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(996 words)

Author(s): Browning, Don S.
The question of how the self and the world maintain their identity in the midst of apparent change and flux has been a perennial issue debated throughout the history of Western philosophy. Since the time of Parmenides (ca. 540-after 480 b.c.), the idea of being as an infinite and changeless substance undergirding and guaranteeing the permanence of both the world and the self has been a major answer to the problem of how a sense of identity is sustained in the midst of change and flux. The Parmenidian answer influenced the philosop…

Ego Psychology

(783 words)

Author(s): Browning, Don S.
Ego psychology is a movement within psychoanalytic psychology. It is associated with the names of Anna Freud (1895–1982), Heinz Hartmann, David Rapaport, Robert White, and Erik Erikson. The common feature of this school is its increased emphasis, in contrast to Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), upon the ego as the central organizing agency of the personality. This school saw the ego as somewhat more independent of the id than did Freud. In addition, it saw the ego as crucial for mental health, treating…