Roman nomen gentile Romilius - the name is securely attested only in an old tribus Romilia/-ulia (Paul Fest. 331 L.) - and between R. and an Etruscan praenomen * Rumele [1. 31 f.] proves nothing about the historicity of the figure of R. Also problematic is the attempt [2. 491-520; 3. 95-150] to connect the finds from the Roman Mon…

Hierocles

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…

Hermogenes

(2,256 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἑρμογένης; Hermogénēs). [German version] [1] Companion of Socrates Athenian, son of Hipponicus, brother of Callias, appears on many occasions in the Socratic writings of Plato and Xenophon as the companion of  Socrates. Together with the eponymous character, H. is the dialogue partner of Socrates in Plato's Cratylus. Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 SSR VI B 71-77 2 Davies, 269-270. [German version] [2] From Aspendus, assistant commander of Antiocus I H. from Aspendus. In the struggle of Antiochus [2] I (died in 261 BC) to regain territories in Asia Minor…

Valerius

(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…
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