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Lollianus

(1,348 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Λολλιανός; Lollianós) [German version] [2] addendum to the family name Hedius. [German version] [3] Q. Hedius L. Plautius Avitus Consul ord. 209 AD For the form of the name, in which Gentianus is also recorded once, cf. [1. 232f.]. Patrician, brother of the virgo Vestalis maxima Terentia Flavola; son of L. [8]. L.'s career up to the consulate is known from CIL VI 32412 = ILS 1155. It is conspicuous that as patrician between the praetorship and office of consul, he was also iuridicus Asturicae et Callaeciae as well as legate of the legio VII Gemina, both in Hispania citerior. Cos. ord. in AD 20…

Prisca

(360 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Missionary, 1st cent. (Πρίσκα/ Prísca, in Acts Πρίσκιλλα/ Prískilla; Latin Prisca, Priscilla). In the middle of the 1st cent. AD, P. and her husband Aquila [4] worked as Christian missionaries. As a result of the edict of emperor Claudius [III 1] (expulsion of the Jews, Acts 18:2; Suet. Claud. 25), the Jewish-Christian couple left Rome to continue their tent making in Corinth (spreading the Gospel whilst supporting themselves through additional, unrelated work). They encountered Paulus [II 2] c. AD 50, accompanying him to Ephesus. P.’s importance as a …

Constantia

(304 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Flavia Iulia C. Daughter of Constantinus [1], wife of Licinius Daughter of Constantius [1] I and Theodora, half-sister of Constantine [I], betrothed in 312 to  Licinius (Lactant. De mort. pers. 43,2). The wedding took place early in 313 when Constantine and Licinius met in Milan (Lactant. De mort pers. 45,1; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 10,5,3; Anon. Vales. 13; Zos. 2,17). The issue of this marriage was a son, Licinianus Licinius, born in July 315. In 316 she accompanied her husband in his war against her half-brother, and fled with h…

Tetrarches, Tetrarchia

(1,200 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
(τετράρχης/ tetrárchēs, τετραρχία/ tetrarchía). [German version] I. Definition The noun tetrarches (from τετράς/ tetrás = 'entity of four parts' and ἄρχειν/ árchein = 'rule') designates a military rank, but specifically the head of a tribal area within a fourfold alliance ( tetrás or tetrarchía); subsequently a ruler of lesser rank (see below III.). The two meanings were brought together at the time of Diocletian, so that the term now meant rule in four parts of the Roman Empire, but with differentiated competencies for each ruler (see below IV.). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) …

Maximianus

(1,672 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Nauerth, Claudia (Heidelberg) | Stroh, Wilfried (Munich)
[German version] [1] M. Aurelius Valerius M. Herculius Roman emperor, 286-305 AD Roman emperor, AD 286-305 or 310; on 13 December 285 (?) proclaimed Caesar by Diocletianus and employed in the fight against the Bagaudae (Eutr. 9,22,1; Pan. Lat. 7,8,3); after proving himself he was proclaimed Augustus on 1 April (Chron. Min. I, p. 229 f.) or 1 May 286 (cf. [1. 22]). Diocletian received him as a brother in his family, with M. acquiring the epithet Herculius while Diocletian became Iovius ( Tetrarchy). As Augustus, M. continued military operations in the western part of the empire,…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Anastasia

(140 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Half-sister of Constantine the Great Half-sister of Constantine the Great and wife of  Bassianus. She must have still been alive during the founding of Constantinople; the Thermae Anastasianae are named after her (Amm. Marc. 26,6,14). From time to time, her name, which refers to belief in the Resurrection, was regarded as circumstantial evidence of the fundamentally Christian convictions of her father  Constantius (PLRE 1, 58, A.1). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Daughter of the emperor Valens Daughter of the emperor Valens. She and…

Iovius

(182 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Cognomen of Diocletian Cognomen of Diocletian,  Tetrarchy. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Praetorian prefect of emperor Honorius [3] Praetorian prefect under emperor  Honorius [3]. In 407, he was made Praefectus Praetorio Illyrici by Stilicho, in order to wrest this prefecture from the eastern empire, but remained dependent on the Gothic king  Alaricus [2] (Sozom. Hist. eccl. 8,25,3; 9,4,3; Zos. 5,48,2). In 409, he became Praef. Praet. Italiae and Patricius (Cod. Theod. 2,8,25; 16,5,47; Zos. 5,47,1). As the most influential…

Constantinus

(2,742 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] C. I. The Great, Roman Emperor AD 306-337 ‘the Great’, Roman emperor from AD 306-337. Born c. 275 (Euseb. Vita Const. 4,53; Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,16; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,15, differently Euseb. Vita Const. 2,51) at Naïssus (Anon. Vales. 2) the son of Constantius [1] I and of Helena. After his father was made Caesar, Constantine served on the staff of  Diocletian and of  Galerius (Pan. Lat. 7[6] 5,3; Lactant. De mort. pers. 18,10; Anon. Vales. 2). In 305 he left the court of Galerius to jo…

Achilles

(2,497 words)

Author(s): Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) | Ley, Anne (Xanten) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Myth Hero from Greek mythology (Ἀχιλλεύς, Ἀχιλεύς [ Achil(l)eús], Etruscan Αχλε [ Achle], Latin Achilles). Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) [German version] A. Etymology We still lack a reliable explanation of A.'s name, which is presumably of pre-Greek origin. Explanations from antiquity vary: Schol. Il. 1,1 derives the name from the ‘sorrow’ ( áchos) caused by A. to the Trojans (i.e. the ‘Ilians’). Another explanation (e.g. Tzetzes, Lycoph. 178) derives the name from χεῖλος ( cheîlos; ‘lip’) and α- privativum; A. meaning ‘without lip’, as he is said to hav…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Bassianus

(184 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Caesar for Italy around 316 AD Married to  Anastasia [1], named Caesar for Italy by  Constantinus the Great shortly before the war against Licinus (AD 316), but was then spurred on by his brother Senecio to…

Temonarius

(203 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] ( temonarius equus, literally 'leading horse of a team'). One responsible for payment of taxes. From the time of Diocletianus (AD 284-305) onwards the conscription of recruits was to some extent integrated into the capitatio- iugatio taxation system: Land owners, usually several, belonging to a taxation unit had to supply one recruit annually or advance the sum needed to raise recruits ( adaeratio ). In yearly rotation one from among the land owners was designated temonarius or capitularius (payer of poll tax), who provided the recruit or the corresponding…

Laterculus Veronensis

(76 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] List - named after a badly corrupted MS from Verona of the 7th cent. AD - of the Roman provinces classified according to dioceses directly in accordance with the new order of Diocletianus (with map; c. AD 313) as well as (§ 13) of the ‘barbarian’ peoples on the northern border of the Roman empire. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine, 1982, 202f. (ed.).

Musonianus

(123 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Fl. Strategius M., of humble origin, served as an interpreter at the court of Constantinus [1] I and received from him the cognomen M. because of his learnedness (Amm. 15,13,1-2). He continued his career under Constantius [2] II: as a comes he supported the emperor in ecclesiastical policy. In AD 349 he was praeses (governor) of Thebes, in 350 proconsul of Constantinople, in 353 proconsul of Achaia, finally in 354-358  praefectus praetorio Orientis, with seat of office in Antioch. From there he conducted secret negotiations with the satrap Tamsapor o…

Senecio

(51 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Brother of Bassianus [3], allegedly incited him to rebel against Constantinus [1] (Anon. Vales. 15). Whether he can be identified with the dux S. recorded by ILS 664 as in Noricum in 310 AD is the subject of discussion. PLRE 1, 820 (S. 1). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)

Theodora

(850 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Θεοδώρα; Theodṓra). [German version] [1] Roman empress, about AD 300 Roman empress; stepdaughter (Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,25; Eutr. 9,22,1) or daughter (Anon. Vales. 1,1; Philostorgius 2,16) of Maximianus [1]. Contrary to the assertions of later sources, she was already married to Constantius [1] even before he was elevated to the rank of Caesar in AD 293  ( tetrárchēs IV.), and probably when he was praefectus praetorio to Maximianus (unclear Paneg. 2,11,4). The six children of their marriage represent the younger branch of the Constantinian imperial fam…

Calocaerus

(53 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Magister camelorum (Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,11: perhaps in the sense of ‘leading shepherd slave’) on Cyprus. The revolt of AD 334 (?), which he led, was of only local significance and quickly suppressed, C. himself sentenced in Tarsus by  Dalmatius (PLRE 1, 177). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography Kienast, 21996, 308f.
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