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Spes

(423 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Büchli, Jörg (Zürich)
(The Roman personification of 'hope'). [German version] I. Roman Unlike the Greek Elpis, Spes ('Hope') had a cult and temples. In the 1st Punic War, A. Atilius [I 14] Calatinus dedicated a temple to Spes on the Forum Holitorium in Rome (Cic. Leg. 2,28; Tac. Ann. 2,49). The building burned down on several occasions (Liv. 25,7,6; Cass. Dio 50,10,3); there was a rededication under Germanicus in AD 17; the remains of the temple are visible in the church of St. Nicola in Carcere. According to Liv. 2,51,2 and …

Egerius

(159 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Son of Arruns Son of Arruns, grandson of Demaratus. E. was only born after the death of his father and grandfather, which is why the entire fortune went to Arruns' brother Lucumo. His nephew supposedly received the name E. because of his poverty ( egere, ‘to suffer want’). When Lucumo later became Roman king with the name L. Tarquinius Priscus, E. was granted rule over the Latin town of Collatia by him and took the epithet Collatinus. His son L. Tarquinius Collatinus was the husband of  Lucretia (Liv. 1,34,2f.; 57,6; Dio…

Broteas

(140 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Βροτέας; Brotéas). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalos Son of Tantalus and Euryanassa, brother to Pelops and Niobe, father of the younger Tantalus, who was married with Clytaemnestra before Agamemnon (schol. Eur. Or. 5; Paus. 2,22,3). The Magnetes believed that he had created the oldest rock carving of the Mother of the Gods near Magnesia on the Sipylus (Paus. 3,22,4). In another tradition he was a huntsman who scorned  Artemis and who, after asserting that fire could do him no harm, hurled himself into a fire in a fit of insanity and perished (Apollod. Epit. 2,2). Bloch, René (Berne) …

Elpenor

(166 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλπήνωρ; Elpḗnōr). Evocative name, whose exact meaning is disputed (‘on whom rest the hopes of men’ or ‘who hopes for manly vigour’) [1]. He was one of Odysseus' companions, who were turned into swine by Circe; reverted to his normal shape, he fell off the roof of her house in a sleepy drunken stupor, broke his neck, and was left without burial. His shadow begged Odysseus to bury him, when the latter visited the Underworld; his wish was granted (Hom. Od. 10,551-560; 11,51-83; 12,1…

Discordia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] The Latin equivalent of the Greek  Eris. In contrast with  Concordia, D. was never more than a literary personification, and not a cult goddess. Ennius (Ann. 225f.) has D. break down the gates of war (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,460f.). According to Hyg. Fab. praef. 1, D. is a daughter of the ‘night’ ( Nox) and of  Erebos. In Virgil (Aen. 6,280), she stands guard at the entrance to the Orcus; in Aen. 8,702 she appears ─ in a torn cloak ─ on Aeneas' shield amidst the tumult of the battle of Ac…

Dictinius

(187 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Bishop of Astorga (Asturica); son of Symphosius, who was likewise bishop there. The most eminent Priscillianist writer after  Priscillianus himself; he declared his disaffection with the doctrine at the first Council of Toletanum (Toledo) in AD 400 and repudiated his own writings, whereupon he was again acknowledged. Later Innocent I defended him (Epist. 3,1ff. = PL 20,485ff.) against rigourist bishops in Baetica and Africa, protesting against the indulgence shown him by the Synod…

Dione

(228 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Διώνη; Diṓnē, cf. Ζεύς, Διός; Zeús, Diós). Perhaps Zeus' original wife [1], though she was already replaced by  Hera in Mycenaean times (cf. PY Tn 316). A coin from Epirus [2] shows an enthroned D., with Zeus on the verso; in the Zeus sanctuary at  Dodona, she was worshipped alongside Zeus [3].  Aphrodite was also regarded as the daughter of the two (Hom. Il. 5,370; Eur. Hel. 1098; [4]; Theoc. Id. 15,106; 17,36; cf. Pl. Symp. 180d). In Cic. Nat. D. 3,23, D. is the mother of the third V…

Chromius

(113 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρομίος; Chromíos). [German version] [1] Brother of Nestor Son of Neleus and Chloris; brother of Nestor (Hom. Od. 11,286). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Companion at arms of Nestor Companion at arms of Nestor (Hom. Il. 4,295). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Son of Priam Son of Priam; killed by Diomedes (Hom. Il. 5,160; Apollod. 3,152). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [4] Trojan, killed by Teucer Trojan; killed by Teucer (Hom. Il. 8,275). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [5] Lycian, killed by Odysseus Lycian; killed by Odysseus (Hom. Il. 5,677). Bloch, Ren…

Brisaeus

(40 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βρισαῖος; Brisaîos). Epiclesis of Dionysus through which he was worshipped on the promontory of Brisa (Bresa) in Lesbos (Steph. Byz. s.v. Βρῖσα). The tragedian  Accius Brisaeus is mentioned in Persius (1,76 with schol.). Bloch, René (Berne)

Echeclus

(108 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔχεκλος; Écheklos). [German version] [1] Son of the Trojan Agenor Son of the Trojan Agenor, killed by Achilles (Hom. Il. 20,474). Paus. 10,27,2 points to a parallel motive in the Iliad parva (18 PEG I) where the son of Achilles, Neoptolemus, kills the father of E. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, Hermes ES 14, 1960, 354 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 555f. [German version] [2] Trojan, killed by Patroclus Trojan, killed by Patroclus (Hom. Il. 16,694). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des…

Candidus

(240 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
A popular cognomen in the Imperial Age, attested with certainty from the 1st cent. AD (ThlL, Onom. 2,133ff.). [German version] [1] Christian in AD 200 Christian in c. AD 200, author of various lost treatise about the Hexaemeron (Eus. HE 5,27; Jer. vir. ill. 48). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus, 3rd cent. AD A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus; in c. AD 230, he had a public dispute with  Origen, who accused him of retrospectively falsifying the records (Rufin. Apol. Orig. epil. = PG 17,625; Hier. Adv. Ru…

Bellum

(97 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] From Old Latin dvellum. Beginning with the Augustan poets, B. occasionally figures as the personification of war (Verg. Aen. 1,296; Ov. Met. 1,143). Virgil names B. along with sopor, discordia and the Furies in his description of the underworld (Aen. 6,279). The painter  Apelles depicted B. with hands tied behind his back together with Alexander who is riding on a triumphal wagon in a no longer extant painting displayed by Augustus on the Forum (Plin. HN 35,27,93; Serv. Aen. 1,294). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann, s.v. B., 100-101 P. Zanovello, s.v. P…

Charops

(182 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χάροψ; Chárops). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet by which Heracles was worshipped in Boeotia near the sanctuary of Zeus on Mount Laphystion. It was there that, in Boeotian tradition, he fetched Cerberus from the underworld (Paus. 9,34,5). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Grandfather of Orpheus Thracian; father of Oeagrus, grandfather of Orpheus. After the death of the Thracian King  Lycurgus, Dionysus appointed C. as one of his followers and initiated him into the Bacchic rites; C. then told the god of the assault pl…

Eurytion

(231 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυτίων; Eurytíōn). Frequently used name of heroes and  centaurs. [German version] [1] Leader of the centaurs Thessalian centaur; in the house of Peirithous, while drunk on wine, he violates Peirithous' bride  Hippodamia, whereupon the Lapiths disfigure him; this leads to the conflict between  Lapithae and centaurs. The suitor  Antinous [1] holds E.'s fate up before Odysseus as a warning (Hom. Od. 21,295-304). Later too, E. as leader of the centaurs is frequently represented as a terrifying example (Thgn. 1,542). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Peloponnesian centaur Pel…

Damon

(975 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Δάμων; Dámōn) [German version] [1] Prince of the Telchines Prince of the  Telchines. Father-in-law of Minos and ancestor of Miletus. When the Telchines were struck dead by lightning by Jupiter because they poisoned crops, D. and his family were spared in gratitude for hospitality provided. Only his daughter Macelo and her husband were among the victims (Nic. in the schol. Ov. Ib. 475). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Syracuse A Pythagorean from Syracuse, friend of Phintias, for whom he stood surety with his life. According to Aristoxenus (…

Empusa

(260 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔμπουσα; Émpousa, etymology unclear [1]). Ghostly female figure ( phásma) who was remarkable for her ability to transform her appearance ( polýmorphos) and belonged to the group of spectral  Demons in Greek popular belief [2; 3] ( Lamia). She adopted various forms and in Aristoph. Ran. 285-295 appeared to Dionysus and his slave Xanthias, on their journey through the underworld [4], as a cow, a mule, a pretty woman and finally as a dog [5]. Her face was lit by fire, one leg was made of ore, the other …

Erato

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἐρατώ; Eratṓ). [German version] [1] One of the nine Muses One of the nine  Muses; daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 78; Apollod. 1,13). Attribution of a sphere of activity, as in the case of the other Muses, emerged only gradually. Plato i.a. assigns her to the sphere of the erotic, on account of her name (Phdr. 259d); but she is above all the Muse of love-lyric, and is appealed to in this connection by poets (cf. Verg. Aen. 7,37; Ov. Ars am. 2,16; 425). She is portrayed i.a. on the François Vase (570 BC) and on the Basle lekythos (together with  Thamyris and  Klio). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibl…

Delphus

(132 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δελφός; Delphós). Hero who gave his name to  Delphi. He controlled the territory around Parnassus, when  Apollo, arriving from Delos, entered Delphi (Aesch. Eum. 16 with schol.). Apollo or Poseidon was mentioned as his father, and Melaena, Celaeno or Thyia as his mother (Paus. 10,6,3-5; schol. Eur. Or. 1094; Hyg. Fab. 161). In some accounts D. is said to have been the leader of the Cretans who came to Phocis and called themselves Delphi after him (Phylarchos FGrH 81 F 85). Delphi was also called Pytho after his son Pythes or his daughter Pythis (Paus.…

Deiphontes

(173 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηιφόντης; Dēiphóntēs). Great-great grandson of Heracles (Heracles-Ctessipus-Thrasyanor-Antimachus-D.). He married  Hyrnetho, daughter of the Heraclid  Temenus. The latter had been awarded Argos in the land lottery after the conquest of the Peloponnese. Temenus' sons, who felt neglected compared with D. and Hyrnetho, had their father killed. As he was dying, Temenus handed over rule to D. and Hyrnetho. But the Temenids did not relinquish their claims to power. For this reason D. m…

Eryx

(583 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(ὁ Ἔρυξ/ ho Éryx, Lat. Eryx, Erucus, Erycus). [German version] [1] Mountain in western Sicily High, isolated mountain in western Sicily (751 m), now Monte San Giuliano. Settled even in prehistoric times, with a famous sanctuary to the probably Phoenician goddess of E., identified as Aphrodite by the Greeks, later (Thuc. 6,2,3) became a polis of the  Elymaeans. The attempt by Dorieus to establish a Greek colony (around 510 BC) ended in his destruction by the Phoenicians and the Elymaeans of Segesta (Hdt. 5,43-4…

Brizo

(88 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βριζώ; Brizṓ). A deity who predicted the future as a person lay sleeping. She was worshipped by Delian women as the protective goddess of boats. They brought her votive offerings in small barks which were not allowed to contain any fish. The name B. was derived from βρίζειν ( brízein, ‘to slumber’) (Semus of Delos in Ath. 8,335a-b = FGrH 396F4). B. is explained by [1] as a goddess who sends the wind and the waves to sleep. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 H. Usener, Götternamen, 1896, 147.

Dryope

(212 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δρυόπη; Dryópē). [German version] [1] Nymph, transformed into a tree Name of a nymph. Two widely diverging accounts exist of D.'s metamorphosis. According to Nik. in Antonius Liberalis 32, D. was the daughter of  Dryops and wife of  Andraemon [2]. She took onto her lap Apollo, who had been transformed into a tortoise, and subsequently gave birth to  Amphissus. D. was abducted by the nymphs with whom she played as a girl and to whose world she originally belonged. In her place, a black poplar and a spring…

Eumelus

(707 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(Εὔμηλος; Eúmēlos). [German version] [1] Leader of the pherae. fleet against Troy Son of  Admetus and  Alcestis. He led (only) 11 ships from Pherae against Troy (Hom. Il. 2,711-715) [1]. Although he had the best horses (Hom. Il. 2,763-767), he did not win the chariot race at the funeral games for Patroclus, as Athena broke the yoke of his chariot (Hom. Il. 23,391-397). Achilles nevertheless awarded him a prize (23, 533-538). According to Apollod. epit. 5,5, he is said to have won at the funeral games for Ac…

Deimos

(172 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δεῖμος; Deîmos). Personification of fear; usually associated with  Phobos. Together with  Eris the pair urge warriors into battle (Hom. Il. 4,440), and harness the horses to  Ares's chariot (Il. 15,119f.).  Antimachus [3] misinterpreted them as the horses of Ares, descended from Thyella (‘storm’) [1]; similarly, in Val. Fl. 3,89 Terror and Pavor are the horses of Mars. According to Hes. Theog. 934, D. and Phobos are the sons of Ares and Cythereia (Aphrodite). In Semus, FGrH 396 F …

Eudorus

(435 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster)
(Εὔδωρος; Eúdōros). [German version] [1] One of the five leaders of the Myrmidons under Achilles One of the five leaders of the  Myrmidons under Achilles. A son of Hermes and  Polymele, he was brought up by his grandfather Phylas after Polymele later married the Actorid Echecles. His aptitude for fighting, being a fast runner, is strongly emphasized (Hom. Il. 16,179-186) but apart from this, the Iliad is silent on his fate. Eust. Od. 1697,56 reports of his death at the hands of Pyraechmes at the first clash with the Trojans (cf. also Eust. Od. 1053,54). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography R. Jan…

Erginus

(142 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐργῖνος; Ergînos). Mythical king of Orchomenus in Boeotia, son of Clymenus and  Budeia or Buzyge. When Menoeceus' chariot driver, the Theban Perieres, killed E.'s father during the feast of Poseidon, E. made Thebes pay tributes. The young Hercules, however, liberated Thebes from this tribute in a fight in which E. was defeated (Paus. 9,17,1-4; 37,1-4; schol. Il. 16,572; Apollod. 2,67-69; Eur. HF 220-221; Diod. Sic. 4,10,5). The fight of E. against Hercules is depicted on a Hadrian…

Iapetus

(185 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἰαπετός; Iapetós). The etymology is uncertain, perhaps ‘the one hurled down’ (on ἰάπτειν; iáptein, ‘to hurl’ [1]). The often postulated connection to OT Japheth, the third son of Noah (Gen. 5,32 et passim), cannot be proven [2; 3]. I. is the titan who was hurled by Zeus into Tartarus along with  Kronos (Hom. Il. 8,479). Son of  Gaia and  Uranus (Hes. Theog. 134). He fathered the sons  Atlas [2],  Menoetius,  Prometheus and Epimetheus with the Oceanid Clymene (Hes. Theog. 507-511). Among others, Asia (Apollod. 1…

Deileon

(59 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηιλέων; Dēiléōn). Son of Deimachus of Tricca. With his brothers  Autolycus [2] and Phlogius he took part in the Amazon expedition of Heracles. They remained in Sinope and later returned with the Argonauts to Thessaly (Apoll. Rhod. 2,955-960; Val. Fl. 5,113-115). Other sources name him Demoleon (Plut. Lucullus 23,5; Hyg. Fab. 14,30). Bloch, René (Berne)

Deipylus

(111 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δηίπυλος; Dēípylos). Son of the Thracian king  Polymestor and of  Ilione, the eldest daughter of Priam. She exchanged him with her youngest brother  Polydorus, whose upbringing had been entrusted her by their father Priam. Her intention was to prevent the death of her brother should the outcome of the war be unfavourable. After the fall of Troy Polymestor allowed himself to be persuaded by Agamemnon to kill the last of the sons of Priam. Thus he unwittingly became the murderer of …

Euthyphron

(119 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐθύφρων; Euthýphrōn). Athenian seer, a character in Plato's eponymous dialogue: Socrates, who has been summoned to court, meets E., who wants to see his father prosecuted for manslaughter by criminal negligence, because he has allowed a slave to die who had been guilty of murder. Socrates' reservations about this way of action lead to a debate on the nature of piety. E. is also mentioned in Pl. Crat. 396d; 399e; 428c. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography M. L. McPherran, Socratic Piety in the E., in: H. H. Benson (ed.), Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates, 1992, 220-241 A. …

Damasichthon

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαμασίχθων; Damasíchthōn). [German version] [1] One of the sons of Niobe One of the sons of  Niobe (Apollod. 3,45) who like his brothers is killed by Apollo (Ov. Met. 6,254-260). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, Kommentar zu Ov. met. 6-7,1976, 78. [German version] [2] Son of the Athenian Codrus Son of the Athenian Codrus. Together with his brother Promethus, who later murdered him, he was the leader of the Ionian colony in Colophon (Paus. 7,3,3). Bloch, René (Berne)

Eetion

(371 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἠετίων; Ēetíon, linguistically probably not of Greek origin [1]). Name, especially of foreign heroes. [German version] [1] King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe King of the Cilicians in Mysian Thebe (Hom. Il. 1,366). His daughter  Andromache told her husband Hector how Achilles killed her father E. and her seven brothers during the conquest of Thebe: Achilles set up a monument for the father. The wife of E. was ransomed but later killed by Artemis (Hom. Il. 6,394-428). Among the booty from the conquest of Thebe was th…

Euryalus

(331 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρύαλος; Eurýalos, ‘far-voyaging’ [1. 71, 195]); the name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] Argive hero An Argive hero, son of Mecisteus from Argos. He is mentioned both as one of the  Argonauts (Apollod. 1,113) and one of the Epigoni (sons of the seven heroes who fought in vain against Thebes; Apollod. 3,82; Paus. 2,20,5). E. marches against Troy with Diomedes and Sthenelus (Hom. Il. 2,566; 6,20-28 aristeia; Apollod. 1,103; Paus. 2,30,10). At the funerary games for Patroclus he is defeated in the boxing competition by Epius (Hom. Il…

Echetus

(97 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετος; Échetos, ‘Holder’). Cruel king with whom the suitor Antinous threatened the beggar Irus and Odysseus (Hom. Od. 18,85; 116; 21,308; Suda s.v. E. 493 Adler). He blinded his daughter Amphissa (or Metope) and had her crush ore in a chamber; he dismembered her lover Aechmodicus (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1093 with schol.). Schol. Hom. Od. 18,85 (= Marsyas FGrH 135-136 F 19) explains that he was a Sicilian tyrant who tortured strangers, but who was eventually stoned by his own subjects. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography J. Russo et al., Homer's Odyssey, vol. 3 (comm.), 1992, 52f.

Chariclo

(109 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χαρικλώ; Chariklṓ). [German version] [1] Wife of Chiron Naiad; wife of  Chiron; daughter of Apollo, Perseus or Oceanus; mother of Carystus (Hes. Cat. fr. 42; Schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,182 Drachmann). Always depicted near to Chiron, also i.a. as a member of Peleus' and Thetis' marriage procession. Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Nymph Nymph; wife of Eueres. According to Pherecydes, being a favourite of Athena she obtains for her son  Teiresias, blinded by Athena, a staff and the gift of understanding the songs of birds (Apollod. 3,70; Callim. H. 5,59). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliograp…

Echetlus, Echetlaeus

(88 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετλος, Ἐχετλαῖος; Échetlos, Echetlaîos). A man of peasant demeanour who in the battle of Marathon killed many Persians with his plough ( echétlē, ‘plough handle’) and subsequently disappeared. Because of an oracle, the Athenians worshipped him as the Hero Echetlaeus. On the painting of the battle of Marathon in the Stoa Poikile, he was depicted with a plough in his hand (Paus. 1,15,3; 32,5) Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography M. H. Jameson, The Hero Echetlaeus, in: TAPhA 82, 1951, 49-61 J. G. Szilágyi, s.v. Echetlos, LIMC 3.1, 677-678.

Copia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of fullness, depicted with the horn of plenty (Plaut. Pseud. 671; 736;  Amalthea), later also called cornucopia (Amm. Marc. 22,9,1). C. with the horn of plenty appears on the coins of two cities with the name Colonia C., which not necessarily indicates the existence of a cult [1; 2]. C. is also mentioned in an inscription from Avennio (today's Avignon, CIL XII 1023). According to Ovid (Met. 9,85-88), C. received the horn filled with fruit and flowers, which Hercules had broken off the  Achelous, from the Naiades. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Chloris

(193 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χλωρίς, Χλῶρις; Chlōrís, Chlôris). [German version] [1] Goddess According to Ovid (Fast. 5,195ff.) the goddess  Flora was originally called C.; Zephyrus took her as his wife and made her goddess of flowers. This juxtaposition is an invention of Ovid. It was taken up by Lactantius (1,20,8) and by the Anthologia Latina (747R.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Niobe, the only one spared by Artemis Daughter of  Amphion [1] and  Niobe. She was the only one of the daughters of Niobe to be spared by Artemis, because she prayed to Leto. Her image …

Caecilianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Carthage, from AD 311/12 In 311/312 (according to [1] around 309/310), C. was ordained bishop of Carthage by Felix of Apthugni. A council of 70 bishops under the leadership of the Numidian primate Secundus of Tigisi declared C.'s election invalid and accused Felix of traditio. In his place, Maiorinus was elected at first, with (313)  Donatus following shortly afterwards. Emperor Constantine declared his support for C. (cf. especially Constantine's letter in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). The dispute with…

Bormus

(99 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βῶρμος; Bôrmos). A handsome young Mariandynian (south coast of the Black Sea) who disappeared suddenly while he was out fetching water for reapers. According to Hsch (s.v. Β. 356) he was taken by nymphs. Another tradition reports that as the son of Titias, brother of Priolas and Mariandynus, he lost his life on a hunt (Nymphis of Heraclea FGrH 432 F5; Domitius Callistratus FGrH 433 F3; Poll. 4,54f.). The Mariandynians called out after him in laments during high summer. The oldest allusions to this are in Aesch. Pers. 937. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Nilsson, Feste 4…

Briseis

(167 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βρισηίς; Brisēís). Prisoner of war and beloved of  Achilles who carried her off as booty in Lyrnessus (Mysia) after he had slain her husband and three brothers (Hom. Il. 2,688-693; 19,291-297). According to Il. 9,128-134; 270-276 (with schol. Il. 1,366), B. was one of seven girls whom Achilles had captured on Lesbos. In schol. Il. 1,392, B. is called Hippodamia. According to the Cypria, B. came from Pedasus in the Troad, another town that had been conquered by Achilles (schol. Il.…

Inachus

(283 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἴναχος; Ínachos; etymology unresolved). [German version] [1] Progenitor of the Argive royal house Son of  Oceanus and of  Tethys, who gave the main river of  Argus [II] and of  Argolis their names (schol. Eur. Or. 932). First king of Argus (Acusilaus, FGrH 2 F 23c) and progenitor of the Argive kings and heroes (‘Inachids’: Eur. IA 1088). In the argument between Poseidon and Hera about Argus, I. decides in favour of the goddess and introduces her cult, which causes Poseidon to dry up his river (Paus. 2,15,4-…

Electryon

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἠλεκτρύων; Ēlektrýōn). Tirynthian or Mycenaean hero, son of Perseus and Andromeda, husband of Anaxo, the daughter of  Alcaeus, father of  Alcmene. He lost almost all his sons fighting the Teleboans (Taphians). When the cattle stolen from E. were handed over, he was killed by his son-in-law  Amphitryon. This was the occasion for the latter and Alcmene to emigrate to Thebes (Hes. Sc. 3; 11-12; Apollod. 2,52-56; Hyg. Fab. 244,1; 4; Paus. 2,25,8). Bloch, René (Berne)

Bias

(447 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne)
(Βίας; Bías). [German version] [1] Mythical son of Amythaon Mythical son of  Amythaon and Idomene or Aglaea; brother of the seer  Melampus. The latter assisted B. in his courtship of Pero, daughter of Neleus and Chloris. As bride-price, Neleus demanded restoration of the cattle that Phylacus had stolen from his wife Chloris. Melampus did that for his brother (Apollod. 1,96-103; Hom. Od. 11,287-297; 15,225-238). Originally from Pylos, B. gained mastery -- again with the help of his brother, who cured the…

Brontes

(70 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βρόντης; Bróntēs), cf. ἡ βροντή (hē brontḗ) ‘thunder’. One of the three  Cyclopes born of Uranus and Gaia, who gave Zeus thunder and lightning (Hes. Theog. 140; Apollod. 1,1; Serv. Aen. 8,425; Pherecydes in schol. Eur. Alc. 1). B. made  Metis pregnant, who was devoured by Zeus, whereupon Pallas  Athene sprang from Zeus' head (schol. Il. 8,39). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography O. Touchefeu-Meynier, s.v. Kyklops, LIMC 6.1, 154-159.

Eurymedusa

(15 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυμέδουσα; Eurymédousa). Maidservant to  Nausicaa (Hom. Od. 7,8). Bloch, René (Berne)

Daedalion

(81 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαιδαλίων; Daidalíōn). Son of Heosphoros (Lucifer); brother of Ceyx; father of  Chione [2]. In his grief for the death of his only daughter, who scorned the beauty of Diana and was killed by her, he throws himself from the peak of Parnassus. Apollo, however, transforms him into a hawk (Ov. Met. 11,291-345; Hyg. Fab. 200). In Paus. 8,4,6 D. is the father of  Autolycus [1]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, Kommentar zu Ov. Met. B. X-XI, 1980, 313.

Elpis

(205 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλπίς; Elpís, from ἔλπομαι/ἐλπίζω; élpomai/elpízō, ‘expect, hope’). As a term and a character a vox media, which in its fundamentally neutral quality (‘expectation’) alternates between ‘hope’ (positive or false) and ─ less often ─ ‘apprehension’ (Pl. Leg. 644c; Hom. Od. 16,101; 19,84; Semonides fr. 1,6-7 IEG 2; Pind. Fr. 214). In Hes. Op. 90-105, the personified E. remains in  Pandora's box, while the other evil spirits (κακά; kaká) escape (cf. Babr. 58; [1; 2; 3]). According to Thgn. 1135-1146, E. was the only benevolent power to remain on eart…

Brisae

(123 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Βρῖσαι; Brîsai). [German version] [1] Nymphs on Ceos Nymphs on Ceos; introduced the rural deity  Aristaeus to olive oil and honey (Hsch s.v. B. 348; schol. Theoc. 5,53). Even in antiquity they were associated with the Lesbian Dionysus,  Brisaeus, whom a nymph Brisa is said to have nurtured (schol. Pers. 1,76). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Thracian sub-tribe Thracian sub-tribe above the lower Nestus, neighbours of the Sinti and Mygdones; only attested once in literature (Plin. HN 4,40), frequently conjectured to be Brigas (Brison in Arr. Ana…
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