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Ingaevones

(63 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A mythological Germanic tribal group attested probably as early as in Pytheas of Massilia (Plin. HN 37,35 Detlefsen with conjecture) (Plin. HN 4,96; 99; Tac. Germ. 2,2;  Herminones), which, although the closest to reality of the three Mannus groups, merely functioned as a fictitious blanket term for Cimbri, Teutoni, and Chauci. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography D. Timpe, Romano-Germanica, 1995, esp. 20-24.

Iuvavum

(426 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia | Raeti, Raetia (modern Salzburg). In the territory of the Alauni the developing Roman site of I. (etymology disputed) on the left bank of the Salzach replaced the Celtic hill settlements on the Rainberg, the Festungsberg and the Kapuzinerberg in the later years of Augustus' reign (beginning 1st cent. AD). I. was built at the junction of the northern road along the crest of the Alps from Bregenz (Brigantium) and the long distance road from Aquileia leading over the Radstädter Tauernpass, and was raised to the status of mu…

Ambrones

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe of Helvetia or rather  Noricum (Fest. 17) or a tribe of German origin, possibly linked with the island of Amrum: the etymology of Ambr-names is unproductive (cf. [1. 606] for a possible Ligurian component). The A., together with the Helvetii and the Teutoni, threatened Italy from southern Gaul; in 102 BC, they were beaten at Aquae Sextiae by C. Marius (Liv. epit. 68; Plut. Marius 15,5 f.; 19,3 f.; 19,7; 20,1 f.; cf. Str. 4,1,8; Cass. Dio 44,42,4; 50,24,2; Eutr. 5,1,1; Oros. 5,16,1; 9; 13; Veg…

Flevum

(114 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic name (‘the flooding, streaming [body of water]’) for the most northerly branch of the delta of the Rhine: Plin. HN 4,101 ( Flevum ostium); Mela 3,24 ( lacus Flevo, formerly Zuidersee, modern IJsselmeer); cf. Ptol. 2,11,12. Tac. Ann. 4,72,3 mentions a Roman castellum Flevum besieged by Frisii in AD 28, the locality of which is pinpointed in Velsen [1]. It is debatable whether the Flevi in the Laterculus Veronensis 13 are derived from F. [2; 3].  Rhenus Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J.-M. A. W. Morel, A. V. A. J. Bosman, Velsen-Noord Spaarndamm…

Gambrivi

(84 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe that Str. 7,1,3 counts among the weaker tribes, together with the Cherusci, Chatti and Chattuari. A version of the Mannus-genealogy ( Herminones) ranked the G., together with the Marsi, Suebi and Vandili, among the original Germanic tribes (Tac. Germ. 2,2). A connection with the Sugambri seems to be linguistically indicated, but the fact that Str. loc. cit. mentions both names in the same context argues against their being identical. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann, D. Timpe, s.v. G., RGA 10, 406-409.

Asciburgium

(146 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Modern Asberg near Moers (etymologically ‘Eschenberg’ -- ash mountain; cf. Old High German ask). In this location opposite the mouth of the river Ruhr (CIL XIII 2,2,8588-8597), five phases of an auxiliary fort, from 12/11 BC to its abandonment in AD 83/85, with an area of 1.6 to 2.3 ha. have been verified, as well as an Augustan   vicus , and a harbour which was silting up at the end of the 1st cent. AD. After the withdrawal of the military, A. remained an important staging post between Castra Vetera and Novaesium with   be…

Cusus

(73 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] River, eastern or western border of the kingdom of Quadian Vannius founded in AD 19 inter Marum (March) et Cusum (Tac. Ann. 2,63,6), mostly identified with the Duria, i.e. with Hron (Gran), Ipel' (Eipel) or -- archaeologically the most probable -- Váh (Waag [1. 186104]). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 H.-W. Böhme, Arch. Zeugnisse zur Gesch. der Markomannenkriege, in: JRGZ 22, 1975, 153-217. TIR M 33,35f. G. Neumann, s.v. C., RGA 5, 112f. Ipel';

Aviones

(46 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic people who according to Tac. Germ. 40,2 worshipped  Nerthus with the Reudigni, Angli, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and Nuithones; it is not possible to work out their exact location in spite of the etymology ‘water dwellers, island inhabitants’ Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Am(p)sivarii

(176 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, ‘the people who live on the (lower) Ems’; in AD 9, they stayed loyal to Rome under the leadership of Boiocalus, but during Nero's reign (middle of the 1st cent. AD), following their eviction by the Chauci, they tried in vain to settle in the military territory on the eastern bank of the Lower Rhine [1]. Despite their fifty years of allegiance to Rome, the Romans drove them out; the tribe found no admittance with the  Usipetes, nor the  Tubantes,  Chatti and  Cherus…

Chattuarii

(114 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic people; on the basis of etymology inhabitants of a former Chattian territory; possibly to be identified with the  Chasuarii. As neighbours of the Bructeri and the Cherusci counted as the ‘weaker’ inland peoples (Str. 7,1,3f.; Vell. Pat. 2,105,1); possibly to be identified with the Attuarii, who show up in the 4th cent. as part of a Frankish confederacy (Amm. Marc. 20,10,2); during the Middle Ages the C. are settled from the lower Ruhr and Lippe to the left bank of the Rhine.  Chatti;  Francs Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann et al., s.v. Cha…

Clarenna

(40 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Statio between Ad Lunam and Grinario (Tab. Peut. 4,1), possibly the late Flavian garrison Donnstetten-Römerstein, which continued after about 150 into the 3rd cent. as a civilian settlement. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography J. Heiligmann, Der ‘Alb-Limes’, 1990, 80-87.

Silva Bacenis

(62 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Large forested mountain range forming an intra-Germanic barrier between the Cherusci and the Suebi (Caes. Gall. 6,10,5). Etymologically related to German 'Buche' (= beech), and therefore probably the Harz Mountains (possibly as far as Rhön-Vogelsberg), which as late as the Early Middle Ages was called 'Buchonia'. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann u. a., s. v. Bacenis silva, RGA 1, 572 f.

Genauni

(99 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alpine tribe in Raetia (Hor. Carm. 4,14,10), subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC, which, like the Breuni, was thought of as Illyrian (Str. 4,6,8); Plin. HN 3,137 has Caenauni, Ptol. 2,12,4 Βένλαυνοι ( Bénlaunoi). It is thought that their dwelling places were, e.g., in the eastern Inn Valley in the Tyrol. Allocation by Paus. 8,43,4 (Britannia) is uncertain [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J. G. F. Hind, The ‘Genounian’ part of Britain, in: Britannia 8, 1977, 229-234. R. Frei-Stolba, Die Räter in den ant. Quellen, in: B. Frei (ed.), Das Räterproblem in ge…

Cherusci

(199 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe (first mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 6,10,5; etymology uncertain, possibly connected with * herut, German ‘Hirsch’ [deer]?). They settled south of the Angrivarii and west of the Langobardi, between Weser and Elbe, and north of the Harz mountains. In a state of permanent internal dispute, they were subjugated by Claudius Drusus (in 12 and 9 BC), and by Tiberius (AD 4). However, in AD 9,  Arminius, who was in Roman service, led a successful uprising against Quinctilius  Varus by parts …

Brigantium

(308 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | Commerce | Limes | Raeti, Raetia (now Bregenz). In Celtic * brigant -- ‘high’. Important locality of the Brigantii (Str. 4,6,8) in  Rhaetia, situated on the north-eastern bay of Lake Constance at an intersection of important east-west and north-south traffic routes, which become narrower in that area. As well as a putative pre-Roman oppidum in the upper part of town, late La Tène finds (level D 2) have been found on the Ölrain, a plateau of c. 50 ha. (34 m above Lake Constance). Archaeologically there may w…

Adrana

(21 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Probably the modern Eder, river in the territory of the  Chatti (Tac. Ann. 1,56,3). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Grinario

(105 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (modern Köngen). Fort (2.4 ha) on the Augsburg-Mainz road probably founded around AD 90/95. In about 160 the unit was moved to Lorch but the old camp probably still served as a base for supplies. The vicus G. (CIL XIII 11726f.; Tab. Peut. 4,1) that was c. 20 ha. in size flourished to around the middle of the 3rd cent. and belonged to the civitas Sumelocennensis (modern Rottenburg; CIL XIII 6384; 11727). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography C. Unz, G., 1982 M. Luik, F. Reutti, Der Römerpark in Köngen, 1988 D. Planck, Neues zum röm. Vicus G.-Köngen, in: Arch. A…

Decumates agri

(603 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Problematic expression, attested only in Tac. Germ. 29,3: Tacitus does not count those peoples settled beyond the Rhine and Danube as belonging to the Germanic peoples, saying eos qui decumates agros exercent: levissimus quisque Gallorum et inopia audax dubiae possessionis solum occupavere; mox limite acto promotisque praesidiis sinus imperii et pars provinciae habentur. The partly fanciful discussion of this quotation, difficult as it is on linguistic and factual grounds, is as wide-ranging as it is fruitless. If decumates is generally viewed as an adject…

Medulli

(93 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alpine tribe, subjugated by Augustus (CIL V 7817 = Plin. HN 3,137); they lived east of the Vocontii and south of the Allobroges (Str. 4,1,11; 4,6,5; Ptol. 2,10,7) along the upper course of the Arc near modern Modane, and, according to Vitr. De arch. 8,3,20, were particularly prone to suffer from goitre. They belonged to the tribes governed by Cottius [1] (CIL V 7231) and later to the prov. Alpes Cottiae. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,92 G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1975, 334-337.

Aalen

(86 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Largest auxiliary fort (6.07 hectares) on the upper German/Raetian   limes , a forward post for the ala II Flavia milliaria from  Aquileia [2].  Principia excavated in modern times. Oldest inscription from AD 163/4, extensive alterations AD 208. Large   vicus . Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography K. Dietz, Die Erneuerung des Limeskastells A. vom J. 208 n. Chr., in: Acta praehistorica et archaeologica 25, 1993, 243-252 M. Luik, Der Kastellvicus von A., in: Fundber. Baden-Württemberg 19, 1994, 265-355 D. Planck, A., Ostalbkreis: Arch. Plan des röm. Kas…

Lacus Benacus

(84 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today Lago di Garda. Largest Alpine lake in the area of Verona (Plin. HN 9,75), with a length of 500 stadia (along the eastern shore road; cf. Str. 4,6,12; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,131); the river Mincius flows through it. It was navigable despite severe storms (Verg. G. 2,160). The Benacenses (TIR L 32,33) lived on the western shore. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,80 A. Mosca, Caratteri della navigazione nell'area benacense in età romana, in: Latomus 50, 1991, 269-284.

Biriciana

(78 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Weißenburg in Bavaria. Large fort (5.1 ha.) of the ala I Hispanorum Auriana; nearby the fort ‘Breitung’ (3.5 ha.), possibly of the cohors IX Batavorum. Civilian settlement of more than 30 ha. in size, with restored thermae; magnificent treasure trove of the 3rd cent. AD. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-J. Kellner, in: W. Czsyz, K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, Id. (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 534-536.

Lentienses

(65 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Sub-tribe ( pagus) of the Alamanni north of Lake Constance (cf. the later Linzgau). Directed against them in AD 355 was punitive action of the magister equitum Arbetio and a victorious campaign of Gratianus in 378 (Amm. Marc. 15,4; 31,10,1-17). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography R. Rollinger, Zum Alamannenfeldzug Constantius' II. an Bodensee und Rhein im J. 355 n.Chr., in: Klio 80, 1998, 163-194.

Batavi

(247 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] German breakaway tribe from the  Chatti, tracing its origins back to Mannus (Germanic deity); between 55 and 12 BC, they migrated into that part of the Rhine delta which had formerly been occupied by the Menapii. Their main settlement area was the Insula Batavorum, formed by the Oude Rijn and the Waal/Maas, cf. the modern Betuwe. Capitals of the B. were Batavodurum, and, from the time of Trajan, Ulpia  Noviomagus Batavorum. They were called ‘B., because they were the most able of horsemen’ (Cass. Dio 55,24); etymologically thus related to the Gothic batiza ‘better’. Impo…

Istaevones

(36 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mythological ancient tribe of the Germani (Plin. HN 4,100; Tac. Germ. 2,2) with no concrete historical base. According to Plin. l.c. they lived proximi Rheno (near the Rhine).  Herminones Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Marcomanni

(1,393 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic tribe belonging to the Suebi (border people [26. 161f.]) that was probably forced from the middle Elbe region into the upper and middle Main region by the migrations of the Cimbri and Teutoni. The M. supplied mercenaries: from 72 BC for the Sequani in their war against the Haedui, in 60 BC for the Dacians during the destruction of the Boii kingdom in Bohemia, in 58 for Ariovistus against Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 1,51,2). Severely defeated by Claudius [II 24] Drusus probabl…

Abodiacum

(135 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Epfach, district of Landsberg am Lech, Germany (CIL III 2,5780); Roman garrison from just before BC to about AD 50, late antique fortifications along the long, steep-sided, island-like Lorenzberg in a bow of the river Lech. 300 m away, underneath the village of Epfach, there is a Flavian road- vicus on the   via Claudia , north-east of the turn-off to Gauting. Building remains on Epfach hill dating from the 3rd and 4th cents. AD; possibly late antique/early Chri…

Alamanni

(848 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic ‘tribe’, made up of fighting and nomadic groups of various origins, formed after AD 180 in the course of the south-west wanderings of the Elbe-Germanic  Suebi, in particular by Semnones (Cass. Dio 71,20,2; Suda s. v. Κελτοί; Keltoí), which despite disputes with Rome was continuously self-renewing. Their name, first mentioned as A. (‘all men’) in the Byzantine exc. of Cass. Dio for AD 213 likely points to the openness of the battle group that broke apart old tribal formations. Therefore, the independent  Iuth…

Cetium

(158 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today St. Pölten. A town in  Noricum, situated at the intersection of ancient roads frequented from early times; etymologically probably linked to Celtic * keto -- ‘wood, forest’ (cf.   Cetius mons ). The municipium Aelium Cetensium of the time of Hadrian (CIL III 5630; 5652; 11799) was destroyed in the wars against the  Marcomanni, but soon recovered [1]. Since 1949 significant excavations on the site of the ancient town, which has been built up in modern times. Some slight evidence of Christianity in what little r…

Bonna

(241 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul | Legio | Limes | Limes | Batavian Revolt Modern Bonn. Since 30/20 BC settlement of the  Ubii with an indigenous name; between 16 and 12 BC, it was a mixed Roman garrison, replaced under Emperor Augustus with a legion from 1 BC; the legionary camp was rebuilt after its destruction in AD 70 ( legio I Minervia:  Domitianus -- 4th cent.), as was the canabae, both using half-timbering. The suburb of the camp, which itself had been rebuilt several times, flourished until it was destroyed (and rebuilt) …

Gelduba

(178 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (modern Krefeld-Gellep). Place in Germania inferior, field camp and battle site of the Batavian wars (Tac. Hist. 4,26,3; 32,1; 35,3; 36,1; 58,4); after AD 70 auxiliary fort (Plin. HN 19,90), which after three wood and earth stages was converted into stone before 150. The occupying force was for a long time the cohors II Varcinorum equitata. In the wake of Postumus' uprising in 259 (tombs of the fallen!) and in 275/6 G. was destroyed by the Franks, redesigned into a fortress around 295…

Abusina

(146 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Modern Eining. Tab. Peut. 4,3 f. Arusena, the modern river Abens. From AD 79/81 cohort fort ( castellum; 1.8 hectares) at the crossing of the Danube. Reduced size fort from about AD 300; the   vicus of the middle imperial period relocated into the fort: its northern extension perhaps a horreum from the second half of the 4th cent. AD. In the field named ‘Unterfeld’ remains of an ephemeral camp ( legio III Italica) from about AD 172/179.  Horrea;  Cohors;  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography A. Faber, Die südgallische Terra Sigilata aus Kastell und …

Dulgubnii

(69 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] According to Tac. Germ. 34,1 (a conjecture after Ptol. 2,11,9 = ‘the war-ready’) a German tribe, neighbours of the Chasuarii, Chamavi, Angrivarii and Langobardi, presumably situated east of the Weser on the middle Aller and middle Elbe and in the Südheide. Probably not politically autonomous [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 G. Neumann et al., s.v. D., RGA 4, 431 2 Id., et al., s.v. D., RGA 6, 274-276.

Heruli

(481 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Seafaring East Germanic tribe [1], which at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD was allegedly driven out of Scandinavia by the Danes and split into East and West Heruli. The latter attacked the Romans at the Lower Rhine in 287, were defeated and repeatedly attacked Roman territory from the Dutch-Frisian coast to southern Spain (esp. 456/459). Threatened by the  Franci, they made an effort in 476 to gain the friendship of the  Visigoths. At the beginning of the 6th cent. they are no longer attested. From their home by the Sea of Azov, the much stronger East H. advance…

Angli(i).

(115 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] According to Tac. Germ. 40,2, a Germanic tribe who, together with the Aviones, Reudigni, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and Nuithones worshipped  Nerthus; it lived (against Ptol. 2,11,8: on the middle reaches of the Elbe) between Saxony and Jutland in Angulus (modern Angeln) in Schleswig-Holstein (Beda, Hist. eccl. 1,15). Joined at times with the  Suebi, the A. broke away from them under king Offa; most of them made the sea crossing directly to the island of  Britannia, from where Rom…

Noricum

(1,975 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
Roman province, essentially the eastern Alpine region, to the south of the Danube, east of Raetia and west of Pannonia. [German version] A. From the beginning until incorporation into the Imperium Romanum There are various hypotheses [2] on the formation of the Celtic Norici people, who probably gained strength through the amalgamation of individual peoples (dedications from Mt Magdalen in Corinthia mention eight Norican tribes [1. 280-284, 294]), especially regarding their relationship to the postulated pre-Celtic Nori (Norei…

Lentia

(224 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Principal town of the Traun plain, favourably situated from the point of view of communications at the point where the Danube intersects with the salt road to Bohemia, with probably an originally Celtic name (perhaps ‘the bend, the meander’), modern Linz on the Danube. With the wood-earth camp that originates at the earliest in the Tiberian period (0.66 ha, ala I Thracum?), Noricum joined the Claudian series of forts in Raetia west of Oberstimm (in between only small forts); extended before AD 160 into a much bigger stone fort ( ala I Pannoniorum Tampiana Victrix, around 2…

Amisia

(153 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
(Ἀμισία; Amisía). [German version] [1] Modern Ems river The modern river Ems, frequently mentioned (cf. Str. 7,1,3; Mela 3,30; Plin. HN 4,100; Tac. Ann. 1,60,2; Ptol. 2, 11, 1; 7; Marcianus of Heraclea, Periplus Maris exteri 2,32 GGM 1,555); in medieval documents named as Emisa and Emesa [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) [German version] [2] Settlement, localization uncertain The localization of the settlement of A. (Ptol. 2,11,13; 8,6,3; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.) is uncertain, equally, whether Amisiae in Tac. Ann. 2,8 refers to the left arm of the Ems [2]…

Mons Cetius

(68 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mountain range, intrinsically linked with Cetium, bordering Noricum in the east (Ptol. 2,13,1) and Pannonia in the west (Ptol. 2,14,1) reaching the Danube to the north between Vindobona and Cetium. Essentially the Vienna Woods and the contiguous Styrian Alps to the south, the modern Karawanken and the Carnic Alps. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 33,61  G. Winkler, s.v. Cetium, RE Suppl. 14, 91.

Dieburg

(45 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Roman civilian settlement, main settlement of the civitas Auderiensium with good infrastructure (archaeological finds: e.g., a Mithraeum). Heyday about AD 300, but victim of Alamannic raids. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography E. Schallmayer, D., in: D. Baatz, F.-R. Herrmann (ed.), Die Römer in Hessen, 21989, 250-255.

Bodobrica

(80 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] now Boppard. About 1 km east of a vicus from the 1st-3rd cents. AD, the late Roman castle B. of the milites balistarii (Not. Dign. occ. 41,23), with 28 round towers, was developed in the middle of the 4th cent.; in places the walls still reach up to 9 m in height. Early Christian church. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-H. Wegner, in: H. Cüppers(ed.), Die Römer in Rheinland-Pfalz, 1990, 344-346 E. Dassmann, Die Anf. der Kirche in Deutschland, 1993, 62-65.

Licca

(27 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Λικίας; Likías). Righthand tributary of the Danube (Ptol. 2,12,1; 4; Venantius Fortunatus Carm. praef. 4, Vita Martini 4,642), modern Lech. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Goti

(499 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Gutones, ‘Goths’). Germanic people whose very small traditional core of people supposedly left Scandinavia (Iord. Get. 25f.; [1]; archaeological evidence for a migration overseas are lacking) under ‘King’ Berig (important: not one of the  Amali!). At the beginning of the common era the G. settled in the Oder area (cf. Str. 7,1,3); their ethnogenesis obviously took place in the area of the Wielbark culture, next to (Ulmi)rugic-Lemovian neighbours, north of the Lugic-Vandal Przewor…

Noreia

(193 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar Epithet of a mother goddess (possibly derived from a pre-Celtic tribe of the Nori), which was transferred to her shrines [1; 2. 156f.; 3. 240f.; 4]. A place called N. was situated 27 to 40 miles from Virunum in the direction of Ovilavia (Tab. Peut. 5,1). Several inscriptions are addressed to the goddess N. [4. 97f. ill. 4]. The urbs N. (Sempronius Asellio fr. 9 = schol. Bernensia to Verg. G. 3,474), where Papirius Carbo was defeated in 113 BC by the Cimbri, 1200 stadia from Aquileia (Str. 5,1,8…

Boiohaemum

(76 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] ‘Homeland of the Boii’, now Bohemia (sources: Str. 7,1,3; Vell. Pat. 2,109,5; Tac. Germ. 28,2). Although widely abandoned by the Celtic  Boii around 60 BC (Caes. Gall. 1,5,4; cf. Str. 7,1,5; Plin. HN 3,146 deserta Boiorum) and occupied by the  Marcomanni shortly before the end of that cent., the region retained their name. That it gave its name to the  Baiovarii is disputed but quite likely. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 33,27.

Chatti

(248 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe (first mentioned in Str. 7,1,3f.; etymology uncertain), renowned for their martial discipline; settled by Rome in the region around the mouth of the Main, they later occupied particularly the basins of the Hessian depression south of the Cherusci and east of the Usipetes. Classed with the  Hermiones in Plin. HN 4,100, they lost the battle for a saline river to the Hermunduri in AD 58, but inflicted a devastating defeat on the Cherusci. In constant opposition to Rome…

Baiovarii

(121 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mixed Romano-Germanic tribe (Bavarians), first recorded in Iord. Get. 55,280 as living in southern Germany east of the river Lech (cf. Venantius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,640-645). Etymologically most likely the ‘descendants of those living in Bai(a)-haim (= Bohemia)’; the foederati, archaeologically evident in the Friedenhain-Přeštovice pottery, were most likely -- initially independently, later tolerated by the Ostrogoths (Theoderic the Great) -- to have formed the military core, around which, with Regensburg at its…

Burgundiones

(381 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Eastern Germanic tribe (first mentioned in Plin. HN 4,99; etymologically linked with * burgund -- ‘the high-lying’), possibly originating from the island of Bornholm; from the 2nd cent. BC, they settled in the western part of eastern Pomerania, in the 2nd cent. AD in central northern Germany between the Oder and the Vistula. Hypothetically linked with the Luboszyce culture [1]. In the 3rd cent., they migrated to the south-west and, together with the Vandali, were defeated by Aurelius  Probus in…

Angrivarii

(108 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe on the middle reaches of the Weser, partly separated from their south-western neighbours, the Cherusci, by a wide ager (Tac. Ann. 2,19); they sided with Rome in AD 16, seceded, and, after their defeat, joined the   fides (Tac. Ann. 2,24,3); in AD 97, in order to evade the Chauci, the A., together with the Chamavi, occupied land belonging to the Bructeri on the upper reaches of the Amisia (modern Ems; Tac. Germ. 33; cf. Ptol. 2,11,9; Laterculus Veronensis 13,13). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography R. Wenskus, s. v. Angriwarier, RGA, 333 R. Wolters, Rö…

Albis

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Elbe (never the Alb [3], despite [1]) has its source according to Tac. Germ. 41,2 [2. 242 f.] in the territory of the  Hermunduri, according to Ptol. 2,11,1 in the Sudeten, according to Cass. Dio 55,1,3 correctly in the ‘Vandal Mountains’ (Riesengebirge / Krkonoše). Known by the Romans since  Caesar, reached by  Drusus and  Tiberius in 9 and 5 BC, soon crossed by L.  Domitius Ahenobarbus, it was to have become the Germanic border of Rome -- a plan that failed. Therefore known to Tac. (Germ. 41,4) only by ‘hearsay’ ( nunc tantum auditur). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibli…
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