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Slavic Mission

(1,106 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
Whereas Latin and Byzantine missions went hand in hand with expansion, the adoption of Christianity by Slavic tribes helped to stabilize independent states (Mission 3.3). 1. After a mainly Frankish mission to Slavs who had settled in Illyria in the sixth and seventh centuries, and to southern Slavs in Slovenia and Croatia, missionary ¶ work increased with the destruction of the Avars’ kingdom in Pannonia (ca. 500–803) by Charlemagne (768–814) and the Bulgars in 811. The Drava River became the boundary of the influence of Aquileia, in northern Italy, and of th…

Basilian Orders,

(324 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] the designation applied by the Latin Middle Ages to Eastern monasticism. It was based on the erroneous assumption that the latter generally followed the “rule” of St. Basil the Great (4th cent.), nothwithstanding the fact that the Orthodox Church knows no such thing as a monastic order and that each Orthodox monastery has its own rule. The nam…

Basileios von Ochrid

(121 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (1145 – c. 1169). When Basileios, archbishop of Thessalonica, was asked to support the union proposal of Pope Hadrian to the emperor Manuel I Comnenus, he demanded concessions from the Latins on the Filioque clause, the use of unleavened bread, and on the issue of papal primacy, which he rejected. In 1154, as on other occasions, he debated with the papal legate Anselm of Havelberg in Constantinople. Hans-Dieter Döpmann Bibliography PG 119, 928–933 J. Schmidt, ed., Des Basilius aus Achrida, Erzbischof von Thessalonich, bisher unedierte Dialoge, 1901 SC 118, 1966 DHGE VI…

Karsavin, Lev Platonovich

(197 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (Dec 1, 1882, St. Petersburg – Jul 12, 1952, Abezʾ, Siberia), Russian philosopher of religion. Appointed professor in St. Petersburg in 1912, he was expelled from Russia in 1922, became professor in Berlin, then at the Institut St. Serge in Paris (1926), in Kaunas (1928), and in Vilnius (1940). He was sentenced to forced labor in 1950. Building especially on the work of V. Solovyov, his philosophy of religion aspires to a realization of “all-encompassing oneness.” The truth of Christ is to pervade everything. Although he regarded the Western culture of the Filioque

Bachkovo Monastery

(189 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (Bulg. Bačkovski manastir), situated on the northern edge of the Rhodope Mountains and dedicated to the “Dormition of the Mother of God,” it is the second largest monastery in Bulgaria. As one of three Stavropigial monasteries, it stands under the authority of the Holy Synod. It was founded in 1083 …


(241 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (from the Gk αὐτός and κεφαλή, “one's own head”), an ecclesial term since the 6th century, at first employed in various ways, has become established following the canonist Theodoros Balsamon (died c. 1195) as a reference to the independence of the Orthodox Churches: independent selection and installation of the head of the church and of …


(206 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] The Bogomils were an important heretical movement from the 10th to the 15th century; after they had spread through the Balkans, they extended their range throughout western Europe, where they influenced the Cathari. Their founder was a priest named Bogomil (“Beloved of God”). It was probably less exposure to dualistic notions of the Paulicians, Manicheans (Manichaeism, or Euchites (Messalians/Euchites) than their first-hand experience of injustice in the world ¶ and the Church that persuaded them that not God but the apo…

Cankov, Stefan

(234 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (Zankow; Jul 4, 1881, Gorna Oryakhovitsa – Mar 20, 1965, Sofia). A Bulgarian Orthodox theologian, Cankov earned his Dr. theol. in Chernivtsi (Czernowitz) in 1905, his Dr. jur. in Zürich in 1918, ¶ and received honorary doctorates from Athens (1936), Oxford (1937), Berlin (1940), Sofia (1953), and Budapest (1955). He was professor of canon and matrimonial law and of Christian sociology from 1923 to 1960, rector of the University of Sofia from 1940 to 1941, as well as a member of the Bul…


(1,247 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] From the Bronze Age, Bulgaria was settled by the Thracians. Their religious ideas and practices coalesced with those of the Greeks, who began to advance along the Black Sea coast in the 5th century bce. Under the Romans, the province of Moesia inferior was established in 29 bce north of the Haemus (Bal¶ kan mountains); the province of Thrace to the south was established in 46 ce. The spread of the Christian faith turned the Balkan Peninsula into a bridge between Latin and Greek Christianity. During the Arian controversy, th…


(582 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] I. Catholic Church – II. Orthodox Churches (Latin canonisatio, Greek ᾽Αν̆ακῆρυξις/ anakḗryxis, “public proclamation”) refers to the placement in the list (canon) of saints (Saints/Veneration of saints). Such placement includes remembrance in worship, a vita, an icon (Icons; Saints, icons and attributes), the possibility of having an altar or church dedicated to the saint (Consecration/Ordination/Dedication), and the appropriation of the saint's name at ba…

Cyril of Turov

(177 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (1130 – after 1182), Russian saint, a strict ascetic, a sometime stylite, an educated monk, the most important representative of old Russian literature, a most effective preacher (“Russian Chrysostom”), and, after c. 1162, bishop of the city of Turov. He utilized Greek sermons. With artful symbolism and allegory, he interpreted God's love and mercy almost without time and context. Eight sermons on the Sundays of Easter, also dealing with the Coun…

Bulgarian Monasteries

(346 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] The monasteries of Bulgaria are intimately connected with its history, piety, and civilization, as well as its spiritual, intellectual, and also political development. Three of them are stavropigial/monasteries, directly responsible to the Holy Synod: the monasteries at Rila, founded by Ivan (John) of Rila (died 946…


(882 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (Bosna i Hercegovina). Herzegovina derives its name from the fact that the emperor Frederick III gave the Vojevod Sephan Vukčić the title, “Duke [ Herceg] of St. Sava.” In 1463 it had to pay tribute to the Turks, and in 1483 was defeated by the Turks as Sanjak Hersek in Bosnia. After conquest by the Slavs in the 6th/7th century Bosnia was either subject to Serbian or Croatian sovereignty or was…

Boris I

(168 words)

Author(s): Döpmann, Hans-Dieter
[German Version] (died May 2, 907), Bulgarian tsar (852–889) of the first Bulgarian kingdom (Bulgaria) accepted Christianity for his country from Byzantium and the baptismal name Michael for himself in 864/65. Boris, who withdrew in 889 to the monastery near the capital city of Pliska, is venerated as the saint and near-apostle Tsar Boris-Michael. After receiving the Responsa ad consulta Bulgarorum from Pope Nicholas I in 866, he submitted his church to Rome, having first sought its independence. Th…