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Pedieis

(142 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πεδιεῖς; Pedieîs). Town in the upper Cephisus valley in eastern Phocis whose location is pinpointed as being near Palio Thiva, 5 km north-northeast of modern Tithorea. However, this location has also been suggested for Neon [6]. P. lay on the right bank of the river where traces of the wall ring have been preserved. P. was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC (Hdt. 8,33) and laid waste by the Boeotians in 395 BC (Hell. Oxy. 18(13),5). In 360 BC it appeared in the list of those paying contributions towards the rebuilding of the temple of Delphi (CID II 5 Z. 55f.). Daverio Rocchi, G…

Cirphis

(137 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κίρφις; Kírphis). Mountain ridge south of Arachova in Boeotia, extending from the plain of Cirrha in the west to the Schiste in the east (Str. 9,3,3; FdD 3, 4, 280 c 24), where its highest peak rises (Xerovouni, 1503 m: cf. Pind. Hyporchemata d 5,4; b 3,11) and together with Mount Parnassus divides east and west Locris (Str. 9,3,1). It is uncertain if these references indicate the existence of an inhabited centre of the same name, whose location should be assumed near the modern v…

Hyampolis

(397 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ὑάμπολις; Hyámpolis). City of eastern  Phocis, modern Bogdanou on the plateau of Kalapodi. In antiquity, it was the main access from northern Greece into the Cephisus valley (Hdt. 8,28; Paus. 10,1,11) through Thermopylae and the plains of Opus. The acropolis of H. is located on a hill where the passage leading to the plains of Exarchus joins the valley ( Abae, distance c. 2,5 km), crossed by the road to Orchomenus. The name is derived etymologically from Hyántōn pólis (Paus. 10,35,5; Str. 9,2,3; 9,3,15); mentioned in the catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,51…

Scarphea

(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (Σκάρφεια/ Skárpheia). City in Locris Epicnemidia (Hom. Il. 2,532;  cf. Str. 9,4,4; Tab. Peut. 8,1; Geogr. Rav. 375,6), near modern Molo in a seismically active zone, seriously affected by tsunamis in 426 BC (Demetrius of Callatis FGrH 85 F 6; Thuc. 2,32) and AD 551 (Procop. Goth. 4,25,16-23). Initially in rivalry with Thronium for dominance in the region (cf. the conflict over the number of Delphic hieromnḗmones and border conflicts: FdD vol. 3, 38,3; 42,7), in Late Anti…

Oeanthea

(237 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Οἰανθέα/ Oìanthéa, Οἰάνθεια/ Oiántheia, Εὐάνθεια/ Euántheia, Latin Oianthe). Town in western Locris (Locri, Locris [1]) near the modern Vitrinitsa on the Gulf of Krisa like its neighbour  Chaleum (modern Galaxidi). Earliest evidence: a metrical funerary inscription (? 625-600 BC: IG IX,1, 867; SGDI 3188; Tod 1, 4) for a próxenos from Corcyra, and an agreement on judicial assistance with Chaleum (450 or later: IG IX 12, 717; Tod 1, 34; StV 2, 146 [2]). In the Peloponnesian War in 426 BC, Spartan troops under Eurylochus [2] marched through O. wi…

Abae

(254 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Ἄβαι, Ἀβαί; Ábai, Abaí). Situated in eastern  Phocis on a rocky outcrop at the edge of the plain which borders the pass of  Hyampolis (about 2.5 km distance) near the modern Exarchos, on the road from Orchomenus to Opus (Paus. 10,35,1-5). Name derived from its Argive founder  Abas (Paus. loc. cit.). Seat of an oracle of Apollo (Hdt. 1,46; 8,27; 33; 133; Paus. loc. cit.; Str. 9,3,13; Diod. Sic. 16,58,3-6; Syll.3 552); fortress on the access to Phocis from  Locris Opuntia and  Boeotia (D…

Korykion Antron

(162 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κωρύκιον ἄντρον; Kōrýkion ántron). A grotto (Quaternary period) with two chambers, named after Apollo's daughter Corycia (Paus. 10,6,3), on the northern side of Parnassus (on a height of 1,360 m) above Delphi (today's Sarandavli). The cavern, which Str. 9,3,1 and Paus. 10,32,2 regarded as most beautiful, was used by the neighbouring population as a place of refuge (in the Persian invasion of 480 BC, Hdt. 8,36,2), but primarily, as a cult site from as early as the end of the 8th cen…

Phlygonium

(148 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Φλυγόνιον/ Phlygónion). Phocian town. Whether it was located in the north-west of the small plain of Tséresi is uncertain; the remains of the fortifications on the hill of Palaiokastron have been attributed to it. P. was among the cities destroyed in 346 BC at the instigation of Philippus [4] II (Paus. 10,3,2); the name P. also appears in the reports of the treasurers of Delphi after 324/3 (CID II 108 l. 10). In c. 140 BC (FdD III 2, 136), P. and Ambryssus, probably as part of a sympoliteía , together established the borders of their territory with that of Delphi. Daverio Rocchi…

Amphicaea, Amphiclea

(153 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ἀμφίκαια, Ἀμφίκλεια; Amphíkaia, Amphíkleia). In eastern  Phocis at the foot of Mount  Parnassus, on the southern edge of the central Cephissus valley; archaeological traces (late Mycenaean and 8th cent. BC), remains of a ring of wall and towers ( c. 5th-4th cent. BC). Destroyed during the Persian invasion of 480 BC (Hdt. 8,33) and again at the end of the Third Sacred War in 346 BC (Paus. 10,3,2); rebuilt as Amphikleia (called Dadi(on) from the Middle Ages, nowadays once more…

Daphnus

(113 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Δαφνοῦς; Daphnoûs). Port of the Locri Epicnemidii (Str. 9,3,17; Plin. HN. 4,27), today known as Agios Konstantinos, situated on the coastal plain of Longus on the Euboean Gulf. From the time of the first Sacred War ( c. 590 BC) the entire coastal strip belonged to the Phocians (Scyl. 61; Str. 9,3,1), who secured an access to the Aegean Sea via D. After the third Sacred War D. was returned to Locris in 346 BC. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, …

Castalia

(253 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κασταλία; Kastalía, Lat. Castalia). Spring in  Delphi, dedicated to Apollo and the Muses, located at the exit of the gorge of the Phaedriades, its waters discharging into the river Pappadia; according to a -- geologically incorrect -- ancient assumption, the spring was fed by the Cephissus [1], which flows on the opposite slope of Mount Parnassus (Paus. 10,8,9f.; schol. Pind. Paean 6,5; POxy. 5, 841). In literature, C. is often used synonymously with  Delphi. The Castalian water, wh…

Oeneon

(207 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Οἰνεών/ Oineṓn; also Οἰνόη/ Oinóe, regularly after the 5th cent. BC, or Οἰνόα/ Oinóa). Town in western Locris, east of Naupactus, near the modern Klima on the Paleochori hill (remains of city wall ring), with a harbour (modern Monastirakio). As the death of Hesiod (Hesiodus) was documented at the nearby sanctuary of Zeus Nemeios (Thuc. 3,96,1), O. can be identified with Oinoe (Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 215-254; Tzetz. Vita Hesiodi 97; 101; 104; cf. Plut. Mor. 162 e-f). It is uncertain whether the ethnikon Oinaîos (Οἰναῖος) or Oinoaîos (Οἰνοαῖος) in inscriptions f…

Daulis, Daulia

(256 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Δαυλίς , Δαυλία; Daulís, Daulía). City in eastern Phocis, c. 1 km south of modern Davleia. Its location on one of the foothills of the Parnassus made access to it naturally difficult and gave it strategic importance because both the narrow pass between the lower and upper Cephissus valley as well as the road from  Chaeronea to  Delphi could be controlled by it (Hell. Oxy. 13,5; Liv. 32,18,7). Etymologically, its name is derived from …

Tritea

(106 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τριτέα/ Tritéa; Τρίτεια/ Tríteia). Town in the east of western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τρίτεια; SEG 25, 590), probably at modern Pendeoria near Galaxidi, with remains of a ring wall. A breed of hunting dog was named after T. (Hesych. s.v. Τριτῆς γενήεν). There are frequent mentions of inhabitants of T. in inscriptions at Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 51 f., 145-149, 211; vol. 2, 1952, passim  J. Bousquet, C. Vatin, La Convention Chaleion-T., in: BCH 92, 1968, 29-36  G. …

Alpenus

(81 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ἀλπηνός, Ἀλπηνοί; Alpēnós, Alpēnoí).   Kome (Hdt. 7,176) or   polis (Hdt. 7,216) on the coastal plain of eastern  Locris, which is towered over by the rock formation Melampygos; at the eastern exit of  Thermopylae, where the Anopaia path branches off (Hdt. 7,215 f.; 229; cf. Aeschin. Leg. 132 f.). Badly damaged during the earthquake in 426 BC (FGrH 85 Demetrius of Callatis fr. 6). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography Müller, 292 f. Pritchett 4, 1982, 159-162 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 202.

Patronis

(85 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πατρωνίς; Patrōnís). City in eastern Phocis (Plut. Sulla 15,4), identical with Trōnís (Τρωνίς, Paus. 10,4,10; CID 2,208,1; 9) with a heroon of Archegetes of Phocis. Remains of the wall at modern Hagia Marina. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J.M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Eastern Phokis, 1986, 50-53  Ph. Ntasios, Συμβολή στην τοπογραφίαν της Ἀρχαίας Φωκίδος, in: Phokikon Chronikon 4, 1992, 25f.  J. McInerney, The Phokikon and the Hero Archegetes, in: Hesperia 66, 1997, 193-207  Id, The Folds of Parnassos, 1999, 284-286.

Plygonium

(99 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πλυγόνιον/ Plygónion). Western Locrian locality in the west of Delphi, unknown to ancient literature. In Delphic inscriptions before 190 BC - the year P. was incorporated into Delphi - the Πλυγόνεις/ Plygóneis are frequently mentioned. It should be distinguished from a Phlygonium  ([1] as opposed to [2]) in Phocis. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. P., RE Suppl. 14, 385-387 2 E. Kirsten, s.v. Phlygonion, RE 20, 306-308. G. Daux, Delphes au IIe et au Ier siècle, 1936, 230-234, esp. 234  L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'Ouest, vol. 1, 1952…

Larymna

(188 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Λάρυμνα; Lárymna). Harbour town in eastern Locris, on the Gulf of Euboea [1]. Remains of fortifications near modern L., from Mycenaean, archaic and classical times as well as the Roman Imperial period, testify to the continuity of settlement and reconstruction after the destruction by Sulla (86 BC: Plut. Sulla 26,4). On the ancient road between L. and Bazaraki, near the church of Agios Nikolaos, are the ruins of an early Christian basilica. The ancient settlement was located on the hill of Bazaraki c. 2.5 k…

Phocis

(1,395 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φωκίς/ Phōkís, Φωκεῖς/ Phōkeȋs). [German version] I. Geography A region in central Greece shaped by far-flung mountain ranges ( c. 1615 km2). Parnassus and Kirphis separate the eastern plain -- which is crossed by the Cephisus and borders east on the Callidromus up to Kopais - from the western plain which extends along the Gulf of Corinth up to the Bay of Cirrha, in the northeast borders on Doris, Thessaly and East Locris and in the west on Locris Ozolis. Phocis is one of the most seismically active regions in Gre…

Crisa

(523 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κρίσα). City in West Phocis (Κρίσα: Hom. Il. 2,520; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 115a; Pind. Isthm. 2,18; Soph. El. 180; Str. 9,3,3; Paus. 10,37,5; Plin. HN 4,7; Frontin. Str. 3,7,6; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1 hypoth.; Ptol. 3,14,4; Hsch. s.v. Κ.; Κρίσσα/η: Hom. H. Apollon 282; Eust. in Hom. Il. 526; Κίρσα: Alc. fr. 121 D.), toponym of the alluvial plain bounded in the SE by Cirphis and Parnassus (Κρισαῖον πεδίον: Hdt. 8,32; modern plain of Itea) on the bay of the Corinthian Gulf. C. lies on a rock…

Parapotamii

(231 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Παραποτάμιοι; Parapotámioi). Originally a peasant settlement on the eastern bank of the Cephis(s)us [1] in Phocis, c. 7 km north of Chaeronea near the modern Belesi, later fortified to protect the mountain pass between Parnassus and Hadylium which connected the upper Cephissus Valley with the Copais region (Hom. Il. 2,522; Paus. 10,33,7; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385). It is possible that Theopompus' (ibid.) proposed interpretation of the settlement as a colony ( katoikía) may have been linked to the settlement of the river valley by Minyans from Orchomen…

Cachales

(71 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Καχάλης; Kachálēs). Tributary to the Cephisus river in Phocis, today called Kakorrema, flowing below the mountain fortress of Tithorea. C. was the source of the city's water supply (Paus. 10,32,11). The Greek name C. means ‘impetuous, noisy river’ (cf. καχλάζειν; kachlázein, ‘to make noise, to roar’). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography H. v. Geisau, s.v. Kachales, RE 10, 1456 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ελλάδος Περιήγησις 5, 1981, 424 n. 1.

Stiris

(103 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Στῖρις/ Stîris, Στιρίς/ Stirís). City in Eastern Phocis on the route from Chaeronea over the Helicon [2] to Delphi (Paus. 10,35,8), remains at modern Paleochori (monastery of Agios Nikolaos). In the 3rd cent. BC border conflicts with Panopeus (SEG 42, 479), in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC sympoliteía with Medeon [1] (Syll.3 647). Inscriptions: IG IX 1,32-57. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography F. Schober, Phokis, 1924, 40f.  Philippson/Kirsten 1, 438  N. D. Papachatzis, Pausaniu Hellados Periegesis, vol. 5, 1981, 441f.  J. Fossey, The Ancient To…

Calliarus

(112 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Καλλίαρος, τὰ Καλλίαρα; Kallíaros, tà Kallíara). Listed as one of the east Locrian towns in Homer's ship catalogue (Hom. Il. 2,531), deserted at the time of Strabo (Str. 9,4,5; Hsch. s.v. C.); it took its name from the surrounding plain, etymologically derived from the eponymous hero in Steph. Byz. s.v. C. (= Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 13). The localization of C. near Skala Atalandis, the finding place of pottery from the Early and Middle Helladic as well as the Mycenaean period, is uncertain. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography W. A. Oldfather, s.v. K. (1) and (2…

Macynia

(144 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μακυνία, Μακύνεια; Makynía, Makýneia, ethnicon Μακυνιεύς; Makynieús). Coastal town in west Locris north-west of Antirrhium in the region of Mamakou, possibly on the Paleokastro, at a short distance from Taphiassus (modern Klokova; Str. 10,2,4; 6; 21; Plin. HN 4,6; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.); remains of the city walls (from about the 4th/3rd cents. BC), probably built after the incorporation of M. into the Aetolian League (in 338 BC; Aetolians). According to Plut. Quaest. Graec. 15, who cites…

Lycorea

(268 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Λυκώρεια; Lykṓreia). Pólis (Paus. 10,6,2; Suda s.v. Λυκωρεύς) or kṓme (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,711; 4,1490; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.) in the summit region of the Parnassus. Various versions explaining the etymology and foundation: 1) the howling of the wolves (λύκων ὠρυγαῖς, Paus. l.c.) that led the residents to the peak of the Parnassus, which saved them from Deucalion's Flood ( Deucalion); 2) Lycorus, the son of Apollo and the nymph Corycia (Paus. l.c.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.)…

Cnemis

(142 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κνημίς; Knēmís). Mountain in  Locris; together with Chlomon, the highest peak (938 m) in the chain that with its foothills forms a mosaic of valleys and passes connecting the narrow, east Locrian coastal band with the hinterland; in the south the C. reaches the lower Cephissus valley and the Copais plain. The C. represents the natural boundary between Locris Hypocnemidia and Locris Epicnemidia. Its formation is ascribed to the predominantly vertical tectonic movement that in the o…

Naryca

(461 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ναρύκα/ Narýka, lit. also Νᾶρυξ/ Nâryx). City in Locris Epicnemidia (Locrians [1]) on the road from the Spercheus Valley via Thermopylae to Phocis, localized by inscriptions found in the church of Hagios Ioannes near Paleokastro at Rengini, approx. 8 km southeast of Mendenitsa ([1], cf. [2]; formerly believed to be at Atalante [3. 1138] or Kalapodi [4. 187]). Given its favourable setting in a fertile valley that was linked to the ocean via Thronion and located on the axis connecting n…

Mychus

(57 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μυχός; Mychós). Easternmost harbour of Phocis (Str. 9,2,25; 3,13; the place name refers to the remoteness of the location) below the Helicon on the Gulf of Corinth, probably nearby modern Boulis in the Bay of Zálitzan (neolithic finds). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J.M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Eastern Phokis, 1986, 11, 91f.

Myonia

(288 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μυονία/ Myonía, Μυάνη/ Myánē, Μυών/ Myṓn). One of the four towns in Locris (Locri, Locris [1]) (Paus. 10,38,8; Plin. HN 4,8: Myania), about 30 stadia ( c. 5,7 km) north of Amphissa, from where it is possible only with difficulty to reach Locris (Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. see Μ., here also Μυών; Herodian. 3,1,22; 3,1,297), exact location uncertain; there is discussion about Hagia Efthymia [1. 79], Seghditsa (present-day Pavliani) on the eastern slope of Ghiona [2. 380], Topolia (present-day Elaion) with r…

Tarphe

(48 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τάρφη/ Tárphē). City in eastern Locris (Hom. Il. 2,533); according to  Str. 9,4,6  the original place name of Pharygae (cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; s. v. Φαρύγαι; s. v. Θρόνιον). Location unknown. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. W. Kase et al., The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vol. 1, 1991, 88.

Molycrium

(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μολύκρειον/ Molýkreion). Corinthian colony in the foothills of Antirrhium, at a point dominating the strait between the Gulf of Patras and the Gulf of Corinth; its exact location is unknown. Sources: Thuc. 2,84,4; 3,102,2: Μ.; 2,86,2: Ethnikon Μολυκρικός; Pol. 5,94,7: Μολυκρία; Str. 8,2,3: Ethnikon Μολύκριος; 9,4,8; 10,2,21: Μολύκρεια; Plin. HN 4,6: Molycria; Ptol. 3,15,3: Μολυκρία; Ps.-Scyl. 35: Μολύκρεια; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μολυκρία. Occupied by Athens around 460 BC, conquered in 426 by the Spartans under Eurylochus (Thuc. 3,102,…

Boundaries

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(ὅρος/ hóros, μεθορία/ methoría; Latin finis, limes). [German version] I. Subjective and objective frontier perception The earliest evidence for the perception of the topographical dimensions of frontier zones predates the concept of the state. In Greece, differences in burial rites, cults of the dead and of heroes and the territorial distribution of crafted goods since the Iron Age point to actions motivated socially and subjectively, defining ethnically coherent communities or peoples as distinct from others…

Lilaea

(206 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Λίλαια; Lílaia, Ptol. 3,14,4; Λίλαιον; Lílaion, schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121). City in Phocis at the Cephisus sources (Hom. Il. 2,523; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385; Str. 9,2,10; Paus. 10,35,5); named after the daughter of the river god Cephisus (Paus. 10,33,4); cf. the coins of L. [1. 17f.]; HN 339; 343). L. lies on the north-eastern slope of the Parnassus in a strategically favourable position on the traffic axis between the upper Cephisus valley and the Pleistus valley, c. 33 km from Delphi (Paus. 10,33,2). Finds come from the prehistoric to the Late Helladic a…

Panopeus

(390 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πανοπεύς; Panopeús). City in eastern Phocis in the northern part of the Cephisus valley at a height of 335 m near modern Hagios Vlasios on the border with Boeotia, on the “Sacred Way” leading from Athens to Delphi, about 4 km from Chaeronea. P. is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of Phocean cities (Hom. Il. 2,519-523) and was the residence of the Phocean kings (Hom. Il. 17,306-309; Paus. 10,4,2). Its founding is attributed to the Phlegyae expelled from Orchomenus [1] (Paus. 10,4…

Thronium

(230 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Θρόνιον; Thrónion). City in eastern Locris (Locri [1]) on the northeastern slopes of Mount Cnemis at the edge of the Boagrius plain, which opens on to the Gulf of Malia, on the coast road to Thermopylae (Aeschin. Or. 2,132) near modern Palaiokastro (traces of Hellenistic and Roman settlements, surviving fortifications). T. was home to the family of Ajax [2] (Hom. Il. 2,533; Eur. Iph. A. 262 ff.). Severely affected by the earthquake of 426 BC (Demetrius of Callatis FGrH 85 F 6), T.…

Cynus

(168 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κῦνος; Kŷnos). Town of Opuntian  Locris (Hom. Il. 2,531; Scyl. 60; Lycoph. Alexandra 1147; Ptol. 3,15,9; Plin. HN 4,27; Hecat. in Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ.; Mela 2,3,40) and ship mooring place (ἐπίνειον; epíneion, emporium) of  Opus (Paus. 10,1,2; Str. 9,4,2; Steph. Byz. loc. cit.; Liv. 28,6,12). The settlement covered the peak of the hill, known as modern Palaiopyrgos or Pyrgos after the ruins of the ancient walls and after a medieval tower that juts out over the little bay on the northern tip of the plain of Ataland…

Tethronion

(104 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τεθρώνιον; Tethrṓnion). City in eastern Phocis (Hdt. 8,33; Plin. HN 4,8) on the northern edge of the valley of the upper Cephis(s)us [1], 20 stadia from Drymus [1], 15 stadia from Amphicaea (Paus. 10,33,12); presumably to the northeast of modern Amphikleia or on a hill 5 km to the south of modern T. with ancient remains of city walls. In 480 BC destroyed by the Persians (Hdt. 8,33; Paus. 10,3,2), in 208 BC occupied by Philippus [7] V (Liv. 28,7,13). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις, Bd. 5, 1981, 431  Müller, 5…

Boagrius

(65 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Βοάγριος; Boágrios). River in eastern Locris (also called Manes), at times a raging torrent, discharges into the sea near Thronium (Str. 9,4,4; Plin. HN 4,27; Ptol. 3,15,10-11; cf. Hom. Il. 2,533; Lycoph. Alex. 1146). Its course was changed considerably by the earthquake of 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, 1990, 167-179.

Tolophon

(88 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τολοφών; Tolophṓn). Port in western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,3; Dionysios Kalliphontos 66 f.) near modern Vidavi, where remains of city walls are visible near Galaxidi. Frequent mentions of the inhabitants of T. in inscriptions from Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 50 f.; 138-145; vol. 2, 1952, passim  Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 1, 372, n. 2  K. Braun, s. v. T., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 688  G. J. Szemler, T., in: E. W. Kase et al. (eds.), The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vo…

Pleistus

(117 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πλειστός/ Pleistós; literary form Πλεῖστος/ Pleîstos, Herodianus, De prosodia catholica 217). River, modern Xeropotami, and valley in western Phocis at the southern foot of Mount Parnassus, where Delphi was located. It flows into the Gulph of Corinth in the east of the plain of Itea. Material remains attest to settlement from Protohelladic II onwards; the greatest density of settlement is found in the Mycenaean Period. Cf. Paus. 10,8,8; 37,7; Str. 9,3,3; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,711. Crisa Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 21, …

Amphissa

(444 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Ἄμφισσα; Ámphissa). Largest town of western  Locris (Paus. 10,38,4; Str. 9,3,4. 4,7 f.; from the Middle Ages called Salona, nowadays once again A.), located in the north of the fertile plain of  Crisa (Str. loc. cit.) c. 15 km north-west of  Delphi, where the road from western Locris joined that from Doris and Delphi. Both the desire of this wealthy agrarian town to expand into the Crisaean plain, and its key strategic position in central Greece are possible reasons for it…

Physcus

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φύσκος/ Phýskos). [German version] [1] Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes (Str. 14,2,4; 29; 5,22; Ptol. 5,2,11: Φοῦσκα/ Phoûska; Stadiasmus maris magni 272), deme of the polis of Lindus in Rhodes [1. 792; 2. no. 51]. Ancient remains of a Classical and Hellenistic fortress are on Asar Tepe, 2 km to the northwest of Marmaris, above an excellent natural harbour on the bay. Inscriptions: [1. 2-5; 2. no. 1-7, 57]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P.M. Fraser, G.E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954 2 C. Blinkenberg, K.F. Kinch, Lindos, …

Anticyra

(374 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Ἀντίκυρα; Antíkyra). [German version] [1] Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus, in 480 BC still the location of its mouth into the sea (Hdt. 7,198), near the modern village of Komma. Originally, A. was part of the  Achaean Phthiotis, then fell to the  Malians in the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 BC), and from about 280 BC, it was a member of the  Oeteaen league.  Ephialtes, who in 480 BC had betrayed to the Persians the way around The…

Cleonae

(339 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Κλεωναί; Kleōnaí). [German version] [1] City in the mountainous area south-west of  Corinth This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes City in the mountainous area south-west of  Corinth at the intersection of the roads from Corinth south towards the Peloponnese. City wall and minimal remains of buildings on a hill 4 km north-west of Hagios Vasilios. In the south outside C. is a small Doric temple, probably of Hercules (Diod. Sic. 4,33.3). C. is already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,570. Part of the …

Naupactus

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Achaeans, Achaea | Peloponnesian War (Ναύπακτος/ Naúpaktos, Latin Naupactus). [German version] I. Location Coastal town in West Locris (Locrians [1]), about 9 km from the strait of Rhion and Antirrhion, protected by a promontory of the Rhigani mountains (cf. Scyl. 35; Str. 9,4,7; 10,2,3; Plin. HN 4,6; Ptol. 3,14). The plains to the east and west of N. were very fertile but exhausted by olive and grain cultivation. The chṓra of Naupactus ( Naupaktía) included most of the coastal plain (Pol. 5,103,4) and ascended …

Opus

(329 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ὀποῦς/ Opoûs). [German version] [1] Chief town of eastern Locris This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Boeotia, Boeotians Chief town of eastern Locris (Itin. Anton. 327,4), after which the surrounding countryside, a bay (modern Kolpos Atalantis) of the Euboean Sea and the Locri [1] who lived there were named. O. was either near modern Kyparissi (traces of an ancient settlement) or at modern Atalanti (numerous inscriptional finds: Ὀπούντιοι/ Opoúntioi, IG IX 1, 268-275; 278; δῆμος Ὀπουντίων/ dêmos opountíōn, IG IX 1, 282). The port of O. was C…

Elatea

(685 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐλάτεια; Eláteia). [German version] [1] Phocian town This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In antiquity together with  Delphi (Str. 9,3,2) the largest (Paus. 10,34,1-2; Str. 9,2,19; Harpocr., Suda s.v. E.) and most famous Phocian town. Located in the farthest north of the Cephissus valley near modern Elatia (Leftà), E. dominated the road that led south from Thessaly and Locris through the passes of Thermopylae and Hyampolis. This location made E. a lively c…

Medeon

(495 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Phocian city in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra (Μεδεών/ Medeṓn; ethnicon Μεδεώνιος). Phocian town in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra [2] (Str. 9,2,26; Paus. 10,36,6; Hdt. 1,38,21; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.), localized in the fortified centre of which the considerable remains can be found on the hill-top of the modern Hagioi Theodoroi (the acropolis of M.) and in the surrounding area. These remains include a section of the surrounding wall, with three towers; outside the wall, on…

Delphi

(3,801 words)

Author(s): Maaß, Michael (Karlsruhe) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Dark Ages | Aetolians, Aetolia | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Celts | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Athletes | Education / Culture (Δελφοί; Delphoí), Delphi. I. Topography and Archaeology [German version] A. Site Delphi, with its sanctuary of Apollo, lies at an altitude of 533 to 600 m. on the south slope of Mt. Parnassus (main summit 2,457 m.), by the cleft of the Castalia Gorge. The Phaedriads (around …
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