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Abodiacum

(135 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Epfach, district of Landsberg am Lech, Germany (CIL III 2,5780); Roman garrison from just before BC to about AD 50, late antique fortifications along the long, steep-sided, island-like Lorenzberg in a bow of the river Lech. 300 m away, underneath the village of Epfach, there is a Flavian road- vicus on the   via Claudia , north-east of the turn-off to Gauting. Building remains on Epfach hill dating from the 3rd and 4th cents. AD; possibly late antique/early Chri…

Medulli

(93 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alpine tribe, subjugated by Augustus (CIL V 7817 = Plin. HN 3,137); they lived east of the Vocontii and south of the Allobroges (Str. 4,1,11; 4,6,5; Ptol. 2,10,7) along the upper course of the Arc near modern Modane, and, according to Vitr. De arch. 8,3,20, were particularly prone to suffer from goitre. They belonged to the tribes governed by Cottius [1] (CIL V 7231) and later to the prov. Alpes Cottiae. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,92 G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1975, 334-337.

Genauni

(99 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Alpine tribe in Raetia (Hor. Carm. 4,14,10), subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC, which, like the Breuni, was thought of as Illyrian (Str. 4,6,8); Plin. HN 3,137 has Caenauni, Ptol. 2,12,4 Βένλαυνοι ( Bénlaunoi). It is thought that their dwelling places were, e.g., in the eastern Inn Valley in the Tyrol. Allocation by Paus. 8,43,4 (Britannia) is uncertain [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J. G. F. Hind, The ‘Genounian’ part of Britain, in: Britannia 8, 1977, 229-234. R. Frei-Stolba, Die Räter in den ant. Quellen, in: B. Frei (ed.), Das Räterproblem in ge…

Nahanarvali

(89 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (variant Naharvali). Powerful subtribe of the Vandals/Lugii, which is mentioned in Tac. Germ. 43, 3f. along with the Harii, Helvecones, Manimi and Halisones (Helisii?). The Romans reached these tribes via the ‘Amber Road’ (Amber), which had been open since the time of Nero (AD 54-68). In a holy grove belonging to the N., the Alcis, who were comparable with the Dioscuri, were worshipped in an all-Lugian cult. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 33,63  G. Perl, Tacitus, Germania, 1990, 247f.  D. Timpe, Romano-Germanica, 1995, 107f., 127-131.

Cherusci

(199 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe (first mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 6,10,5; etymology uncertain, possibly connected with * herut, German ‘Hirsch’ [deer]?). They settled south of the Angrivarii and west of the Langobardi, between Weser and Elbe, and north of the Harz mountains. In a state of permanent internal dispute, they were subjugated by Claudius Drusus (in 12 and 9 BC), and by Tiberius (AD 4). However, in AD 9,  Arminius, who was in Roman service, led a successful uprising against Quinctilius  Varus by parts …

Bodobrica

(80 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] now Boppard. About 1 km east of a vicus from the 1st-3rd cents. AD, the late Roman castle B. of the milites balistarii (Not. Dign. occ. 41,23), with 28 round towers, was developed in the middle of the 4th cent.; in places the walls still reach up to 9 m in height. Early Christian church. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-H. Wegner, in: H. Cüppers(ed.), Die Römer in Rheinland-Pfalz, 1990, 344-346 E. Dassmann, Die Anf. der Kirche in Deutschland, 1993, 62-65.

Asciburgium

(146 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Modern Asberg near Moers (etymologically ‘Eschenberg’ -- ash mountain; cf. Old High German ask). In this location opposite the mouth of the river Ruhr (CIL XIII 2,2,8588-8597), five phases of an auxiliary fort, from 12/11 BC to its abandonment in AD 83/85, with an area of 1.6 to 2.3 ha. have been verified, as well as an Augustan   vicus , and a harbour which was silting up at the end of the 1st cent. AD. After the withdrawal of the military, A. remained an important staging post between Castra Vetera and Novaesium with   be…

Baiovarii

(121 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mixed Romano-Germanic tribe (Bavarians), first recorded in Iord. Get. 55,280 as living in southern Germany east of the river Lech (cf. Venantius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,640-645). Etymologically most likely the ‘descendants of those living in Bai(a)-haim (= Bohemia)’; the foederati, archaeologically evident in the Friedenhain-Přeštovice pottery, were most likely -- initially independently, later tolerated by the Ostrogoths (Theoderic the Great) -- to have formed the military core, around which, with Regensburg at its…

Noricum

(1,975 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
Roman province, essentially the eastern Alpine region, to the south of the Danube, east of Raetia and west of Pannonia. [German version] A. From the beginning until incorporation into the Imperium Romanum There are various hypotheses [2] on the formation of the Celtic Norici people, who probably gained strength through the amalgamation of individual peoples (dedications from Mt Magdalen in Corinthia mention eight Norican tribes [1. 280-284, 294]), especially regarding their relationship to the postulated pre-Celtic Nori (Norei…

Ingaevones

(63 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A mythological Germanic tribal group attested probably as early as in Pytheas of Massilia (Plin. HN 37,35 Detlefsen with conjecture) (Plin. HN 4,96; 99; Tac. Germ. 2,2;  Herminones), which, although the closest to reality of the three Mannus groups, merely functioned as a fictitious blanket term for Cimbri, Teutoni, and Chauci. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography D. Timpe, Romano-Germanica, 1995, esp. 20-24.

Biriciana

(78 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Weißenburg in Bavaria. Large fort (5.1 ha.) of the ala I Hispanorum Auriana; nearby the fort ‘Breitung’ (3.5 ha.), possibly of the cohors IX Batavorum. Civilian settlement of more than 30 ha. in size, with restored thermae; magnificent treasure trove of the 3rd cent. AD. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-J. Kellner, in: W. Czsyz, K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, Id. (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 534-536.

Ambrones

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe of Helvetia or rather  Noricum (Fest. 17) or a tribe of German origin, possibly linked with the island of Amrum: the etymology of Ambr-names is unproductive (cf. [1. 606] for a possible Ligurian component). The A., together with the Helvetii and the Teutoni, threatened Italy from southern Gaul; in 102 BC, they were beaten at Aquae Sextiae by C. Marius (Liv. epit. 68; Plut. Marius 15,5 f.; 19,3 f.; 19,7; 20,1 f.; cf. Str. 4,1,8; Cass. Dio 44,42,4; 50,24,2; Eutr. 5,1,1; Oros. 5,16,1; 9; 13; Veg…

Divitia

(109 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Cologne-Deutz. Starting as a bridgehead across the Rhine opposite  Colonia Agrippinensis [1] early in the 1st cent. AD and rebuilt with a bridge by Constantine the Great to harbour 1,000 men on the Rhine border that is above flood level (Paneg. 6 [7],11,3; 13,1-5); parts of the structure lasted until Frankish times ( Divitia civitas: Greg. Tur. Franc. 4,16). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 B. Päffgen, W. Zanier, Überlegungen zur Lokalisierung von Oppidum Ubiorum und Legionslager im frühkaiserzeitlichen Köln, in: W. Czysz, C. M. Hüssen et …

Abnoba mons

(154 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Black Forest, German Schwarzwald, mountain region in south-western Germany, possibly including also the low mountain ranges of the Odenwald and Rothaargebirge to the north. In 15 BC,  Tiberius paid a visit there to see the sources of the Danube. From the late Tiberian/early Claudian period (2nd half of the 1st cent. AD), there was a Roman-influenced population on the eastern bank of the upper Rhine region; under the Flavians (2nd half of 1st cent. AD), the wooded mountain area und…

Bingium

(144 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (Vingo), now Bingen/Bingerbrück. Settlement on the bend of the Rhine. Geographically important location in the territory of the  Vangiones (CIL XVII 2,675) on the bridge of the Rhine valley road over the Nahe where the Trier - Mainz route branches off.  Iulius Tutor was defeated here in AD 70, and the bridge that he had pulled down (Tac. Hist. 4,70,4) was replaced around AD 77 as a pile grating (dendrochronologically confirmed; again c. 305); in the early 1st cent. a garrison of several cohorts and …

Celeia

(249 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia Modern Célje (Cilli). Settlement in Noricum on the amber trade route near an originally Celtic-Illyrian settlement at the mouth of the Voglajna into the Savinja (Sann). C. owed its early and rapid development to its favourable location on one of the main access routes to the Illyro-Italian gateway. Under the emperor Claudius, it was probably a   municipium of the tribus Claudia (CIL III 5143; 5227; cf. CIL VI 2382) which, in the middle of the 2nd cent., supplied high-ranking imperial officials [1…

Baetasii

(57 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A people in Lower Germania, whose tribal area, attributed to the colonia Ulpia Traiana/Xanten, most likely lay between Erkelenz and Krefeld. The B. participated with one contingent in the revolt of  Julius Civilis (Plin. HN 4,106; Tac. Hist. 4,56,3; 66,1). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 31,39 C. B. Rüger, Germania Inferior, 1968, esp. 98f.

Iuthungi

(278 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (‘offsprings, descendants’). One of the Germanic warrior communities living north of the Danube, identified by the Romans with the  Semnones [1; 2], defeated by the Romans (AE 1993, 1231; [5]) at Augsburg on 24/25 April AD 260 (unnecessary doubt over the date in [3], cf. [4]) on the way back from Italy. Annoyed at the absence of annual tributes, contrary to treaty and without a declaration of war, they advanced into Italy again in 270, but were overcome by Aurelianus ‘at the cross…

Amisia

(153 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
(Ἀμισία; Amisía). [German version] [1] Modern Ems river The modern river Ems, frequently mentioned (cf. Str. 7,1,3; Mela 3,30; Plin. HN 4,100; Tac. Ann. 1,60,2; Ptol. 2, 11, 1; 7; Marcianus of Heraclea, Periplus Maris exteri 2,32 GGM 1,555); in medieval documents named as Emisa and Emesa [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) [German version] [2] Settlement, localization uncertain The localization of the settlement of A. (Ptol. 2,11,13; 8,6,3; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.) is uncertain, equally, whether Amisiae in Tac. Ann. 2,8 refers to the left arm of the Ems [2]…

Naristi

(133 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Varisti). Germanic tribe next to ( iuxta) the Hermunduri (Tac. Germ. 42,1) and between the Marcomanni and the Quadi (AE 1956, 124), in the vicinity of Pannonia (western Slovakia; cf. [1. 248-251]). Once friends of Rome ([2]; CIL III 4500), during the Marcomannic Wars  they became enemies (SHA Aur. 22,1), against whom Marcus [2] Aurelius campaigned [3. 104f.]; their leader Valao was killed in single combat by M. Valerius Maximianus (AE l.c.). 3,000 N. deserters were settled in the Empire (Cass. Dio 71,21; CIL X 7290 does not mention any N.). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) B…

Fenni

(129 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] According to Tacitus ‘an uncivilized and very poor’ ( mira feritas, foeda paupertas) but ‘happy’ ( beatius arbitrantur) northern people of hunters, whose classification as Germans or Sarmatians was left uncertain (Tac. Germ. 46). They undoubtedly were identical with the Phínnoi (Φίννοι) in northern Scandinavia, who were considered ‘neighbours’ of the Goths (Ptol. 2,11,16: Hs. X; 3,5,8; cf. Jord. Get. 3,22: mitissimi), but not Suomi Finns, who were only named thus in the 2nd half of the 12th cent. Because of the customs described in Tac. Ger…

Batavis

(295 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Today, the historic centre of Passau. The name was recorded rather late (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,24; Eugippius, Vita Severinus 19,1; 22,4; 24,1; 27,1; Batavini: ibid. 20,1; 22,1; 27,3). Located in  Raetia, across from Boiodurum/Innstadt in Noricum. A late Celtic oppidum between the Danube and the Inn was discontinued c. 100 years before the Roman settlement. The Roman settlement was quite dense since late Flavian times, but not yet clearly organized: the narrow, rectangular houses bel…

Decumates agri

(603 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Problematic expression, attested only in Tac. Germ. 29,3: Tacitus does not count those peoples settled beyond the Rhine and Danube as belonging to the Germanic peoples, saying eos qui decumates agros exercent: levissimus quisque Gallorum et inopia audax dubiae possessionis solum occupavere; mox limite acto promotisque praesidiis sinus imperii et pars provinciae habentur. The partly fanciful discussion of this quotation, difficult as it is on linguistic and factual grounds, is as wide-ranging as it is fruitless. If decumates is generally viewed as an adject…

Bructeri

(173 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe; uncertain etymology of the name; they were divided into the ‘small’ and the ‘large’ B. (Str. 7,1,3f.; Ptol. 2,11,6f.; 9) and settled between IJssel, Lippe and the upper reaches of the Ems, or rather between the upper reaches of the Ems and the Weser. Defeated by  Drusus in 12 BC, they took part in the fight against  Varus, and, with their seer  Veleda, were involved in the  Batavian revolt. After AD 98, they were decimated by the Chamavi and Angrivarii and driven away (Tac. Germ. 33,1). Later, Bructuri appear on the right bank of the Rhine between Colo…

Chattuarii

(114 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic people; on the basis of etymology inhabitants of a former Chattian territory; possibly to be identified with the  Chasuarii. As neighbours of the Bructeri and the Cherusci counted as the ‘weaker’ inland peoples (Str. 7,1,3f.; Vell. Pat. 2,105,1); possibly to be identified with the Attuarii, who show up in the 4th cent. as part of a Frankish confederacy (Amm. Marc. 20,10,2); during the Middle Ages the C. are settled from the lower Ruhr and Lippe to the left bank of the Rhine.  Chatti;  Francs Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann et al., s.v. Cha…

Lentienses

(65 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Sub-tribe ( pagus) of the Alamanni north of Lake Constance (cf. the later Linzgau). Directed against them in AD 355 was punitive action of the magister equitum Arbetio and a victorious campaign of Gratianus in 378 (Amm. Marc. 15,4; 31,10,1-17). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography R. Rollinger, Zum Alamannenfeldzug Constantius' II. an Bodensee und Rhein im J. 355 n.Chr., in: Klio 80, 1998, 163-194.

Clarenna

(40 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Statio between Ad Lunam and Grinario (Tab. Peut. 4,1), possibly the late Flavian garrison Donnstetten-Römerstein, which continued after about 150 into the 3rd cent. as a civilian settlement. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography J. Heiligmann, Der ‘Alb-Limes’, 1990, 80-87.

Flevum

(114 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic name (‘the flooding, streaming [body of water]’) for the most northerly branch of the delta of the Rhine: Plin. HN 4,101 ( Flevum ostium); Mela 3,24 ( lacus Flevo, formerly Zuidersee, modern IJsselmeer); cf. Ptol. 2,11,12. Tac. Ann. 4,72,3 mentions a Roman castellum Flevum besieged by Frisii in AD 28, the locality of which is pinpointed in Velsen [1]. It is debatable whether the Flevi in the Laterculus Veronensis 13 are derived from F. [2; 3].  Rhenus Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 J.-M. A. W. Morel, A. V. A. J. Bosman, Velsen-Noord Spaarndamm…

Marcomanni

(1,393 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic tribe belonging to the Suebi (border people [26. 161f.]) that was probably forced from the middle Elbe region into the upper and middle Main region by the migrations of the Cimbri and Teutoni. The M. supplied mercenaries: from 72 BC for the Sequani in their war against the Haedui, in 60 BC for the Dacians during the destruction of the Boii kingdom in Bohemia, in 58 for Ariovistus against Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 1,51,2). Severely defeated by Claudius [II 24] Drusus probabl…

Batavi

(247 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] German breakaway tribe from the  Chatti, tracing its origins back to Mannus (Germanic deity); between 55 and 12 BC, they migrated into that part of the Rhine delta which had formerly been occupied by the Menapii. Their main settlement area was the Insula Batavorum, formed by the Oude Rijn and the Waal/Maas, cf. the modern Betuwe. Capitals of the B. were Batavodurum, and, from the time of Trajan, Ulpia  Noviomagus Batavorum. They were called ‘B., because they were the most able of horsemen’ (Cass. Dio 55,24); etymologically thus related to the Gothic batiza ‘better’. Impo…

Herminones

(135 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] H.,  Ingaevones and  Istaevones are Germanic names for the original Germanic tribes traced back to the three sons of Mannus in the ancient mythological ethnogony of the Germans, based on an indigenous core, (Mannus genealogy) that was probably introduced to ancient literature by Posidonius and was gradually expanded under the influence of the Roman discovery of the north (Mela 3,32; Plin. HN 4,99f.; Tac. Germ. 2,2). Ethnically, spatially and socially the myth remains without conte…

Arenacium

(79 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt According to It. Ant. 254,3 and Tab. Peut. 2,4 (H)arenatio, presumably today's Kleve-Rindern. In AD 70/1 winter quarters of the legio X Gemina in the territory of the  Batavi (Tac. Hist. 5,20,1). The auxiliaries' fort in Kleve has not yet been found. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography J. Seibert, s. v. A., RGA 1, 21973, 399 H. G. Horn, Kleve-Rindern, in: Id. (ed.), Die Römer in Nordrhein-Westfalen, 1987, 458.

Fines, ad Fines

(192 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] M. Vinxt modern Vinxt. Town at the place (near Sinzig) where the road between Bonn and Remagen reaches the border between Germania inferior and superior ( Obrinkas Ptol. 29,2; 8f.; cf. Abrinkas Marcianus 2,28, < Celt. * aber ‘mouth’). Altars to the (Nymphae) Fines have been found there and, on both sides, inscriptions by beneficiarii and soldiers (CIL XIII 7713; 7724; 7731f.). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography C. B. Rüger, Germania Inferior, 1968, 47-49. [German version] [2] M. Pfyn near Frauenfeld modern Pfyn near Frauenfeld (Switzerland), vicus of the…

Gambrivi

(84 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe that Str. 7,1,3 counts among the weaker tribes, together with the Cherusci, Chatti and Chattuari. A version of the Mannus-genealogy ( Herminones) ranked the G., together with the Marsi, Suebi and Vandili, among the original Germanic tribes (Tac. Germ. 2,2). A connection with the Sugambri seems to be linguistically indicated, but the fact that Str. loc. cit. mentions both names in the same context argues against their being identical. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann, D. Timpe, s.v. G., RGA 10, 406-409.

Lacus Benacus

(84 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today Lago di Garda. Largest Alpine lake in the area of Verona (Plin. HN 9,75), with a length of 500 stadia (along the eastern shore road; cf. Str. 4,6,12; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,131); the river Mincius flows through it. It was navigable despite severe storms (Verg. G. 2,160). The Benacenses (TIR L 32,33) lived on the western shore. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,80 A. Mosca, Caratteri della navigazione nell'area benacense in età romana, in: Latomus 50, 1991, 269-284.

Damasia

(78 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Capital of the  Licates, a ‘polis rising up like a fortress’ (Str. 4,6,8). Tentatively identified with the early Imperial, fortified mountain settlement on the Auerberg (1055 m) near Bernbeuren (in modern Bavaria; finds of metal workshops and potters' ovens) that was settled by Rome in the 2nd decade AD and abandoned as early as c. AD 40. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Ulbert, Auerberg, in: W. Czsyz, K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, H.-J. Kellner (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 417-419.

Dulgubnii

(69 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] According to Tac. Germ. 34,1 (a conjecture after Ptol. 2,11,9 = ‘the war-ready’) a German tribe, neighbours of the Chasuarii, Chamavi, Angrivarii and Langobardi, presumably situated east of the Weser on the middle Aller and middle Elbe and in the Südheide. Probably not politically autonomous [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 G. Neumann et al., s.v. D., RGA 4, 431 2 Id., et al., s.v. D., RGA 6, 274-276.

Aalen

(86 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Largest auxiliary fort (6.07 hectares) on the upper German/Raetian   limes , a forward post for the ala II Flavia milliaria from  Aquileia [2].  Principia excavated in modern times. Oldest inscription from AD 163/4, extensive alterations AD 208. Large   vicus . Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography K. Dietz, Die Erneuerung des Limeskastells A. vom J. 208 n. Chr., in: Acta praehistorica et archaeologica 25, 1993, 243-252 M. Luik, Der Kastellvicus von A., in: Fundber. Baden-Württemberg 19, 1994, 265-355 D. Planck, A., Ostalbkreis: Arch. Plan des röm. Kas…

Goti

(499 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Gutones, ‘Goths’). Germanic people whose very small traditional core of people supposedly left Scandinavia (Iord. Get. 25f.; [1]; archaeological evidence for a migration overseas are lacking) under ‘King’ Berig (important: not one of the  Amali!). At the beginning of the common era the G. settled in the Oder area (cf. Str. 7,1,3); their ethnogenesis obviously took place in the area of the Wielbark culture, next to (Ulmi)rugic-Lemovian neighbours, north of the Lugic-Vandal Przewor…

Aliso

(142 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Fort defended after the battle of Varus in AD 9, and then abandoned in an orderly retreat to the  Rhenus (today Rhine) (Vell. Pat. 2,120,4), likely identical with the φρούριον ( phroúrion; Cass. Dio 54,33,4) built by  Drusus in 11 BC at the confluence of the Elison into the Lupia (today Lippe). The location is as yet uncertain since Oberaden and Holsterhausen are ruled out, Haltern was considered but is 41 km too far from the Rhine and was abandoned in AD 9 [1], while A. was occupied either still or again in AD 15-16 (Tac. Ann. 2,7,3).  P. Quinctilius Varus Dietz, Karlheinz (Würz…

Brigantium

(308 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | Commerce | Limes | Raeti, Raetia (now Bregenz). In Celtic * brigant -- ‘high’. Important locality of the Brigantii (Str. 4,6,8) in  Rhaetia, situated on the north-eastern bay of Lake Constance at an intersection of important east-west and north-south traffic routes, which become narrower in that area. As well as a putative pre-Roman oppidum in the upper part of town, late La Tène finds (level D 2) have been found on the Ölrain, a plateau of c. 50 ha. (34 m above Lake Constance). Archaeologically there may w…

Chasuarii

(71 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic people; ‘people of the Hase’ (easterly tributary of the Ems); neighbours of the Chamavi (Tac. Germ. 34,1), living south of the Suebi and west of the Chatti (Ptol. 2,11,11), they left their home country (possibly as early as c. AD 98) and under Gallienus took possession of Roman territory east of Mainz (Laterculus Veronensis 15,6). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann et al., s.v. Chasuarier, RGA 4, 375f.

Hermunduri

(338 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Germanic combat unit that was probably based on fealty, together with Suebi and Semnones in the mythical original tribe of the  Herminones (Plin. HN 4,100), pinpointed in the Augustan period as being located at the Elbe (Str. 7,1,3; Vell. 2,106,2), had possibly already lost its political and organizational connection at that time. H., searching for land, were settled by  Domitius [II 2]in 6/1 BC in the former Marcomannis (Cass. Dio 55,10a,2), possibly as a strategic help again…

Istaevones

(36 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mythological ancient tribe of the Germani (Plin. HN 4,100; Tac. Germ. 2,2) with no concrete historical base. According to Plin. l.c. they lived proximi Rheno (near the Rhine).  Herminones Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Mons Cetius

(68 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Mountain range, intrinsically linked with Cetium, bordering Noricum in the east (Ptol. 2,13,1) and Pannonia in the west (Ptol. 2,14,1) reaching the Danube to the north between Vindobona and Cetium. Essentially the Vienna Woods and the contiguous Styrian Alps to the south, the modern Karawanken and the Carnic Alps. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 33,61  G. Winkler, s.v. Cetium, RE Suppl. 14, 91.

Gelduba

(178 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt (modern Krefeld-Gellep). Place in Germania inferior, field camp and battle site of the Batavian wars (Tac. Hist. 4,26,3; 32,1; 35,3; 36,1; 58,4); after AD 70 auxiliary fort (Plin. HN 19,90), which after three wood and earth stages was converted into stone before 150. The occupying force was for a long time the cohors II Varcinorum equitata. In the wake of Postumus' uprising in 259 (tombs of the fallen!) and in 275/6 G. was destroyed by the Franks, redesigned into a fortress around 295…

Burgundiones

(381 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Eastern Germanic tribe (first mentioned in Plin. HN 4,99; etymologically linked with * burgund -- ‘the high-lying’), possibly originating from the island of Bornholm; from the 2nd cent. BC, they settled in the western part of eastern Pomerania, in the 2nd cent. AD in central northern Germany between the Oder and the Vistula. Hypothetically linked with the Luboszyce culture [1]. In the 3rd cent., they migrated to the south-west and, together with the Vandali, were defeated by Aurelius  Probus in…

Condrusi

(71 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic people, listed by Caesar (B Gall. 2,4,10) among the Germani cisrhenani together with the  Eburones, Caerosi and Paemani; lived as clients of the  Treveri (ibid. 4,6,4) between them and the Eburones (ibid. 6,32,1). The Condroz region on the river Maas between Namur and Liège, which is called pagus Condrustus in medieval documents, recalls the C. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann et al., s.v. C., RGA 5, 78-80.

Cannenefates

(92 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[English version] German. Volk, auch Can(n)anefates, nach ›Abstammung, Dialekt und Tapferkeit den Batavi gleich‹ (Tac. hist. 4,15,1; vgl. Plin. nat. 4,101), im Westteil der insula Batavorum, zw. Oude Rijn und Mosa (Helinium); vgl. Kennemerland. Evtl. von Tiberius unterworfen (Vell. 2,105,1), stellten sie wenigstens je eine ala und cohors (Tac. ann. 4,73,2; hist. 4,19,1). Ihr Vorort Voorburg-Arentsburg wurde Forum Hadriani und municip…

Moenus

(326 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[English version] h. Main, größter, rechter Nebenfluß des Rheins (Belege bei [1. 606]). Der Fluß war wegen seines windungsreichen Verlaufs für die Flußschiffahrt von geringem Wert; denn er muß die Waldgebirge von Odenwald, Spessart und Rhön durchbrechen. Da eine weitergehende Nutzung die Herrschaft über die mainfränkische Uferregion voraussetzte und das Maintal zudem kein wichtiges Stammesgebiet eröffnete, war es folgerichtig, wenn die Römer…
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