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Dissolution of the Monasteries Act

(275 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] As the result of moral, economic, political and religious factors, Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries in England and Wales in the 1530s. Assisted by T. Cromwell, the process continued intermittently. In 1536, Parliament passed an act – the co-called “Dissolution of the Monasteries Act” – that led to the closure of around 250 of the smaller houses of the orders (roughly a third of the …

Paley, William

(318 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jul, 1743, Peterborough, UK – May 25, 1805, Lincoln, UK), Anglican theologian, who was educated by his father and then studied at Cambridge before being elected Fellow of Christ’s College there in 1766. In his first book The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (1785), which later became a favorite educational resource, Paley outlined a system of utilitarian ethics (Utilitarianism; see also England, Theology in) in which he anticipated many of the themes of his contemporary, J. Bentham). Paley proved great originality in his Horae Paulinae (1790) in which…

Maurice, Frederick Denison

(363 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1805, Normanston, Suffolk, England – Apr 1, 1872, Cambridge, England), Anglican theologian. Raised as a Unitarian (Unitarians/Universalists), Maurice first studied law at Cambridge and, after leaving without taking a degree, he studied theology at Oxford. He was ordained in the Church of England in 1834. After serving in a parish and as chaplain at Guy's Hospital, London, he was elected professor of English literature and history at King's College, London. Six years later…

Toplady, Augustus Montague

(103 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 4, 1740, Farnham, Surrey – Aug 12, 1778, London), Anglican priest and hymn-writer. Though occupying a number of pulpits in the Church of England, Toplady remained mostly in London where he preached and, as a staunch Calvinist, engaged in spirited controversy with the Arminian J. Wesley, among others. He is chiefly remembered as the author of the hymn “Rock of Ages” (c. 1775). Grayson Carter Bibliography Works, ed. W. Row, 1794 On Toplady: T. Wright, The Life of Augustus M. Toplady, 1911 G. Lawton, Within the Rock of Ages, 1983 A. Pollard, Oxford DNB LV, 2004, 37–39.

Spencer, John

(171 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1630, Bocton, Kent, England, baptized Oct 31, 1630 – May 27, 1693, probably Cambridge, England), English theologian and Hebraist. He ¶ served as fellow (1655) and master (1667) of Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge, before being appointed dean of Ely (1677). His most influential work, De Legibus Hebraeorum (1685), traced the religious antiquities of the ancient Hebrews and laid the foundation for the subsequent emergence of the study of comparative religion. He was the first scholar to observe the similarities between Hebre…

Gunpowder Plot

(194 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] On Mar 25, 1605, a small band of Catholics hired a cellar under the Houses of Parliament ¶ in London, storing gunpowder there. Although Guy Fawkes (1570–1606) was not their leader, he became the most famous member of the group. Their aim was to blow up the Houses of Parliament on Nov 5, 1605 – the day Parliament opened – and, at the same time, murder the attending king James I and the members of Parliament, in the hope that this would encourage Catholics to seize control of the government. William …

Pearson, John

(172 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 28, 1613, Great Snoring, Norfolk – Jul 16, 1686, Chester), Anglican theologian and bishop. Educated at Eton and at Queens’ and King’s Colleges, Cambridge, he was ordained in 1639, but had little experience of parish ministry. As a result of his support of the Royalist cause in the Civil War, he was deprived of his appointments; he lived quietly in London during the Commonwealth (O. Cromwell). At the Restoration, he was appointed to a quick succession of Cambridge honors, incl…

Nonjurors

(549 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] The revolution of 1688, though peaceful, brought about important constitutional reform in England (III, 1.b): no longer did the Crown rule by divine hereditary right, but by the will of Parliament. The Nonjurors, or those members of the Church of England who refused to subscribe to the oaths of allegiance on the grounds that they violated their previous oaths to James II and his successors, opposed this. They included the archbishop of Canterbury (W. Sancroft); the bishops of Ches…

Ramsey, Arthur Michael

(136 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 14, 1904, Cambridge, UK – Apr 23, 1988, Oxford, UK), archbishop of Canterbury, was a much beloved and admired priest, theologian, and bishop of broad, yet traditional, Anglo-Catholic leanings. After Cambridge Ramsey was ordained in the Church of England and served in both parish and university appointments. In 1952 Ramsey became bishop of Durham, in 1956 archbishop of York, and in 1961 archbishop of Canterbury, where he labored tirelessly in mission work and the wider Anglica…

More, Hannah

(155 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1745, Stapleton, Avon, near Bristol – Sep 7, 1833, Clifton), evangelical writer and philanthropist. More was educated at a school in Bristol established by one of her sisters. Around 1773 she came into contact with the literary circle that gathered around S. Johnson, who urged her to publish her poems and plays. She later became identified with the evangelical Clapham Sect, with J. Newton serving as her principal spiritual adviser. Besides her numerous publications she est…

Law, William

(253 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1686, King's Cliffe, Northamptonshire – Apr 9, 1761, King's Cliffe), Nonjuror and English theologian. He was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he became a fellow in 1711. In 1714, upon the accession of George I, Law refused the Oath of Allegiance, was deprived of his fellowship, and joined the Jacobites (Jacobitism). He later served as private tutor to the Gibbons family in Putney. In 1740, he retired to his birthplace, where he became domestic chaplain to a small ho…

Marsh, Herbert

(160 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 10, 1757, Faversham, England – May 1, 1839, Peterborough, England), Anglican theologian and bishop. Educated at Cambridge, in 1779 he became a fellow of St. John's College. While studying in Germany under J.D. Michaelis, he was exposed to the new biblical scholarship, later translating Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament. In 1807 Marsh was appointed Lady Margaret Professor at Cambridge. With his enthusiastically received lectures on biblical criticism (1809–1816), he was among the first to popularize the new German…

Simeon, Charles

(169 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1759, Reading, Berkshire – Nov 13, 1836, Cambridge, UK), English evangelical clergyman. In 1782 he was made a fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and, in the following year, appointed vicar of Holy Trinity Church. Despite initial opposition, Simeon persevered, eventually becoming one of the most influential figures in the Church of England. His rise to prominence was due to a combination of influences, including his innovative parish ministry, his skill in nurturing seve…

Underhill, Evelyn

(160 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1875, Wolverhampton – Jun 15, 1941, London), author of spiritual works. Educated at King’s College, London, in 1907 she experienced a religious conversion of a mystical nature. Her early spiritual views were described in her first book, Mysticism (1911, Mysticism). Before long she met Friedrich v. Hügel, who would later become her spiritual director. Under his influence, her interest in historical Christianity developed so that she abandoned her mystical, intellectual, Neo-Platonist views in favor of a more pra…

Tait, Archibald Campbell

(167 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 21, 1811, Edinburgh – Dec 3, 1882, Episcopal Place at Addington), archbishop of Canterbury. Educated at Edinburgh and Oxford, Tait converted to the Church of England in 1830. Three years later, he was appointed tutor at Balliol College, Oxford. Though sympathetic to the aims of the Oxford Movement, in 1841 he joined in the public protest against Tract 90 (J.H. Newman). Talented and widely admired, Tait quickly advanced through a succession of clerical appointments, including headmaster of Rugby (1842, succeeding T. Arnold); bishop of…

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG)

(277 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] The SPG was established under royal charter by T. Bray in 1701 to supply the “want of learned and orthodox ministers” in the plantations, colonies, and “factories beyond the seas.” The rapidly expanding British Empire presented both challenges and opportunities for the Church of England. The SPG set out to “settle the State of Religion” for the colo­nists before undertaking “the conversion of the Natives.” During the 18th century the SPG’s efforts focused on the American colonies,…

Thornton, Henry

(131 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1760, London – Jan 16, 1815, Kensington Gore), philanthropist, banker, member of parliament, and abolitionist (Abolitionism). Younger son of the wealthy evangelical merchant John Thornton, he worked in banking before being elected member of parliament in 1782. His writings on economic affairs were much admired. In Parliament he was active in humanitarian affairs and, as a member of the celebrated Clapham Sect, joined with W. Wilberforce in advancing the abolitionist cause…

Moody, Dwight Lyman

(292 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 5, 1837, Northfield, MA – Dec 22, 1899, Northfield, MA), evangelist. Moody left his birthplace in New England and went to Chicago, where he gave up a promising career in the shoe business to work as a minister (esp. with the YMCA [Young Men's Christian Association: II]). During the Civil War he converted wounded soldiers; thereafter he returned to Chicago, where he organized conferences for Sunday School teachers. There he met I.D. Sankey, whose music contributed greatly to t…

Stillingfleet, Edward

(94 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Apr 17, 1635, Cranborne, Dorset – Mar 27, 1699, Westminster), Latitudinarian theologian and antiquary. After becoming a fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge, in 1653, he published a series of works, including his Irenicum (1659), Origines Sacrae (1662), and Rational Account (1664), which established his reputation as a theologian and brought rapid preferment. He then became, in succession, archdeacon of London, dean of St. Paul’s, and bishop of Worcester. Grayson Carter Bibliography Works: The Works, ed. R. Bentley, 6 vols., 1709/1710 On Stillingfleet: W. …

Liddon, Henry Parry

(182 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 20, 1829, North Stoneham, Hampshire – Sep 9, 1890, Weston-super-Mare, Gloucestershire) was an Anglican cleric. Educated at Oxford, he was ordained in 1852. After a succession of church appointments, he became, in 1870, a canon of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, where his able preaching attracted sizable congregations. A leader of the catholic revival (Oxford Movement), Liddon opposed the advance of both its ritualist and liberal-Catholic wings; the publication of Lux Mundi (1889) proved particularly distressing as well as the growing use of criti…

Seabury, Samuel

(110 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 30, 1729, Groton, CT – Feb 25, 1796, New London, CT). After ordination in the Church of England (1753), Seabury served as a missionary in several American parishes. During the American Revolution (North America: I, 2), he remained a Loyalist. Nominated the first bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church, he was consecrated in Aberdeen in 1784 by bishops of the Scottish Episcopal Church. He then became rector of St. James’ parish church, New London, bishop of Connecticut, and (1790) bishop of Rhode Island. Grayson Carter Bibliography E.E. Beardsley, Life and Corre…

Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick Stephen

(186 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug 2, 1802, Seville – Feb 15, 1865, London), cardinal archbishop of Westminster. Born in Spain, son of Irish parents, he was ¶ raised in Ireland and England. He attended Unshaw College, Durham, before studying at the English College in Rome (D.D. 1824). After his ordination in 1825, he rose quickly through a succession of appointments, including rector of the English College in Rome (1828), coadjutor to Bishop Walsh, vicar-apostolic and president of St. Mary’s College, Oscott (1840). After the reestab…

Rowntree, John William

(158 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 4, 1868, York – Mar 9, 1905, New York). Born into a prominent Quaker family, he left Bootham School, York, in 1886 to enter the family cocoa business. In 1892 he married Constance Naish (1871–1928) of Bristol, with whom he had five children. Beginning in 1893, Rowntree provided inspired and energetic leadership to the Quaker cause, especially through his promotion of adult schools as a means of securing an education for lay ministry. He also published widely, including Present Day Papers (1898–1899), A History of the Adult School Movement (1903), and Palestine Notes

Sancroft, William

(205 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1617, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England – Nov 24, 1693, Fressingfield, Suffolk, England), archbishop of Canterbury and Nonjuror. Fellow of Emmanuel College in Cambridge from 1642 to 1651, he fled to the Continent after being rejected from his Cambridge fellowship by the Puritans. After the Restoration in 1660, he gained rapid preferment in the Church, being elevated to archbishop in 1668. While in office, he labored in various ways to strengthen the spiritual and political …

Sharp, Granville

(110 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Nov 10, 1735, Durham, England – Jul 6, 1813, Fulham, a borough of London), evangelical and abolitionist (Slavery). In 1765 he became involved in opposing the slave trade, advancing numerous legal ¶ cases on behalf of slaves held in England. His efforts culminated in the famous “Fall Somerset” case of 1772 which outlawed the forcible removal of slaves from the country. Sharp also developed an interest in African culture and assisted in the relocation of a number of freed slaves to Sierra Leone. Grayson Carter Bibliography Memoirs of Granville Sharp, ed. T. Burgess, 1820 E.…

Raikes, Robert

(164 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1735, Gloucester – Apr 5, 1811, Gloucester), founder of the Sunday School movement. Raikes inherited a successful newspaper, the Gloucester Journal, and used the proceeds to promote a variety of philanthropic causes, especially prison reform. In 1780 he and a local curate established a Sunday School in Gloucester, and Raikes publicized its opening in the Journal. The idea attracted wide attention, and Sunday Schools were quickly set up throughout Britain, Ireland, and America. J. Wesley remarked that the schools were “one of th…

London, University of

(268 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] In 1826 the Scottish poet Thomas Campbell, the progressive politicians Henry Brougham and Joseph Hume, as well as philosopher James Mill founded University College, London, to provide a university education for men who were excluded, on religious grounds, from studying at Oxford and Cambridge universities. Dismissed by its critics as “the godless college in Gower Street,” it was joined two years later by an Anglican rival, King's College. In 1836, the government established the Un…

Watson, Richard

(111 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Feb 22, 1781, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire – Jan 8, 1833, London), Wesleyan Methodist theologian (Methodists: I). Watson was a member of a small group of clergy and laity that contributed to the formation of Wesleyan Methodist identity, following the death of J. Wesley and its separation from the Church of England. Appointed to a succession of influential positions in the Church, he also published widely, clarifying and extending Wesley’s theology. Grayson Carter Bibliography Works include: Theological Institutes, 6 vols., 1823–1829 On Watson: T. Jackson, M…

Thompson, Francis

(157 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1859, Preston, Lancashire – Nov 13, 1907, London), English Roman Catholic poet. In 1885, having failed to become a priest or doctor, and having succumbed to opium addiction, he relocated from his native Lancashire to London. Here, while living in filth, despair and penury, he came to know Wilfred Meynell, critic and editor of the Catholic magazine Merry England. Meynell befriended Thompson and was the first to recognize his poetic genius, which arose from a combination of his destitution and Christian faith. Before his premature d…

Temple, William

(162 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Oct 15, 1881, Exeter – Oct 26, 1944, Westgate-on-Sea). After leaving Oxford, Temple rose quickly through a succession of senior appointments in the Church of England, including bishop of ¶ Manchester (1921) and archbishop of York (1929), before being elevated to Canterbury (1942). His contributions to the various debates over social, international, and economic issues were especially respected. Active in the early ecumenical movement, he helped to advance both the Faith and Order and the Life and Work Movemen…

Laud, William

(275 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Oct 7, 1573, Reading, England – Jan 10, 1645, London), archbishop of Canterbury. Educated at St. John's College, Oxford, he opposed, early in life, the prevailing Calvinistic theology. Of considerable talent and learning, he was appointed to a rapid succession of ecclesiastical appointments, including dean of Gloucester (1616), bishop of St. David's (1621), Bath and Wells (1626), and London (1628), and finally archbishop of Canterbury (1633). His various attempts to impose liturg…

Latitudinarianism

(480 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] Latitudinarianism, from Lat. latitudo (“breadth”), a moderate teaching, confessionally tolerant and open to the insights of modern science, introduced in the 17th century by Anglican clergy at Cambridge. It was opposed by both the Puritan (I) teachers at the universities and conservative high-church royalists (High Church movement). The advocates of Latitudinarianism were first identified in a letter written by Simon Patrick, a leading member of the party (later bishop of Chichester, then Ely), published under the title A Brief Account of the New Sect of “…

Oman, John Wood

(186 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] ( Jul 23, 1860, Orkney, Scotland – May17, 1939, Cambridge, England), Presbyterian theologian. Oman studied in Edinburgh and Heidelberg, and served churches in Scotland and England prior to becoming professor (1907), and principal (1922) of Westminster College, Cambridge. Alarmed at the crisis then confronting Christianity, Oman developed an interest in F.D.E. Schleiermacher, and his model of the inner authority of truth; Oman translated ¶ Schleiermacher’s Über die Religion (1799 text, ET: On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers, 1988; 1831 text, ET: Sp…

Keble, John

(272 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Apr 25, 1792, Fairford, Gloucestershire – Mar 29, 1866, Bournemouth), scholar, Anglican priest and one of the leaders of the Catholic Revival in England. Born into a clerical family, at Oxford he achieved considerable academic distinction, being elected (at the age of 19) to a much-coveted fellowship at Oriel College; four years later he was ordained into the Church of England. In 1827 he published a collection of poetry, The Christian Year, which brought widespread fame and recognition. In 1831 he was elected professor of poetry at Oxford. Alarmed …

Taylor, Jeremy

(269 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Aug, 15, 1613, Cambridge, UK – Aug 13, 1667, Lisburn, Ireland). The son of a local barber, Taylor studied at Caius College, Cambridge, before becoming a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford (1636). He was then appointed chaplain to archbishop W. Laud and, somewhat later, to Charles I; in 1638 he became rector of Uppingham, Rutland. He was awarded a doctorate for his work, The Sacred Order and Offices of Episcopacy (1642). While serving as royal chaplain during the Civil War, he was captured and imprisoned. After his release, he lived quietly in secl…

Neale, John Mason

(178 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1818, London – Aug 6, 1866, East Grinstead, West Sussex), Anglican author and hymn writer. Having been influenced by the Catholic revival (High Church movement [I]), at Cambridge he helped found the Camden Society. Though ordained in 1841, ill-health prevented his installation into a parish. From 1846 on he served as warden of Sackville College, Sussex. Here, he divided his time between writing and the Sisterhood of St. Margaret, which (in 1855) he founded to educate girl…

Sherlock, Thomas

(156 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1678, London – Jul 18, 1761, London), Anglican bishop. Sherlock served as Fellow and Master of St. Catherine’s College, Cambridge, and (in succession to his father) as Master of the Temple in London where he gained a wide reputation for his preaching. A Tory representative of the High Church movement, he led the opposition to bishop Benjamin Hoadly during the famous Bangorian Controversy (1717) and fell out of favor at Court. After the death of George I his fortunes changed and h…

Scripture Union

(159 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] In 1867, Josiah Spiers established informal religious services for children in Islington, London. These soon became known as the “Children’s Special Service Mission” (CSSM). During the following year, Spiers wrote “God is Love” in the sand at the beach in Llandudno, North Wales, and encouraged children to decorate the letters with shells and seaweed. He then told them stories about Jesus. This would prove to be the first of many CSSM beach services. In 1879, the CSSM was asked to …

James I

(169 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] (Stuart, of England; Jun 19, 1566, Edinburgh – Mar 27, 1625, London). In 1603, on the death of Elizabeth I, James VI of Scotland was crowned King James I of England. Opposed to Presbyterianism and the Church of Scotland 's political influence he attempted to impose episcopacy in Scotland. In England, James's ecclesiastical policies met with mixed success. At the Hampton Court Conference (1604) he exhibited considerable theological knowledge and authorized a new translation of the …

Jacobitism

(208 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] Defined broadly, Jacobitism is a tradition or movement in Great Britain, whose adherents after 1688 supported the hereditary claims of the Roman Catholic Stuart dynasty over the parliamentary title of the Protestant William of Orange (and his Hanoverian successors). Apart from its military and diplomatic dimensions, exemplified in the invasion attempt of 1715 and 1745, Jacobitism also had important intellectual, social, literary, philosophical, nationalistic, and theological dimensions. Not all Jacobites were Roman Cath-¶ olic: many High Church (High C…

Jewel, John

(191 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] (May 24, 1522, Buden, Devon – Sep 23, 1571, Monkton Farleigh, Wiltshire). At Oxford, Jewel, who was influenced by Peter Martyr Vermigli, became one of the intellectual leaders of the English Reformation. Upon the succession of Mary Tudor in 1553, he fled to the continent. At Frankfurt he opposed J. Knox and defended the Book of Common Prayer of 1552. Later he and Vermigli traveled together to Zürich. Upon the accession of Elizabeth I (1558) he returned to England. In 1560 Jewel was appointed bishop of Salisbury, where he exercised a vig…

Ritualism

(621 words)

Author(s): Weeber, Martin | Carter, Grayson
[German Version] I. Ethics The term ritualism denotes participation in the rituals (Rite and ritual) of a community or religion without inner conviction. It is used in this sense in sociology, ethnology, and religious studies. The outward form of the word itself, a pejorative noun (like dogmatism and fundamentalism), appears to formulate succinctly the ethical assessment of the phenomenon it denotes. The negative assessment of the phenomena classified as “ritualism” is burdened with at least two problems: (1) it is hardly possible to assess with reasonabl…

Corporation Act

(141 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] In December 1661, an Act was passed by the “Cavalier Parliament” which required all mayors, aldermen, councilors, and borough officials to swear loyalty to the king and take “the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according to the rites of the Church of England” during the twelve months prior to their election. Conscientious Dissenters were thus removed from office; those who were elected (but who refused to communicate) were fined. Though increasingly ineffective, the Act remained highly contentious; it became a cause célèbre in the Dissenting campaign to enact …

Chapel of Ease

(277 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Tiling, Peter v.
[German Version] I. History – II. Legal Status of Daughter Parishes I. History In the Western church, from the 12th century on separate chapels were established for preaching and administration of the sacraments. They were meant for those who lived in villages far from the parish church or those who could not (afford to) rent a pew. They were also an effective means of extending the church's outreach where it was difficult (or impossible) to establish new parishes. Often found in …

Westminster

(469 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson | Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. Roman Catholic Archbishopric Following the Reformation in England, Roman Catholics labored under numerous constitutional and social disadvantages. Emancipation finally took place in 1829, despite considerable lingering anti-Catholic sentiment. Since the 1680s, four bishops, serving as vicars apostolic (Vicar apostolic), supervised Catholic interests in England; in 1840 four more were added. Various factors, most especially Irish immigration, the rise of the Oxford Movement, and the…
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