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Mawlāy Ismāʿīl

(1,809 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
b. al-S̲h̲arīf , Abu ’l-Naṣr , the second ruler of the Moroccan dynasty of the ʿAlawids [see ʿalawīs and ḥasanī ]. On the death of sultan Mawlāy al-Ras̲h̲īd, the empire of Morocco was divided. Mawlāy Ismāʿīl, governor of Meknès [see miknās ] and brother of the deceased sultan, was proclaimed sultan in this town. He advanced at once on the capital Fās, which had declared against him and seized it. He was proclaimed there on 11 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1082/14 April 1672), being then 26 years of age. But Three rivals, his brother Mawlāy al-Ḥarrānī in Tāfilālt, his nephew Aḥmad b. Muḥriz…

Abū Zayyān II

(107 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Muḥammad b. Abī Hammū II , sovereign of the ʿAbd al-Wādid dynasty. During the lifetime of his father he was governor of Algiers and tried in vain, on his father’s death, to seize power. He took refuge with the Marīnid sultan Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad, who led an expedition against Tlemcen and made it possible for Abū Zayyān to be proclaimed in Muḥarram 796/Nov.-Dec. 1393. He remained a faithful vassal of the Marīnids. A patron of men of letters and poets, he was assassinated ¶ in 801/1398 after being driven from the throne by his brother Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh. (A. Cour*) Bibliography see ʿabd al-wādi…

Abū Zayyān III

(198 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Aḥmad b. Abī Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh , second last ʿAbd al-Wādid ruler of Tlemcen. Thanks to the support of the Turks of Algiers he seized the power and was proclaimed in 947/1540. The Spaniards of Oran who supported his brother Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad undertook an expedition against Tlemcen, which failed (949/1543). After a second, victorious expedition, the Spaniards made it possible for Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad to seize the power (30 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʾda 949/7 March 1543), but he was soon…

Gūm

(552 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Arabic ḳawm ; French goum ), the usual form and pronunciation, in the Arab countries of North Africa, of the name given to a group of armed horsemen or fighting men from a tribe. The derivative gūma signifies “a levy of gūm s, troops, a plundering foray”, “sedition”, “revolt”. It was the Turks who, in the former Regencies of Algiers and Tunis, gave the gūms an official existence by making them the basis of their system of occupation of the country. All the tribes had been divided by them into mak̲h̲zen or auxiliaries, who were exempt from most taxes, and raʿiyya , who wer…

K̲h̲ulṭ

(673 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, the classical form of the name of a tribe of northwestern Morocco pronounced K̲h̲loṭ (but ethnic, K̲h̲ulṭi). The K̲h̲loṭ came into North Africa with the invasions of the Banū Hilāl in the 5th/11th century, and formed part of the “mixed” Arab people known as the D̲j̲us̲h̲am; according to Ibn K̲h̲aldūn and other historians, the K̲h̲loṭ allegedly belonged to the Banu ’l-Muntafiḳ. The D̲j̲us̲h̲am spread throughout the central Mag̲h̲rib, settled there and took part in all the wars which desolated B…

Abū Zayyān I

(113 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Muḥammad b. Abī Saʿīd ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan , third sovereign of the ʿAbd al-Wādid dynasty. Proclaimed in Tlemcen on 2 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 703/6 June 1304, he succeeded in having the siege of his capital by the Marīnid troops raised. He then chastised the tribes in the eastern part of his kingdom who had supported the enemy; the Tūd̲j̲īn Berbers were forced to submit and pay tribute, the Arab tribes were severely treated and driven back into the desert. On his return to Tlemcen, he…

Hansalīya

(774 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, plural of hansalī, the name given to the members of the ṭarīḳa or religious brotherhood, founded by Sīdī Saʿīd b. Yūsuf al-Hansalī (known in Morocco as Sīdī Saʿīd Ahansal). The epithet Ahansal or Hansalī is said to be derived from his birthplace Hansala, a Berber village of the tribe of Benī Mṭīr (in the Moroccan Atlas). ¶ He belonged to a family of marabouts, whose most important ancestor, Sīdī Saʿīd al-Kabīr, is buried in Dades (southern Morocco), where his tomb is visited by many pilgrims. After the example of this holy man Sīdī Saʿīd b. Yūsuf spe…

al-Ḥasan

(1,054 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Mūlāy Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad, Sulṭān of Morocco, fourteenth of the dynasty still ruling there, the Ḥasanī [q. v.] S̲h̲erīfs of Sid̲j̲ilmāsa, also called Filālī S̲h̲erīfs or ʿAlawīs. After the death of his father Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (18th Rad̲j̲ab 1290 = 12th Sept. 1873) Mūlāy al-Ḥasan was chosen Sulṭān by the most prominent members of the Moroccan court, then in Marrākes̲h̲. But disturbances at once broke out on all sides; Fās, the capital of northern Morocco, drove out his governor Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Muḥammad al-Madanī Bennis; the…

Ḏj̲īs̲h̲

(2,659 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, in classical Arabic Ḏj̲ais̲h̲ (see Fränkel, Aram. Fremdwörter, p. 258) army. The word in Northwest Africa has however two further special meanings. 1. Ḏj̲īs̲h̲, plur. Ḏj̲uyūs̲h̲ or Ḏj̲iyūs̲h̲ means in the south of Algeria and Morocco an armed band, which goes out on a g̲h̲azw (ambush for purposes of plunder or of a holy war) against a caravan or a body of troops. When the d̲j̲īsh consists of several hundred men, it is called a ḥarka. The Ḏj̲iyus̲h̲ carry on their operations from the Northern Sūdān or the Niger valley throughout fhe Sahara to the South of Algeria and Mor…

Ibn ʿAmmār

(393 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad, an Arab poet of Spain, of obscure origin but a cultivated man, lived in the vth (xith) century and at first led a wandering life, singing the praises of any one who cared to reward him. He met the governor al-Muʿtamid, son of al-Muʿtaḍid, Emīr of Seville, in Silves. This young prince took a liking to the wandering poet and made him his favourite. The latter, as ambitious and talented as he was poor, knew how to flatter his patron’s wishes, took part in his amusements and abetted him in them. Wh…

Debdū

(2,406 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, a town in the east of Morocco at the western end of the chalk range which ruus from Tlemcen to Debdū; it is 3528 feet above sea-level (according to De Foucauld), about 85 miles, as the crow flies, from the sea and has a temperate climate. Debdū lies in the upper valley of the Wād Debdū, a tributary to the middle Mulūya on its right bank. “Debdū” says de Foucauld “is built on a delightful site at the foot of the right wall of the valley, which rises sheer upright to a height of 250 feet above t…

Ḥasanī

(588 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, in the plural Ḥasanīyūn, a kind of patronymic, or nisba given to the ʿAlid [q. v.] S̲h̲erīfs, descendants of al-Ḥasan son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima, the daughter of the Prophet Muḥammad. Hasanī is used in opposition to Ḥusainī, the surname of the S̲h̲erīfs, who trace their descent from al-Ḥusain the second son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima. In Morocco, however, the surname Ḥasanī is particularly applied to the S̲h̲erīfs descended from Muḥammad al-Nafs al-Zakīya, to distinguish them ¶ from their cousins the Idrīsīds [q. v.]. These S̲h̲erīfs, formerly located particularly in the south of …

Dwāʾir

(2,365 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Dawāʾir) plural of Dāʾira “circle”, a confederacy of families whose duty it is to give personal attendance on a native chief. Before the French conquest of Algeria, the name Dwāʾir was borne more particularly by four groups of families or tribes, encamped in the southwest of Oran, attached to the service of this town and its Bey. They were organised as a militia on a sort of feudal basis, and lived on the produce of lands granted them by the Turkish government, and on the booty won in expeditions against unsubjected tribes…

al-Bakrī

(895 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥammad b. Aiyūb b. ʿAmr Abū ʿUbaid, the oldest Hispano-Arab geographer, whose works have survived to us, flourished in the second ¶ half of the vth = xith century. His family, belonging to the great tribe of Bakr, took a prominent place among the Arab families of the West of Muslim Spain. Muḥammad b. Aiyūb, Ḳāḍī of Niebla, the grandfather of our al-Bakrī, was governor of Saltes and Huelva in the Caliphate of the Omaiyad His̲h̲ām al-Muʾaiyid. On the fall of this dynasty and during the socalled Ṭawāʾif period of anarchy which followed, he tried like so ma…

G̲h̲aiṭa

(432 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(G̲h̲aʾiṭa, G̲h̲ēṭa), an Arab musical instrument, very popular in North Africa and some districts of Southern Europe, a kind of cylindrical bagpipe with a movable wooden mouthpiece ( ḳaṣba) and rather wide bell-mouth. The cylindrical portion has seven holes on the upper side. The first hole below the mouthpiece is called yka sāʿida, the second s̲h̲as̲h̲ka, the third band̲j̲ka, the fourth d̲j̲ahārka, the fifth sīka, the sixth dūka and the seventh yka. On the lower side about midway between the yka sāʿida and the s̲h̲as̲h̲ka is an eighth hole called heftakā. The names of these holes ar…

K̲h̲loṭ

(983 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, an Arab tribe of Northwestern Morocco. Its name in literary Arabic Ḵh̲ulṭ has become Ḵh̲loṭ in the vulgar dialect by regular metathesis, but the primitive form of the word is found in the adjective Ḵh̲ulṭī fem. Ḵh̲ulṭīya. The Ḵh̲loṭ who came into North Africa with the Hilālī invasion in the fifth (eleventh) century formed a part of the group of mixed Arab elements, known as Ḏj̲us̲h̲am from the name of the ancestor of one of them. According to Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn and other Muslim historians, the Ḵh̲loṭ were the Banu ’l-Muntafiḳ. In Little…

al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī

(622 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Ḏj̲abbār al-S̲h̲arīf al-Zarwīlī, a celebrated mystic, founder of the Muslim religious brotherhood or ṭarīḳa [q. v.] known as the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya [q. v.], which has itself given rise to some fifteen other brotherhoods like the

ʿAbd Allāh

(839 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Abū Fāris) b. Aḥmed al-Manṣūr b. Muḥammed S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Mahdī, surnamed al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ bi-’llāh, governor of Marrākus̲h̲ (Morocco), was proclaimed sultan in this town on Friday, 28 Rabīʿ I 1012 (5 Sept. 1603), a few days after the death of his father and the proclamation of his brother Zaidān by the inhabitants of Fez. ¶ Immediately after he was proclaimed, the new sultan of Morocco was forced to fight against his brother, who contested the supreme authority. The ʿulamāʾ of Fez, having been won over to the party of Mawlā Zaidān, decided by a fetwā (judicial decision) that Abū Fāris ʿAbd …

Ismāʿīl

(1,301 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
b. S̲h̲arīf, Mūlāy, Sulṭān of Morocco, second of the dynasty of ʿAlawī or Filālī S̲h̲arīfs, also called Ḥasanī [q; v. for the genealogy of these S̲h̲arīfs]. On the death of Sulṭān Mūlāy al-Ras̲h̲īd, the empire of Morocco was divided. Mūlāy Ismāʿīl, governor of Mekines and brother of the deceased sulṭān, was proclaimed sulṭān in this town. He advanced at once on the capital Fās, which had declared against him and seized it. He was proclaimed there on 11 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1082 (Apr. 14, 1672), being then 26 years of age. But three rivals, his brother Mūlāy al-Ḥarrānī in Tāfilālt, his…

Goum

(868 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(in written Arabic Ḳawm), the form and pronunciation usual in the Arab lands of North Africa of the name given to the body of armed horsemen or of fighting men of a tribe. Its derivative gouma means “a levy of goum or troops” or “a bold raid, rebellion, or revolt”. The written Arabic form ḳawm is also found in the dialects of North Africa with the meaning of “people, nation, tribe” etc. (Beaussier, Diet, pract. arabe-français des dialectes parlés en Algérie et en Tunisie). It should, however, be noted that ḳawm in written Arabic may also mean “enemies” or a “body of men going out to plunder” (Dozy, Su…

ʿĪsawīya, ʿĪsāwa

(909 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Aīssaoua), a collective name from the singular ʿĪsāwī (cf. Marçais, Textes Arabes de Tanger, p. 397 sq.): a name given to the k̲h̲wān [q. v.] or members of the Moroccan religious brotherhood founded by Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā and derived from this last name. In spite of the fame of this brotherhood, the life of Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā al-Fihrī and his origin are little known. The ethnic al-Fihrī suggests a Spanish Arab origin. He travelled a great deal in his youth and was initiated in the east into the ecstatic exercises of the religious orders of the ¶ Ḥaidarīya and the Saʿdīya. Returning to the …

S̲h̲aik̲h̲

(439 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
This word means one who bears the marks of old age, who is over fifty (cf. Lisān, iii. 509). It is applied to aged relatives; the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ is the patriarch of the tribe or family. In pre-Islāmic antiquity the title Saiyid, the chief of the tribe, was frequently given the epithet S̲h̲aik̲h̲ meaning full maturity in years and therefore of mental powers. The moral influence of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲s over the Beduins was considerable and the term came to mean chiefs having a long career behind them, the glorious veterans. In the history of the Muslim period, it has ¶ frequently the sense of supreme c…

ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ

(837 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyu’l-Marīnī, chief of the Zanāta-Marīnides and founder of the dynasty of the Marīnides. His father, Abū Ḵh̲ālid Maḥyū, the chief of his tribe, having died in 592 (1197), ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ was chosen as his successor. At that time the Marīnides overran the high table-lands of the Central Mag̲h̲rib (Algeria), to the south of the Tāhert and Tlemcen mountains from the Zāb to Sid̲j̲ilmāsa in a nomadic state. They had their summer camps in the valleys of the Wādī Zā and of the Upper Mulūya, between Aḳersif and al-W…

Ibn Zaidūn

(749 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, Abu ’l-Walīd Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad b. G̲h̲ālib b. Zaidūn, one of the most celebrated poets of Muslim Spain and minister to the Arab Emīrs of Seville. He belonged to a famous family of the Arab ¶ tribe of Mak̲h̲zūm and was born at Cordóva in 394 = 1003. Left early an orphan, he was given the best teachers by his guardians and soon distinguished himself among his fellow pupils. At the age of twenty he already composed poems which made him famous. Our. poet became involved in the politics of his country through the civil wars of the Omayyad pretenders and the attempts of th…

Abū Zaiyān

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, the name of four ʿAbdalwādide or Zaiyānide kings: 1. Abū Zaiyān I Muḥammed b. Abī Saʿīd ʿOt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan b. Zaiyān, the third sovereign of the Zaiyānide dynasty, was proclaimed king at Tlemcen, on the death of his father, the 2d Ḏh̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 703 (6th June 1304), during the long siege of that town by the Marīnide sultan Abū Yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr. The siege was kept on since the 3d S̲h̲aʿbān 698 (6th May 1299), and was not to be finished before the 7th Ḏh̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 706 (10th May 1307) when Abū Yaʿḳūb was assassinated by one of his eunuchs. The Marīnide sultan had founded, with the objec…

Derḳāwā

(4,029 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(plural of the ethnic Derḳāwī) a name collectively applied to the members of the Ṭarīḳa or Muḥammadan religious brotherhood, composed of the followers of Mūlāy ’l-ʿArbī al-Derḳāwī, the area of whose influence extends over Northwest Africa, particularly Morocco and Algeria. An individual member is called Derḳāwī while the plural is Derḳāwā. They are also called S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya-Derḳāwā, their brotherhood being an offshoot of the much older Ṭarīḳa of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya, founded by the Mag̲h̲ribī Ṣūfī Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī. …

S̲h̲aik̲h̲

(760 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
— This title given to the founder of a religious brotherhood is also borne by his successors at the head of the hierarchy of the order and also by the heads of the various branches. …

Kuskusu

(951 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Couscous), a dish prepared with semolina. Throughout northwest Africa (Tripolitania, Sahara,Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco) it is the basis of the food of the people. It is sometimes called ṭaʿām i. e. food par excellence. The Beduins of Eastern Algeria also call it naʿama, which has the same meaning; those of Western Algeria, maʿās̲h̲; those of the South and of the Sahara, ʿais̲h̲, also with the same sense. In Tunisia, the name ṭaʿām

Abū Zaiyān

(1,383 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
Muḥammed, the name of five Marīnide kings: 1. Abū Zaiyān Muḥammed, son of the Marīnide sultan Abū ʿInān Fāris. The latter, while seriously ill, had designated Abū Zaiyān for the succession to the throne, indicating him at the same time the vizier Mūsā b. ʿĪsa’l-Aṣūlī as his prime minister. The illness of the monarch was growing worse, and the vizier, in order to avoid the competit…

Saʿdians

(1,789 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
(Banū Saʿd), the name of the dynasty of S̲h̲arīfs in Morocco which in 1544 (951) replaced the Waṭṭāsid dynasty on the throne of Fās. From the beginning of the fifteenth century the expeditions of the Portuguese and Spanish against the Muslim lands in Spain or North Africa had raised to a great pitch the fanaticism of the Berbers and of the Arabs who reacted violently under the leadership of holy men, s̲h̲arīfs [q. v.] and marabouts [q. v.]. In a country organised according to tribes or divided into numerous little states of a feudal character, among peoples whose only lin…

K̲h̲ulṭ

(619 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
, forme classique du nom d’une tribu du Nord-ouest du Maroc prononcé Ḵh̲loṭ (mais ethnique: Ḵh̲ulṭī). Venus dans l’Afrique du Nord avec l’invasion hilalienne au Ve/XIe siècle, les Ḵh̲loṭ faisaient partie des populations arabes «mélangées» connues sous le nom de Ḏj̲us̲h̲am; d’après Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn et d’autres historiens, ¶ les Ḵh̲loṭ seraient des Banū l-Muntafiḳ. Les Ḏj̲us̲h̲am se répandirent dans le Mag̲h̲rib central, s’y établirent et participèrent à toutes les luttes qui désolèrent la Berbérie; après la conquête almohade, ils essayèrent en va…

Gūm

(521 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
( ḳawm; orth. franc, goum), forme et prononciation usuelles, dans les pays arabes de l’Afrique du Nord, du nom donné au groupe des cavaliers armés ou des combattants d’une tribu. Son dérivé gūma signifie « une levée de goums, de troupes, une équipée de pillards», une «sédition», une «révolte». Ce sont les Turcs qui, dans les anciennes régences d’Alger et de Tunis, ont donné aux goums une existence officielle, en les établissant comme base de leur système d’occupation du pays. Toutes les tribus avaient été divisées par eux en mak̲h̲zen ou auxiliaires, dispensés de la plupart des impôts, et en r…

Abū Zayyān

(308 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
appellatif de trois souverains de la dynastie ʿabd-al-wādide de Tlemcen. I. Muḥammad b. Abī Saʿīd ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Yag̲h̲murāsan, troisième souverain de la dynastie. Proclamé à Tlemcen le 2 d̲h̲ū l-ḳaʿda 703/6 juin 1304, il obtint la levée du siège de la capitale par les troupes marīnides; puis il alla châtier les tribus de l’Est de son royaume qui avaient appuyé l’ennemi: les Berbères Tūd̲j̲īn furent contraints à la soumission et au paiement des impôts, les tribus arabes furent fort malmenées et refoulées dans le d…

Mawlāy Ismāʿīl

(1,717 words)

Author(s): Cour, A.
b. al-S̲h̲arīf, Abū l-Naṣr, deuxième souverain de la dynastie marocaine des ʿAlawides [voir ʿAlawis et Ḥasanī]. A la mort du sultan Mawlāy al-Ras̲h̲īd, l’empire du Maroc s’était divisé. Mawlāy Ismāʿīl, gouverneur de Meknès [voir Miknās] et frère du défunt, fut proclamé dans cette ville. Il marcha aussitôt sur la capitale, ¶ Fās, qui s’était déclarée contre lui et s’en empara; il y fut proclamé le 11 d̲h̲ū l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1082/14 avril 1672. Il était alors âgé de 26 ans. Mais trois rivaux, son frère Mawlāy al-Ḥarrān dans le Tafilalt, son neveu Aḥmad b. Muḥriz proclamé à Marr…

Kuskusū

(996 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a word probably of Berber origin meaning couscous, a culinary preparation containing semolina which is the national dish of the peoples of North Africa. It appears with the article and with a final nūn in an anecdote depicting an Oriental being advised by the Prophet, in a dream, to treat with al-kuskusūn a sick Mag̲h̲ribī; this anecdote, related by Dozy ( Suppl., s.v.) is very well known and is probably responsible for leading Moroccan scholars to adopt the form attributed to the Prophet. L. Bauer ( Wörterbuch der arabischen Umgangsprache 2, Wiesbaden 1957, 402), heard kusukson/ kusk…

Kuskusū

(981 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Pellat, Ch.
(a.), terme probablement d’origine berbère désignant le couscous, une préparation culinaire à la semoule qui est le plat national des populations d’Afrique du Nord. Il apparaît avec l’article et un nūn final dans une anecdote qui montre un Oriental recevant du Prophète, en rêve, le conseil de soigner avec al-kuskusūn un Mag̲h̲rébin malade; cette anecdote, rapportée par Dozy ( Suppl., s.v.), est très connue, et c’est probablement elle qui a poussé des lettrés marocains à adopter la forme prêtée au Prophète. L. Bauer ( Wörterbuch der ara- bischen Umgangsprache 2, Wiesbaden 1957, 402),…

Dawāʾir

(682 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Tourneau, R. le
, plural of dāʾira , group of families attached to the service and the person of a native chief in Algeria. Before the French conquest, the name of dawāʾir (local pronunciation dwāyr ) was borne especially by four tribal groups encamped to the south-west of Oran and attached to the service of the Bey of that city, although there were other dawāʾir, for example in the Titteri. They were organized as a militia, living on the products of the ¶ land put at their disposition by the Turkish government and the profit from expeditions against tribes who were unruly or refused to p…

Dawāʾir

(628 words)

Author(s): Cour, A. | Tourneau, R. le
, pluriel de dāʾira, réunion de familles attachées au service et à la personne d’un chef indigène en Algérie. Avant la conquête française, le nom de dawāʾir (prononciation locale: dwāyr) fut spécialement porté par quatre groupes tribaux campés au Sud-ouest d’Oran et attachés au service du bey de cette ville, encore qu’il y eût des dawāʾir ailleurs, par exemple dans le Titteri. Ils étaient organisés comme une milice, vivant de l’usufruit des terres mises à leur disposition par le gouvernement turc et des profits des expéditions organisées contre les …

D̲j̲ays̲h̲

(12,975 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, one of the common Arabic terms (with d̲j̲und and ʿaskar ) for the army. ¶ i. — Classical . Except possibly in the Yaman, pre-Islamic Arabia, although living under permanent conditions of minor warfare, knew no armies in the proper meaning of the term apart from those of foreign occupation. Conflicts between tribes brought into action virtually all able-bodied men, but without any military organization, and combats were very often settled by individual feats of arms. The embryo of an army may be said to have appeared with Islam in the expeditions led or prepared by the Prophet, although the d̲…

Ḏj̲ays̲h̲

(12,125 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, l’un des termes arabes usuels (avec d̲j̲und et ʿaskar) pour désigner l’armée. I. L’Arabie préislamique, tout en ayant vécu dans des conditions de petite guerre permanente, n’a connu d’armée spécifique qu’en cas d’occupation étrangère ou peut-être au Yémen. Les luttes entre tribus y mettaient en action virtuellement tous les hommes valides, mais sans organisation militaire, et les combats le plus souvent s’y résolvaient en exploits singuliers. Un embryon d’armée apparaît, si l’on veut, avec l’Islam, dans les expéditions conduites ou préparées par le Prophète, bien que le d̲j̲ihād
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