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Monotheism

(1,572 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] I. Concept Monotheism - the belief in the existence of a single god, in contrast to polytheism and henotheism (worship of a single god while still recognizing other gods) - is a concept from the early modern era, probably first evident in the Cambridge Platonist H. More [1] (Christian-apologetic dissociation from pagan forms of religion; argument defending the trinitarian concept of God). Monotheism has been viewed both from an evolutionary perspective as a final stage of development and as an original form of religion that later degenerated into polytheism, as a fall from grace, as it were [2]. However, neither of the two macro-theories of development is convincing. Still, the concept of monotheism seems to presuppose that of polytheism, and monotheism often results in a revolutionary rejection of polytheism [3]. When looking at specifi…

Elate

(57 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλάτη; Elátē, ‘spruce’). Sister of the  Aloads Otus and Ephialtes. She was similar in stature to them. When she mourned the demise of her brothers she was transferred into a spruce tree towering to the sky (Lib. Narrationes 37; Eust. on Hom. Od. 5,239 and on Hom. Il. 5,560; 14,287). …

Euphorion

(1,434 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Εὐφορίων; Euphoríōn). [German version] [1] Winged son of Achilles and Helena A figure invented by Ptolemy Chennus (Phot. 149a): E., a winged son of Achilles and Helena, is killed on the island of Melos by a bolt of lightning from Zeus whose love he does not reciprocate. The nymphs who bury the corpse are changed into frogs by Zeus. In Goethe's Faust (2nd Part), E. appears as the son of Faust and Helena. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography K.-H. Tomberg, Die Kaine Historia des Ptolemaios Chennos, 1967, 108. [German version] [2] of Athens Tragedian Tragedian, son of Aeschylus. He won prizes on four occasions with tragedies by his father (Suda ε 3800, see also DID C 8). He won the Dionysia of 431 BC, beating Sophocles and Euripides (DID C 12), probably with his own tragedies [1. 56]. Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 H. Hoffmann, Chronologie der attischen Tragödie, 1951. Mette, 18 and 162 TrGF 12. …

Echetus

(97 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετος; Échetos, ‘Holder’). Cruel king with whom the suitor Antinous threatened the beggar Irus and Odysseus (Hom. Od. 18,85; 116; 21,308; Suda s.v. E. 493 Adler). He blinded his daughter Amphissa (or Metope) and had her crush ore in a chamber; he dismembered her lover Aechmodicus (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1093 with schol.). Schol. Hom. Od. 18,85 (= Marsyas FGrH 135-136 F 19) explains that he was a Sicilian tyrant who tortured strangers, but who was eventually stoned by his own subjects. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography J. Russo et al., Homer's Odyssey, vol. 3 (comm.), 1992, 52f.

Euryalus

(331 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρύαλος; Eurýalos, ‘far-voyaging’ [1. 71, 195]); the name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] Argive hero An Argive hero, son of Mecisteus from Argos. He is mentioned both as one of the  Argonauts (Apollod. 1,113) and one of the Epigoni (sons of the seven heroes who fought in vain against Thebes; Apollod. 3,82; Paus. 2,20,5). E. marches against Troy with Diomedes and Sthenelus (Hom. Il. 2,566; 6,20-28 aristeia; Apollod. 1,103; Paus. 2,30,10). At the funerary games for Patroclus he is defeated in the boxing competition by Epius (Hom. Il…

Elymus

(77 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Trojan, eponymous forefather of the  Elymi. He came to Sicily either with Aegestus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,47; 52f.; Tzetz. schol. Lycoph. 965) or Aeneas (Str.13,1,53), and settled in the region around the  Eryx. Virgil, who refers to him as Helymus, depicts him as the winner in a competition (Verg. Aen. 5,73; 323). According to Serv. Aen. 5,73, he was the founder of the cities of Asca, Entella, and Egesta. Bloch, René (Berne)

Eunomia

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐνομία, Εὐνομίη; Eunomía, Eunomíē). Personification of good order. Along with  Dike and  Eirene she is one of the three  Horae (Hes. Theog. 901-902), the daughters of Zeus and Themis. Only in Alcman (PMG 64) is E. the daughter of Promatheia (‘foresight, consideration’) and sister of  Tyche and  Peitho. In her role as the guardian of peace (cf. Pind. Pyth. 5,66-67: eunomía apólemos, ‘unwarlike E.’), E. is praised particularly in times of crisis (Tyrtaeus IEG fr. 1-4; Solon IEG fr. 4, 32-39); in the 5th cent. (in the Peloponnesian War) E. b…

Eurymachus

(63 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρύμαχος; Eurýmachos; for the name cf. [1]). Son of Polybus; one of the most respected of  Penelope's suitors (Hom. Od. 1,399). In the suitors' board games he is often the victor (Ath. 1,17 a b). He is killed by Odysseus, in spite of offering him atonement (Hom. Od. 22,44-88). Cf. also Aesch. 179 TrGF. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 Kamptz, 72.

Eurydamas

(114 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυδάμας; Eurydámas, ‘the far-conquering’); the name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] Prophesying elderly man Father of Abas and Polyidus. Aged Trojan who had the gift of prophesying from dreams, but could not foretell the death of his sons by the hand of Diomedes (Hom. Il. 5,148-151 with schol.; Tzetz. Homerica 66). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Suitor to Penelope Suitor to Penelope (Hom. Od. 18,297); he was killed by Odysseus (Hom. Od. 22,283). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Inventor of a Thessalian custom Supposed inventor of th…

Dryas

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δρύας; Drýas, ‘man of oak’; ThlL, Onom. s.v.D.). [German version] [1] Thessalian Lapith Thessalian Lapith. He was a friend of Peirithous, at whose wedding he fought with the Centaurs (Hom. Il. 1,263; Hes. Sc. 179; Ov. Met. 12,290-315). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Son of Ares, Thracian Thracian, a son of Ares. He took part in the Calydonian Hunt (Ov. Met. 8,307). Unlikely to be identical to the D. who was murdered by his brother  Tereus, after an oracle's pronouncement that Tereus' son would be murdered by a relative (Apollod. 1,67; Hyg. Fab. 45,3; 159) [1]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bi…

Dictinius

(187 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Bishop of Astorga (Asturica); son of Symphosius, who was likewise bishop there. The most eminent Priscillianist writer after  Priscillianus himself; he declared his disaffection with the doctrine at the first Council of Toletanum (Toledo) in AD 400 and repudiated his own writings, whereupon he was again acknowledged. Later Innocent I defended him (Epist. 3,1ff. = PL 20,485ff.) against rigourist bishops in Baetica and Africa, protesting against the indulgence shown him by the Synod…

Echepolus

(78 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχέπωλος; Echépōlos, ‘Horse owner’). [German version] [1] Pelopid Pelopid, son of an Anchises from Sicyon. He gave Agamemnon the mare Aithe and thus bought his release from the journey to Troy (Hom. Il. 23,296 with schol.) Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, Hermes ES 14, 1960, 261. [German version] [2] Trojan A Trojan who was killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 4,458). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 558-560.

Damnameneus

(32 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαμναμενεύς; Damnameneús). One of the  Daktyloi Idaioi who invented the technique of forging iron (Phoronis fr. 2,3 EpGF = fr. 2,3 PEG I; Str. 10,3,22). Bloch, René (Berne)

Demophon

(535 words)

Author(s): Clinton, Kevin (Ithaca N. Y.) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δημοφῶν; Dēmophôn). [German version] [1] Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus and Metaneira. According to myth D. was nurtured by the goddess  Demeter, who had been hired as a wet-nurse; she anointed him with ambrosia and hardened him at night in the fire so as to burn away his mortality (cf. Thetis: Achilles), until his mother noticed and cried out. Demeter then placed D. on the ground and threatened the Eleusinians with civil wars (Hom. Il. 2,233-255);…

Deipylus

(111 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηίπυλος; Dēípylos). Son of the Thracian king  Polymestor and of  Ilione, the eldest daughter of Priam. She exchanged him with her youngest brother  Polydorus, whose upbringing had been entrusted her by their father Priam. Her intention was to prevent the death of her brother should the outcome of the war be unfavourable. After the fall of Troy Polymestor allowed himself to be persuaded by Agamemnon to kill the last of the sons of Priam. Thus he unwittingly became the murderer of …

Baucis

(234 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βαῦκις; Baûkis). ‘The tender one’ [1. 193]; B. is the old Phrygian woman who together with her husband Philemon gives shelter to the gods Jupiter and Mercury when they enter her simple hut in the disguise of tired wanderers. As punishment for refusing the two gods hospitality in the rest of the region, the entire area is destroyed by a flood. Only the hut of Philemon and B. is spared and transformed into a magnificent temple, where the two are granted their wish to become priests.…

Chariclo

(109 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χαρικλώ; Chariklṓ). [German version] [1] Wife of Chiron Naiad; wife of  Chiron; daughter of Apollo, Perseus or Oceanus; mother of Carystus (Hes. Cat. fr. 42; Schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,182 Drachmann). Always depicted near to Chiron, also i.a. as a member of Peleus' and Thetis' marriage procession. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Nymph Nymph; wife of Eueres. According to Pherecydes, being a favourite of Athena she obtains for her son  Teiresias, blinded by Athena, a staff and the gift of understanding the songs of birds (Apollod. 3,70; Callim. H. 5,59). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliograp…

Demo

(342 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Δημώ; Dēmṓ). Shortened form of a compound (see D. [3], [4]). [German version] [1] Daughter of Celeus The daughter of  Celeus, king of Eleusis, and  Metaneira. Together with her sisters Callidice, Cleisidice and Callithoe, she has a friendly encounter with  Demeter who is wandering about in the shape of an old woman (Hom. H. 2,109). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Name of the Cymaean Sibyl Name of the Cymaean  Sibyl, of whom, however, the Cymaeans did not know an oracle. They could only point to a water jug that contained the bones of the Sibyl (Hyper…

Echion

(146 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχίων/ Echíōn, ‘Snake man’, from ἡ ἔχις/ échis, ‘the Snake’). [German version] [1] One of the five 'Spartoi', men who grew from dragon teeth One of the five ‘Spartoi’, the men who grew from the dragon teeth sown by  Cadmus into the Theban earth. He married Cadmus' daughter Agave and was the father of Pentheus (Paus. 9,5,3f.; Apollod. 3,26; 36; Hyg. Fab. 178,6; 184,1; Ov. Met. 3,126; cf. Hor. Carm. 4,4,64: Thebae Echioniae). Aeneas killed the Rutulian Onites, a son of E. and Peridia (Verg. Aen. 12,514f.). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography R. Rocca, s.v. E., EV 2, 164f. [German version] [2] Son…

Damas

(245 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δάμας; Dámas). [German version] [1] Hero from Aulis Hero from Aulis who travelled to Troy with Arcesilaus and was killed there by Aeneas (Q. Smyrn. 8,303-305: Dymas? [1]). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 P. Vian, Q. Smyrn., 1966. [German version] [2] Eponymous founder of Damascus in Syria (Δαμᾶς; Damâs). Eponymous founder of  Damascus in Syria. He accompanied Dionysus to Asia where he established a shrine to him in Syria in the form of a hut (σκηνή), called Δαμᾶ σκηνή ( Damâ skēnḗ, ‘hut of Damas’), hence Damascus (Etym. m. s.v. Δαμσκός 247 Gaisford). Bloch, René (Berne) …

Dascylus

(133 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δάσκυλος; Dáskylos). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalus and Anthemoisia Son of Tantalus and Anthemoisia, father of Lycus, king of the Mariandyni in Bithynia (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,724; 752). D. or his son Lycus amiably received  Heracles as a guest during his travels when he was searching for Hippolyte's belt. In return, Hercules helped them to subjugate the neighbouring peoples (Apoll. Rhod. 2,775-791; Apollod. 2,100). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Son of Lycus Son of Lycus, grandson of D. [1]. His father offered him to the  Argonauts as a travel guide.…

Diotima

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Διοτίμα; Diotíma). In the introduction of his discourse on Eros in Plato's Symposium (201d), Socrates claims that he would only pass on what he had learned from D., a wise priestess from Mantinea, who allegedly obtained for Athens a ten-year moratorium of the plague from the gods. The dialogue of the Symposium is thus interrupted. The D.-interlude consists of two parts: the first explains the nature of Eros, the second his power. In his epilogue, Socrates indicates his conviction that these teachings are correct. It is impossible…

Electryone

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠλεκτρυώνη; Ēlektryṓnē). [German version] [1] Patronymic of Alcmene Patronymic of Alcmene, the daughter of  Electryon (Hes. Sc. 16; 35; 86). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Heroine on Rhodes (also Ἀλεκτρώνα; Alektrṓna). Heroine on Rhodes, daughter of Helios and Rhodus (Diod. Sic. 5,56; Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,24; Syll.3 338-340). She is depicted on coins from Rhodes. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] see Electra [3]  Electra [3] Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography S. Grunauer-Von Hoerschelmann, s.v. E., LIMC 3.1, 719f.

Elatus

(231 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔλατος; Élatos, ‘spruce man’). Name of several mythical figures. [German version] [1] Centaur Centaur, pierced by Hercules' poisoned arrow, which simultaneously wounded  Chiron (Apollod. 2,85). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Prince of the Lapiths in Larisa Prince of the Lapiths in Larisa. He was the father of the Argonaut Polyphemus (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,40-41; Apollod. 1,113) and of  Caeneus/Caenis (Hyg. Fab. 14,2.4; 173,3; 242,3; Ov. Met. 12,189; 497). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Met. B. 12-13, 1982, 63. [German version] [3] Eponymu…

Clementia

(124 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of clemency (ThlL, Onom. II, 487). Pliny (HN 2,14) names C. in a series of deified abstractions. The C. of Caesar [1; 2] was famous: the senate had a joint temple built for the Divus Iulius and the deified C. in which Caesar and the goddess were depicted extending their hands to each other (Plut. Caes. 57,4; App. B Civ. 2,106; Cass. Dio 44,6,4). On the golden shield of Augustus C. is one of the four virtues attributed to him (R. Gest. div. Aug. 34). C. is the central theme in Seneca's speculum regum ( De clementia). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 M. Treu, Zur C…

Erigone

(248 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριγόνη; Ērigónē). Name of two similar figures of Attic mythology: [German version] [1] Suicide, daughter of Icarius, welcomer of Dionysus Daughter of  Icarius, who had given Dionysus a hospitable reception and, for this, had received as a present the knowledge of making wine. When Icarius, on behalf of Dionysus, tried to introduce viticulture, he was killed by the farmers who thought they had been poisoned after they had drunk unblended wine. E. was led to her father's body by the dog Maera and thereupon hanged h…

Daunus

(175 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαῦνος; Daûnos). [German version] [1] Eponymous hero of the Daunians Hero who gave his name to the Daunians ( Daunia); son of  Lycaon. Of Illyrian origin (Fest. p. 69), he immigrated to Italy together with his brothers Iapyx and Peuketios. There they expelled the native Ausonians and founded three kingdoms: Messapia, Peuketia and Daunia, which together are called  Iapygia (Nik. fr. 47 = Anton. lib. 31). When  Diomedes comes to Italy, D. receives him kindly and is supported by him against the Messapians. …

Dares

(240 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg)
(Δάρης; Dárēs). [German version] [1] Trojan priest of Hephaistus Trojan priest of Hephaistus, whose sons Phegeus and Idaeus start the battle against  Diomedes. Whilst the former is killed by Diomedes, Idaeus is rescued by Hephaistus (Hom. Il. 5,9-26). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography G. S. Kirk, The Iliad: A Commentary, vol. 2, 1990, 54 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 408f. [German version] [2] One of Aeneas' companions One of Aeneas' companions, excellent pugilist. However, at the funeral games in honour of  Anchises, he is unexp…

Caecilianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Carthage, from AD 311/12 In 311/312 (according to [1] around 309/310), C. was ordained bishop of Carthage by Felix of Apthugni. A council of 70 bishops under the leadership of the Numidian primate Secundus of Tigisi declared C.'s election invalid and accused Felix of traditio. In his place, Maiorinus was elected at first, with (313)  Donatus following shortly afterwards. Emperor Constantine declared his support for C. (cf. especially Constantine's letter in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). The dispute with…

Elephenor

(118 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλεφήνωρ; Elephḗnōr). Son of Chalcodon, grandson of Abas and king of the  Abantes on Euboea. He was one of Helena's suitors (Apollod. 3,130) and the leader of the Abantes against Troy (Hom. Il. 2,540-541). He was expelled from Euboea following the accidental killing of his grandfather; for that reason, he was only able to call the Abantes to battle by shouting from a cliff top near Euboea (Lycoph. 1034 with Tzetz.). The sons of Theseus were among those who followed him to Troy (Paus. 1,17,6). E. was killed by  Agenor [5] (Hom. Il. 4,463-469). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography…

Cerialis

(149 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
Roman cognomen (also Caerialis, Caerealis) of Latin origin, derived from the adjectival Cerealis (‘belonging to Ceres’); current from the Julian-Claudian era onwards (Schulze, 486f.; ThlL, Onom. 2,344f.).   Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinianus I, 4th cent. AD Brother of  Iustina, the wife of  Valentinianus I (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). Tribunus stabuli (Amm. Marc. 30,5,19). In AD 375 he helped his nephew  Valentinianus II to the throne (Amm. Marc. 30,10,5). PLRE 1,197. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Dux Libyarum 405 AD In AD 4…

Eryx

(583 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(ὁ Ἔρυξ/ ho Éryx, Lat. Eryx, Erucus, Erycus). [German version] [1] Mountain in western Sicily High, isolated mountain in western Sicily (751 m), now Monte San Giuliano. Settled even in prehistoric times, with a famous sanctuary to the probably Phoenician goddess of E., identified as Aphrodite by the Greeks, later (Thuc. 6,2,3) became a polis of the  Elymaeans. The attempt by Dorieus to establish a Greek colony (around 510 BC) ended in his destruction by the Phoenicians and the Elymaeans of Segesta (Hdt. 5,43-4…

Balius

(134 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βάλιος, Βαλίας; Bálios, Balías) and Xanthus. Immortal horses of the Peleid  Achilles, who were born by the harpy Podarge to Zephyrus, god of the winds. Poseidon gave them to Peleus on his marriage to Thetis (Hom. Il. 16,148-154; Apollod. 3,170). Xanthus prophesied Achilles his approaching death (Hom. Il. 19,400-424). When he dies, B. and Xanthus want to leave the human sphere, but the gods order them to serve Achilles' son Neoptolemus and to carry him later to Elysium (Quint. Smyrn.…

Eunomus

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὔνομος; Eúnomos). [German version] [1] Cup-bearer and relative of king Oeneus Young cup-bearer and relative of King Oeneus. Hercules punches E. for his clumsiness, killing him, and then goes into voluntary exile in Trachis at the court of King Ceyx (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 2; Apollod. 2,150). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] King of Sparta Spartan king of the clan of the Eurypontids. Perhaps the name was however only inserted on the royal list as a personification of  Eunomia [1]. Hdt. 8,131 places E. between  Polydectes and  Charillus, Paus. 3…

Battus

(646 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βάττος; Báttos). [German version] [1] B.I. King of Cyrene, around 630 BC Son of Polymnestus, from the lineage of the Minyan Euphemus of Thera (Hdt. 4,150). Leader of the colonists and King of Cyrene (Hdt. 4,153,3; SEG 9,3: ἡγεμόνα ἀρχαγέταν καὶ βασιλέα). Around 630 BC, he first settled on the island of Platea, then on the Libyan coast, and finally in the town of  Cyrene after reaching an agreement with the local residents (Hdt. 4,153; 156; 158). There he reigned for 40 years according to Herodotus (4,159).…

Eirene

(570 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). The word is perhaps pre-Greek [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Personification and deification of peace Personification and deification of peace (Orph. H. 15,11). E. is one of the  Horae, daughter of Zeus and Themis, sister of Dike and Eunomia (Hes. Theog. 901-902; Pind. Ol. 13,6-8). She is often mentioned in Greek literature as a central figure for the prospering of the political community. Thus, E.'s gifts are praised, for instance, in Bacchyl. fr. 4,61 Snell-Maehler and in Euripides (Bacch. 419-420; TGF 453) while usually being connected, as ‘a giver of wealth’, to ploút…

Bormus

(99 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βῶρμος; Bôrmos). A handsome young Mariandynian (south coast of the Black Sea) who disappeared suddenly while he was out fetching water for reapers. According to Hsch (s.v. Β. 356) he was taken by nymphs. Another tradition reports that as the son of Titias, brother of Priolas and Mariandynus, he lost his life on a hunt (Nymphis of Heraclea FGrH 432 F5; Domitius Callistratus FGrH 433 F3; Poll. 4,54f.). The Mariandynians called out after him in laments during high summer. The oldest allusions to this are in Aesch. Pers. 937. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Nilsson, Feste 4…

Briseis

(167 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βρισηίς; Brisēís). Prisoner of war and beloved of  Achilles who carried her off as booty in Lyrnessus (Mysia) after he had slain her husband and three brothers (Hom. Il. 2,688-693; 19,291-297). According to Il. 9,128-134; 270-276 (with schol. Il. 1,366), B. was one of seven girls whom Achilles had captured on Lesbos. In schol. Il. 1,392, B. is called Hippodamia. According to the Cypria, B. came from Pedasus in the Troad, another town that had been conquered by Achilles (schol. Il.…

Ichthyophagi

(131 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἰχθυοφάγοι/ Ichthyophágoi, ‘fish-eaters’). Collective ethnographic term for coastal peoples who primarily live on fish. As a Utopian people residing at the ends of the then-known world, the I. are described as models of justice, but sometimes also as animal-like, living on a low civilizational level (Agatharchides of Cnidus, De Mari Erythro, fr. 31-49 = GGM 1, 129-141). Most frequently mentioned are the Ethiopian I. on the Red Sea, whom Herodotus reports as having been sent (in va…

Eridanus

(207 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριδανός/ Ēridanós, Latin Eridanus). [German version] [1] Personification of a river in the west of France or Spain Mythical river in the (north) west (northern Italy, south of France or Spain), son of  Oceanus and  Tethys (Hes. Theog. 338).  Phaeon plunged into the E. from his sun wagon and his sisters ( Heliades) were turned into black poplars on the banks of the E., and their tears into amber (Eur. Hipp. 736-741; Ov. Met. 2,324; 365; Hyg. Fab. 152; 154). Since Hesiod, the E. is associated with the creation of…

Chloris

(193 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χλωρίς, Χλῶρις; Chlōrís, Chlôris). [German version] [1] Goddess According to Ovid (Fast. 5,195ff.) the goddess  Flora was originally called C.; Zephyrus took her as his wife and made her goddess of flowers. This juxtaposition is an invention of Ovid. It was taken up by Lactantius (1,20,8) and by the Anthologia Latina (747R.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Niobe, the only one spared by Artemis Daughter of  Amphion [1] and  Niobe. She was the only one of the daughters of Niobe to be spared by Artemis, because she prayed to Leto. Her image …

Byblis

(140 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βυβλίς, Βιβλίς; Byblís, Biblís). Daughter of Miletus and Eidothea, the daughter of Eurytus, or of Cyane, the daughter of Maeander. Her passionate love for her twin brother  Caunus drives him into exile and herself into death. In respect of her end, the stories vary: she hangs herself (Parthenius 11; Conon 2), she jumps off a cliff and is transformed into a hamadryad by nymphs (Ant. Lib. 30 according to Nicander), or she dissolves into tears and becomes a spring (Ov. Met. 9,450-665). According to Steph. Byz. (s.v. B.), B. is the eponym of the Phoenician town of Byblus. Bloch, …

Educa

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Edula, Edusa, Edulia). Roman ‘special deity’ ( Indigitamenta), which, according to Varro (antiquitates rerum divinarum 114 Cardauns) was named in Christian Polemic (Tert. Ad nat. 2,11,8: Edula; Aug. Civ. 4,34; 6,9) together with  Potina. According to Varro in Non. 151, E. ( Edusa) supposedly watched over the food for the children. Sacrifices were made to her when children had their first meal. In Donat. Ter. Phorm. 1,1,15, her name is Edulia. According to [1], E. was originally a gens deity. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Altheim, Röm. Religionsgesch. 1,…

Euterpe

(151 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐτέρπη; Eutérpē; cf. τέρπειν; térpein, ‘giver of joy’). One of the nine  Muses, the daughter of Zeus and  Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 77; Apollod. 1,13; Orph. H. 76,8; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,1 b). Later texts describe flute playing as her particular responsibility (Hor. Carm. 1,1,33; schol. Eur. Rhes. 346; schol. Hes. Theog. 76). According to Apollodorus of Athens (FGrH 244 F 146) and Heraclid. fr. 159 Wehrli, E. was impregnated by Strymon and gave birth to  Rhesus (cf. Apollod. 1,18; sch…

Pygmies

(323 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Πυγμαῖοι/ Pygmaîoi; from πυγμή/ pygmḗ, 'fist'; hence 'mittens' [1]; Lat. Pygmaei). A dwarf people, generally located by ancient ethnography at the edge of the known world, i.e. in Africa (Aristot. Hist. an. 8,12,597a), India (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 45) and Thrace (Plin. HN 4,44). Pygmy is, however, also a general term for people of unusually short stature (Aristot. Gen. an. 2,8,749a 4-6). Mythology has pygmies originating from Gaea and Poseidon  (Hes. fr. 150,17-18 Merkelbach/West). Herodotus'…

Brisae

(123 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Βρῖσαι; Brîsai). [German version] [1] Nymphs on Ceos Nymphs on Ceos; introduced the rural deity  Aristaeus to olive oil and honey (Hsch s.v. B. 348; schol. Theoc. 5,53). Even in antiquity they were associated with the Lesbian Dionysus,  Brisaeus, whom a nymph Brisa is said to have nurtured (schol. Pers. 1,76). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Thracian sub-tribe Thracian sub-tribe above the lower Nestus, neighbours of the Sinti and Mygdones; only attested once in literature (Plin. HN 4,40), frequently conjectured to be Brigas (Brison in Arr. Ana…

Unicorn

(287 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (μονόκερως/ monókerōs, monoceros, unicornis). The unicorn was irrelevant to Graeco-Roman mythology; and it was not a theme in iconography (it is common, however, in mediaeval book illustration). Accounts of one-horned animals are more frequent, originating primarily from the Indian rhinoceros (Aristot. Hist. an. 2,1, 499b20; Aristot. Part. an. 3,2,663a20; Megasthenes FGrH 715 F 27b;  Ael. NA 3,41; 16,20; Plin. HN 8,76; 11,255). The main source was Ctesias of Cnidus, who was the first to describe in detail a fabulous one-horned wild ass in his Ἰνδικά ( Indiká = FGr…

Diopeithes

(409 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Διοπείθης; Diopeíthēs). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Author of Old Comedy, only known from inscriptions; probably won at the Dionysia for the first time in 451 BC [1. test.]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 43. [German version] [2] Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by Pericles Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by  Pericles. Following his petition it was decided in 437/6(?) BC to prosecute those who did not believe in the …

Chryseis

(116 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Χρυσηίς; Chrysēís). Etymology ‘girl from  Chryse’ or ‘daughter of Chryses’. The daughter of the Apollo priest Chryses who was captured by  Achilles in Thebes and allotted to Agamemnon as a slave. When Chryses pleaded with Agamemnon to have C. returned, he was refused. On Chryses' prayer Apollo forced the return of C. by sending a plague. Agamemnon then demanded Achilles' captive  Briseis as a substitute and, thus, incurred his anger (Hom. Il. 1). According to schol. Il. 1,392 C. w…

Chrysippe

(23 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Χρυσίππη; Chrysíppē). Danaid who killed her spouse Chrysippus, son of Aegyptus (Apollod. 2,18; Hyg. Fab. 170). Bloch, René (Berne)
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