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Pyrgi

(667 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Πύργοι/ Pýrgoi). [German version] [1] Port of Caere This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Phoenicians, Poeni (Πύργοι/ Pýrgoi). Probably the most frequented port of ancient Caere, near modern Santa Severa. Literary evidence points to a sanctuary to Eileithyia (Str. 5,2,8) or Leucothea (Ps.-Aristot. Lin. insec. 2,1349b;  Ael. VH 1,20;  Polyaenus, Strat. 5,2,21) there, possibly identical to the remains excavated mid 20th cent. near a bay on the Tyrrhenian coast: a témenos (holy district) with two archaic temples (single cel…

Populonia

(676 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Villanova Culture | | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Ποπλώνιον/ Poplṓnion, Etruscan Pupluna/ Fufluna). The only Etruscan city of any size on the Mare Tyrrhenum (Str. 5,2,5; Plin. HN 3,51), facing Elba, 14 km to the north of Piombino with a good natural harbour in the modern bay of Baratti. The settlement lies in the foothills of Piombino, enclosed by walls running north-south; an acropolis on…

Tarquinii

(779 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Villanova Culture | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Tarquinia, Etruscan Tarch(u)na). Etruscan city on the left bank of the Marta, c. 8 km from the coast. The ancient city was on the high plateau Pian di Civita, 4 km SE of the modern Tarquinia. The oldest finds are from the 13th/12th cents. BC; in the 9th-8th cents. (Villanova Culture), the large number of graves (Pozzetto tombs, mostly cremations; urns bic…

Rusellae

(352 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan town and excavation site on a hill on the left bank of the Umbro (present-day Ombrone) close to the point where it flows into the Mare Tyrrhenum, c. 15 km to the northwest of Grosseto, present-day Roselle. The first evidence of human activity comes from the Villanova culture (Pozzetto tombs) and the orientalizing culture (Fossa- and tumulus graves burial structures C.1.). The finds show a striking similarity wi…

Massa Veternensis

(199 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence)
[German version] City in Etruria, birthplace of Constantius [5] (Amm. Marc. 14,11,27), possibly the ancient settlement on the territory of Vetulonia with necropoleis on Lago dell'Accesa in the mining area of the Colline Metallifere, in which copper, iron, lead and silver were mined. There is little evidence from the Neolithic period, more from the Aeneolithic and Bronze periods, but remains are especially numerous from the Iron Age to the Imperial Roman period. The settlement around Lago dell'Acce…

Volsinii

(662 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence)
(Etruscan Velzna/Velsna). The suggestion [1. 451, n. 61] that there were two towns with the name of V. in Etruria has been gaining increasing support in recent times. It is assumed, for instance, that two Etruscan cities had the name: [1] V. Veteres (modern Orvieto) and [2] V. (modern Bolsena). [German version] [1] The original city This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages The original city (Urbs Vetus) was on a tuff outcrop (325 m in height, approximately 5 km in circumference) in the south-e…

Etrusci, Etruria

(9,491 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Naso, Alessandro (Udine) | Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
(Tusci), the Etruscans. I. History [German version] A. Name A people in Italy who, between the 9th and 1st cents. BC, created the highest form of civilization in the Western Mediterranean before Roman civilization prevailed over the same territory. Various popular names were applied to the E.: Rasna (or Graecized Rasenna) in Etruscan sources, Tyrrhenoi or Tyrsenoi in Greek sources, Turskus in Umbrian sources and Etrusci, Tusci or Lydii (according to Hdt. 1,94 because of their possible origin in Lydia) in Lat. sources. Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) [German version] B. History…

Veii

(656 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Villanova Culture | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria | Colonization (Οὐιοί/ Ouioí, Βηϊεντία/ Bēïentía; Etruscan Vei(s)). Etruscan city (App. It. 8,1; Liv. 5,22,8; 5,24,6; Eutr. 1,20) on the plateau ( c. 180 ha) between Cremera (modern Valchetta) in the north and the modern Piordo in the south, 15 km north of Rome near the modern Isola Farnese. Remains from the proto-Villanovan period (10th cent. BC) and Villanovan period (9th/8th cent. BC) are extant,…

Telamon

(347 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Sylvia | Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence)
(Τελαμών; Telamṓn). [German version] [1] Son of the king Aeacus and of Endeis in Aegina Son of king Aeacus and of Endeis in Aegina, brother of Peleus, both banished by Aeacus for murdering their half-brother Phocus [1]. Participant in the Calydonian Hunt and in the expedition of the Argonauts (Apollod. 3,158-161). T. marries Glauce, the daughter of the Salaminian king Cechreus, and after the latter's death inherits rule of Salamis (Diod. 4,72). With his second wife, Eriboea or Periboea, he fathers Ajax [1]. To…

Vetulonia

(624 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria | Phoenicians, Poeni (Etruscan Vatl). Etruscan coastal city in the southeast of Populonia (Plin. HN. 2,227 and 3,52; Ptol. 3,1,49: Οὐετουλόνιον/ Ouetoulónion; cf. Frontin. Str. 1,2,7) at modern V. The city lay on a hill (345 m), which in the east sloped down to a bay, an ideal natural harbour. Flowing into this bay from the mining region (copper, iron, lead, silver; Massa Veternensis) near Lago dell'Accesa was the navigab…