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Servatius, Saint

(185 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Servatius, Saint, the first verifiable bishop of Tongeren ( civitas Tungrorum) in the Roman province of Germania II; by the 6th century, nothing more was known of him. According to Athanasius ( Apol. sec. 49.1, where he is called Sarbatios), he signed the decrees of the Synod of Serdica (342/343). His signature on the forged decrees of a purported Synod of Cologne in 346 must be ruled out as a source. In 350 he was on a diplomatic mission in the East on behalf of the usurper Magnentius, which included Athanasius ( Apol. Const. 9); at the Synod of Rimini in 359, he was amo…

Dioscorus of Alexandria

(476 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] was a deacon of Cyril of Alexandria who became his successor as bishop of Alexandria following the latter's death in 444. In spite of the extant hagiographic vita (CPG 3, 5470) from the Monophysite milieu, hardly anything is known about his life. Unlike Cyril, whose theology was his absolute norm, Dioscorus cannot be regarded as an independent or prominent theolo…

Simeon Stylites the Elder

(208 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (c. 390 in Cilician Sis – Jul 24 [Sep 1], 459). Without education, Simeon entered a monastery early in the 5th century; he was forced to leave on account of his extreme asceticism. He lived as a hermit in Telanissus (some 60 km east of Antioch). From the early 420s, he lived on a hill atop a pillar that gradually reached a height of over 20 m (Stylite); visited by countless pilgrims, he gave political counsel to several emperors and appeared as a savior to the persecuted Christian…

Ulfilas

(329 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] (or Wulfila; early 4th cent. – 383), Gothic descendant of Cappadocian Christians kidnapped in the 3rd century. According to his biographer Auxentius of Durostorum, he was a trilingual lector in the Gothic Christian community, probably consecrated to the episcopate by Eusebius of Nicomedia when a Gothic delegation was sent to Constantine the Great, to serve as bishop of the Christians in the region controlled by the Goths. In the 340s, he and a group of Gothic Christians entered th…

Papst

(185 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] Papst, Bez. für den Bischof von Rom als Nachfolger des Petrus, Oberhaupt der (röm.) kath. Kirche und Inhaber eines universellen kirchl. Lehr- und Jurisdiktionsprimats (Primat, Papsttum). Πα´πας/pa´pas war in der griech. Kirche urspr. Bez. oder Anrede für Äbte und Bischöfe, später exklusiv für Patriarchen; seit der 2. Hälfte des 4.Jh. ist die Bez. inschriftlich auch für die röm. Bischöfe bezeugt; im lat. Bereich wurde sie seit dem 5.Jh. exklusiv für den röm. Bischof benutzt. Seit Leo I. ist die Übernahme d…

Säulenheilige

(300 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[English Version] (Styliten), Sonderform frühchristl. Asketentums (Askese), das im dauernden, meist lebenslangen Stehen auf einer Säulenplattform bestand, wobei die Säule (griech. στυ˜λος/stýlos, daher Styliten) oft sukzessiv erhöht wurde (z.T. über 20 m) als sichtbarer Ausdruck für das asketische Ideal der Unbehaustheit und Ortsstabilität. Die Versorgung mit Nahrung und Eucharistie oblag Mönchen. Als Motiv nennen die Quellen eine möglichst vollständige Trennung von der Welt und Nähe zum Himmlischen; vermutete außer…

Primat/Papat

(1,498 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Weitlauff, Manfred | Wolf, Hubert
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Als Primat (P.) bez. man die rechtliche Vorrangstellung des Papstes (Papat) als Bischof von Rom in der Gesamtkirche, d.h. seine höchste und unmittelbare Leitungsgewalt in der Gesamtkirche als Haupt des Bischofskollegiums, Hirte der Gesamtkirche und Stellvertreter Christi auf Erden (c.331 CIC/1983: »Der Bischof der Kirche von Rom … ist Haupt des Bischofskollegiums, Stellvertreter Christi und Hirte der Gesamtkirche hier auf Erden; deshalb verfügt er kraft seines Amtes …

Primacy, Papal

(1,811 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Weitlauff, Manfred | Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] I. Definition The expression papal primacy denotes the juridical supremacy in the universal church of the pope as bishop of Rome, i.e. his supreme and immediate administrative authority as head of the College of Bishops, pastor of the universal church, and vicar of Christ on earth ( CIC/1983, c. 331: “The Bishop of the Church of Rome . . . is the head of the College of Bishops, the Vicar of Christ, and the Pastor of the universal Church here on earth; consequently, by virtue of his office, he has supreme, full, immediate, and…

Erlangen School

(1,922 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Assel, Heinrich | Brandt, Hermann | Mittelstraß, Jürgen
[German Version] I. Erlangen School (Theology) – II. Erlangen School (Philosophy) I. Erlangen School (Theology) 1. History From the founding of the University of Erlangen (Erlangen, University of), the members of the theological faculty have been bound to the confessional statements of Lutheranism; a Lutheran Enlightenment theology largely dictated by Jena and Göttingen was predominant until …

Council

(4,467 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Schneider, Hans | Schneider, Bernd Christian | Puza, Richard | Neuner, Peter
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Church Law – III. Dogmatics I. Church History 1. Early Church Council (Lat. concilium, Gk σύνοδος [Lat. synodum]; the two terms were first differentiated in modern usage; see also synod) are meetings of bishops from various communities for binding clarification of disciplinary, organizational, or doctrinal questions, whose decisions, as inspired by the Holy Spirit, are not in principle revisable and claim validity for the whole church r…

Papsttum

(16,351 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Zimmermann, Harald | Mörschel, Tobias | Wassilowsky, Günther | Köpf, Ulrich
[English Version] I. Alte Kirche 1.Grundsätzliches Im Sinn der Definition von P. als Anspruch der röm. Bischöfe unter Berufung auf Mt 16,16–19; 28,20; Lk 22,31f.; Joh 21,15–19 als Nachfolger und Erben des Petrus auf die Leitung und den Jurisdiktions- und Lehrprimat in der Gesamtkirche (Primat: I.) kann vom P. im eigentlichen Sinne erst seit dem MA und nur für das lat. Abendland gesprochen werden; für die Alte Kirche handelt es sich um die Gesch. des röm. Bischofsamtes und der christl. stadtröm. Geme…

Papacy

(20,018 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Zimmermann, Harald | Mörschel, Tobias | Wassilowsky, Günther | Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages and Reformation – III. Modern Period and Today – IV. Chronological List of the Popes I. Early Church 1. Definition. If papacy is defined as the claim (based on Matt 16:16–19; 28:20; Luke 22:31f.; John 21:15–19) of the bishops of Rome as successors and heirs to Peter to leadership along with jurisdictional and magisterial primacy (I) within the universal church, papacy in the strict sense dates only from the Middle Ages in the Latin West. In the Early Church, the point at iss…

Church History/Church Historiography

(14,105 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph | Plümacher, Eckhard | Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Beutel, Albrecht | Koschorke, Klaus | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept, Presuppositions – II. Development – III. Middle Eastern Church History and Historiography – IV. Religious Education I. Concept, Presuppositions 1. Concept The concept of church history has not yet been studied sufficiently, but it is already clear that since antiquity extraordinarily different conceptions of Christian historiography have been in simultaneous competition over the interpretation of past, present, and future. Often the different methodological option…

Historiography

(5,830 words)

Author(s): Hecker, Karl | Cancik, Hubert | Dietrich, Walter | Plümacher, Eckhard | Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Et al.
[German Version] I. Ancient Near East – II. Greece – III. Rome – IV. The Bible – V. Christianity – VI. Judaism I. Ancient Near East Historiography in the classic sense, with a reflective account of historical linkages, developed rudimentarily at best in the cuneiform cultures of the ancient Near East in Hittite and Neo-Assyrian annals and the introductions to treaties; even these documents were usually written to justify the political actions. Around the middle of the 3rd millennium bce, however, there appeared an immense number of all sorts of texts containing more …
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