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Hugenotten

(1,452 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
1. Begriff H. war vom 16. bis zum 18. Jh. eine ursprünglich pejorative Bezeichnung für die franz. Reformierten ( Calvinismus). Der Terminus geht wohl auf das seit 1520 belegte eyguenot (»Eidgenossen«) zurück und ist seit der Verschwörung von Amboise 1560 – neben der Benennung als Anhänger der »vorgeblich reformierten Religion« (franz. religion prétendue réformée, R.P. R.) – auch in offiziellen Texten zu finden, nachdem man zu Anfang die reformatorisch Gesinnten évangéliques oder luthériens genannt hatte. 2. Formierung der kirchlichen Institution Bereits in den 1520er Jahr…

Huguenots

(1,430 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
1. Concept “Huguenot” from the 16th to 18th centuries was the originally pejorative term for French Calvinists. It probably derived from eyguenot (“oath-companion, confederate”, cf. the German word for the Swiss,  Eidgenosse), attested from 1520. Reformation sympathizers were initially called évangéliques or  luthériens in official documents, but after the 1560 Amboise Conspiracy, the term “Huguenot” was also used, defined as followers of the “purportedly reformed religion” (French  religion prétendue réformée, R.P.R.).Irene Dingel 2. Establishment of c…
Date: 2019-10-14

Daillé, Jean

(167 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dallaeus; Jan 1, 1594, Châtellerault – Apr 15, 1670, Paris), Reformed theologian. After studying philosophy in Châtellerault and Poitiers, Daillé turned to theology in 1612 in Saumur. As the tutor of the grandchildren of P. Duplessis-Mornay in Saumur, he became friends with the professors of the academy and traveled with his students through Western …

Cavalier, Jean

(150 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Nov 28, 1681, Ribaute-les-Tavernes – May 17, 1740, Chelsea). First a shepherd, then a baker's apprentice, Cavalier fled to Geneva in 1701 for faith reasons. Already in the following year, he stepped forward as a “prophet” and military leader of the Camisards who were secretly gathering in the Cévennes for armed resistance. While the counter-measures of the marshal of Montrevel proved ineffective, his successor Villars succeeded in subduing Cava…

Postel, Guillaume

(346 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Mar 25, 1510, Dolerie, near Barenton, Normandy – Sep 6, 1581, Paris) studied in Paris, where he became adept in many languages. His participation in a French delegation to Constantinople (1535–1537) brought him into contact with Arabic. On his return, he published not only a grammar of Arabic (c. 1538) but Linguarum duodecim characteribus (1538), a comparative study in which his later ideas were already laid out: the derivation of all languages from Hebrew, the need for Christian mission in the face ¶ of Islam, and knowledge of languages as an instrument for th…

Court, Antoine

(160 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1695, Villeneuve-de-Berg – Jun 13, 1760, Lausanne). While still a young man, Court resolved to become an itinerant preacher for the purpose of consolidating southern French Protestantism, which had been greatly weakened by the persecution of the Huguenots. In order to achieve this goal, the synodal constitution and church discipline, but also the regular formation of theologians were to be reestablished. On Aug 21, 1715, he convened the first s…

Fleury, Claude

(208 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1640, Paris – Jul 14, 1723, Paris). After attending the Jesuit college in Clermont, Fleury studied law and became parliamentary advocate in 1658. In 1667, he began to study theology under the influence of J.-B. Bossuet and was ordained priest on Jun 8, 1669. From 1672 to 1680, he was the tutor of the princes of Conti, and from 1680 to 1683 of the count of Vermandois, a legitimate son of Louis XIV. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Fleury participated alongside F…

Jurieu, Pierre

(339 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1637, Mer, Département Loir-et-Cher – Jan 11, 1713, Rotterdam). The son of a Reformed pastor and grandson of the theologian ¶ P. Du Moulin studied in Saumur, Sedan, and England, where he was ordained according to the Anglican rite. In 1660 – after a Calvinist ordination – he succeeded his father in Mer; in 1674, he became professor of theology and Hebrew in Sedan. After the dissolution of the academy in 1681, Jurieu, who had become suspect because of his pamphlet, “La politique du clergé de Fra…

Casaubonus, Isaac

(177 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1559, Geneva – Jul 12, 1614, London). After study at the Geneva Academy, this son of a Huguenot pastor became professor of Greek there in 1583. He taught in Montpellier (1596–1599) but was called to Paris in 1600 by Henry IV. As royal commissioner he took part in the disputation between P. Duplessis-Mornay and Cardinal Duperron, in which he spoke for the latter, earning him the mistrust of his fellow believers. In 1610 he answered a call…

Bucanus, Wilhelm

(148 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (du Buc, Guillaume; born Rouen, died Lausanne, 1603). After 23 years as a pastor and superintendent in Yverdon, Bucanus was appointed professor of theology at Lausanne in 1591. He died before he could accept an appointment to the academy at Saumur. His importance for French Protestantism comes from his Institutiones, planned as a textbook, which expounds the teaching of Calvinistic orthodoxy. They were circulated posthumously through an English translation, expanded by the addition of a tract on The Practise of Papists against Protestant Princes; because of …

Major, Georg

(384 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Maier, Meyer; Apr 25, 1502, Nuremberg – Nov 28, 1574, Wittenberg). After studying at Wittenberg, Major succeeded C. Cruciger as rector of the Johannisschule in Magdeburg. In 1537 he returned to Wittenberg as preacher at the Schlosskirche. Appointed to the Wittenberg consistory in 1542, in 1545 he took over the professorship of J. Jonas on the theological faculty, having received his Dr.theol. from Luther at the end of 1544. In 1546 he was one of the participants in the Colloquy o…

Coligny, Gaspard de

(255 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Seigneur de Châtillon; Feb 16, 1519, Châtillon-sur-Loing – Aug 24, 1572, Paris) was admiral of France from 1552 onward, and governor of Picardy from 1555. A Calvinist sympathizer, he was captured by the Spanish at the battle of St. Quentin (1557) and held captive in the Netherlands. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (Apr 3, 1559) enabled him to resume his diplomatic functions. By speaking out in defense of his persecuted co-religionists during the a…

Ferry, Paul

(182 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 24, 1591, Metz, France – Dec 28, 1669, Metz). After attending the Jesuit college in Metz, Ferry, from a leading Huguenot family (Huguenots) began his study of the liberal arts in 1607 ( artes liberales ) in La Rochelle and transferred in 1609 to Montauban, to study Protestant theology there until 1611. He was ordained a pastor in Metz on Jan 1, 1612. J.B. Bossuet attacked his Catéchisme général de la réformation et de la religion (1656), and the two were engaged in dialogue thereafter. Ferry eventually rejected Bossuet's attempts at denominational rapprochement. Ferr…

Chandieu, Antoine de la Roche

(179 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (c. 1534, chateau Chabottes-en-Mâconnais – Feb 23, 1591, Geneva). Having already come into contact with Reformed thinking through his tutor in Paris, after law studies in Toulouse Chandieu went to Geneva, where he was won over for the Reformation by Calvin and Beza. From 1557 to 1562 he was pastor of the Protestant congregation in Paris and he took part in the first general synod in 1559, also participating in the preparation of the confession a…

Saumur, Huguenot Academy

(401 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] The establishment, rise, and heyday of the Saumur academy are closely associated with the name of P. Duplessis-Mornay. In March of 1593, the governor of Saumur received from King Henry IV a decree empowering him to found an academy; this and the Edict of Nantes in 1598 (Huguenots: I, 1) created the conditions for establishing a Calvinist training center in that city, which was one of the safe havens for Huguenots. The Academy comprised a collège, a faculty of arts, and a faculty of theology, with chairs in rhetoric, ancient languages, mathematics, philos…

Port-Royal

(316 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] Port-Royal, südlich von Versailles bei Chevreuse gelegen, wurde 1204 als Zisterzienserinnenkloster (Zisterzienser/Zisterzienserinnen) gegründet. Unter der Leitung von J.-M. Arnauld (3.), 1602 Äbtissin (Me`re Ange´lique), begann 1608 eine auf innere Heiligung und ernste Frömmigkeit zielende Reform des Klosters, die bald auch ihre Mutter und fünf Schwestern zum Eintritt bewegte, darunter die spätere Me`re Agne`s (1636 Äbtissin). 1625 wurde das Kloster wegen des ungesunden Klimas na…

Postel

(309 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] Postel, Guillaume (25.3.1510 Dolerie bei Barenton, Normandie – 6.9.1581 Paris), studierte in Paris und erwarb vielfältige Sprachenkenntnis. Seine Teilnahme an einer franz. Delegation nach Konstantinopel (1535–1537) brachte ihn in Berührung mit dem Arab. Zurückgekehrt, publizierte er nicht nur eine »Grammatik des Arab.« (ca.1538), sondern mit »Linguarum duodecim characteribus« (1538) auch eine vergleichende Sprachstudie, in der seine späteren Ideen bereits angelegt waren: Ableitung…

Saumur

(369 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] (hugenottische Akademie). Entstehung, Aufstieg und Blüte der Akademie von S. sind eng mit dem Namen Ph. Duplessis-Mornays verbunden. Im März 1593 erhielt der Gouverneur von S. von König Heinrich IV. den ihn zur Gründung ermächtigenden Bescheid, der zus. mit dem Edikt von Nantes (1598; Hugenotten: I.,1.) die Voraussetzungen für die Einrichtung einer calvinistischen Ausbildungsstätte in jener zu den hugenottischen Sicherheitsplätzen gehörenden Stadt schuf. Die Akademie bestand aus …

Pufendorf

(299 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] Pufendorf, Samuel Frhr. v. (8.1.1632 Dorfchemnitz – 26.10.1694 Berlin). Nach dem Besuch der Fürstenschule in Grimma (1645–1650) studierte P. 1650–1658 in Leipzig und Jena, bevor er eine Stelle als Hauslehrer bei dem schwedischen Gesandten Peter Julius Coyet in Kopenhagen antrat. Sein während dänischer Gefangenschaft (1658) vf., 1660 publiziertes und Karl Ludwig von der Pfalz gewidmetes Werk »Elementorum Jurisprudentiae Universalis libri duo« trug P. 1661 eine Berufung nach Heidelber…

Staffortsches Buch

(187 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] (1599). Das S. ist Zeugnis des Konfessionswechsels des Markgrafen Ernst Friedrich von Baden-Durlach, eines der drei Söhne des Markgrafen Karl II., für die die Vormünder Kurfürst Ludwig von der Pfalz, Pfalzgraf Philipp Ludwig von Neuburg und Herzog Ludwig von Württemberg nach dessen Tod die Konkordienformel unterzeichnet hatten. Mit dem auf Schloß Staffort bei Durlach gedr. Buch, bestehend – in seiner weiteren Fassung – aus einer ablehnenden Stellungnahme zur Formula Concordiae un…

Rivet

(163 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[English Version] (Rivetus), Andre´ (Andreas; 22.6.1572 St. Maixent – 7.1.1651 Breda), wurde nach seinem Studium an der ref. Akademie in Orthez, u.a. bei L. Daneau, sowie in La Rochelle 1595 Kaplan des Duc de la Trémouille und Pfarrer in Thouars. 1620 folgte er einem Ruf an die Universität Leiden. 1632 wurde er durch Friedrich Heinrich von Oranien als Erzieher seines Sohnes, des späteren Königs Wilhelm II., verpflichtet. Seine damit verbundene Tätigkeit als Rat und Hofprediger endete mit der Überna…

Duplessis-Mornay, Philippe

(292 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Philippe de Mornay, Seigneur du Plessis-Marly, Baron de La Forêt-sur-Sèvre; Nov 5, 1549, Buhy-en-Vexin – Nov 11, 1623, La Forêt-sur-Sèvre). After his studies – with P. Ramus and others – Duplessis-Mornay traveled through western Europe (1568–1572), on the basis of which he published a report in which he set out France's need for an anti-H…

Amyraut, Moïse

(212 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Sep 1596, Bourgueil, Touraine – Jan 8, 1664, Saumur) studied law at Poitiers and theology at Saumur (1618–1621). In 1626, after a brief stay in London and an initial pastorate at St. Aignan, he became pastor and in 1633 professor at Saumur. His doctrine of hypothetical universalism ( Traité de la prédestination) provoked violent controversy. It is based on the principle that God wills the salvation of all, insofar as they have faith. God's will, however, is frustrated by hum…

Jacquelot (Jaquelot), Isaac

(207 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1647, Vassy – Oct 20, 1708, Berlin). Jacquelot succeeded his father as Protestant minister in Vassy; after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 (France: III, 1; Huguenots), he took refuge in Heidelberg. In 1686 he became pastor of the French congregation in The Hague. His Avis sur le tableau du socinianisme (1690) brought him into conflict with P. Jurieu, so that he withdrew to Basel. In 1702 he was called to Berlin by Frederick I; he served as court chaplain there until his death. In his writings, he argued with suc…

Huet (Huetius), Pierre Daniel

(233 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1620, Caen – Jan 26, 1721, Paris). Huet was the early orphaned son of a Calvinist who converted to Catholicism. After attending the Jesuit College he studied law in Caen. He shared an interest in Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, and geography with S. Bochart, whom he accompanied to the Swedish court in 1652. In 1668, he published a manuscript by Origen on the Gospel of Matthew, which he had discovered there. But he had already returned to Paris by 1653. In 1662, he founded an academ…

Rivet, André

(184 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Andreas Rivetus; Jun 22, 1572, St. Maixent – Jan 1, 1651, Breda). After studying at the Reformed Academy in Orthez under L. Daneau and others, and in 1595 in La Rochelle, Rivet became chaplain to the de la Trémouille ducal house and minister in Thouars. In 1620 he accepted a call to Leiden University. In 1632 he was appointed by Frederik Hendrik of Orange to be the tutor of his son, the future King William II. His related activity as councillor and court preacher ended when he be…

Bartholomew's Day, Massacre of

(276 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1572) refers to the massacre of the Huguenots in the night before Bartholomew's Day during the wedding festivities of the Protestant Henri de Navarre with the Catholic Marguerite de Valois (Parisian Blood Wedding). It was triggered by the attempted assassination of the leader of the Huguenots and admiral, G. de Coligny. The bloody terror in Paris …

Port-Royal Abbey

(345 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] Port-Royal Abbey, south of Versailles near Chevreuse, was founded in 1204 as an abbey for Cistercian nuns (Cistercians). Under the leadership of J.-M. Arnauld, elected abbess in 1602 (Mère Angélique), a reform of the abbey dedicated to inward sanctification and serious piety began in 1608. The reform soon led her mother and her five sisters to join the abbey. One of her sisters was the later Mère Agnès, elected abbess in 1636. In 1625 the abbey moved to Paris on account of the unh…

Gallicanism

(1,091 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] I. Definition – II. Historical Development I. Definition The term “Gallicanism” was created in the late 19th century for the state church system characteristic of France, a system that was rooted in the Middle Ages and remained in effect up to the French Revolution. Gallicanism's focus on national church politics goes back to the liberties of the Gallican church that were partly based on theological considerations but mainly on state church law. The aim was to limit the pope's power in the France of the ancien régime. Institutions advocating Gallicanism were the …

Pufendorf, Samuel

(350 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Baron; Jan 8, 1632, Dorfchemnitz – Oct 26, 1694, Berlin). After attending the Fürstenschule in Grimma (1645–1650), Pufendorf studied in Leipzig and Jena from 1650 to 1658. He then took a position in Copenhagen as private tutor in the household of the Swedish ambassador Peter Julius Coyet. During months of Danish imprisonment in 1658, he wrote his Elementorum jurisprudentiae universalis libri duo, dedicated to the elector Palatine Charles Louis, which was published in 1660. This work earned him a call to Heidelberg as the first German profe…

Languet, Hubert

(185 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (1518, Vitteaux, France - Sep 30, 1581, Antwerp, Belgium), studied law in Poitiers and earned a doctorate in Padua. He was won over to the Reformation after reading Melanchthon's Loci communes, whereupon he went to Wittenberg in 1549 to meet the praeceptor. The latter's recommendation to the councilor of Electoral Saxony, Ulrich von Mordeisen, enabled him to enter the service of August I, Elector of Saxony (until 1577). Diplomatic missions led him, among other places, to Paris and to the imperial court in Vienna. He was …

Staffort Book

(190 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (1599). The Staffort Book is witness to the change of confessional allegiance of Margrave Ernst Friedrich v. Baden-Durlach, one of the three sons of Margrave Charles II, on whose behalf the guardians Louis, elector palatine, Philip Louis, count palatine of Neuburg, and Duke Louis of Württemberg had signed the Formula of Concord after the margrave’s death. The book, printed at Schloß Staffort near Durlach, consisted – in its larger version – of a rejection of the Formula of Concord…

Camisards

(559 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] The Camisards were Protestants in southern France who, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1686 (Huguenots), secretly formed armed bands in the Cévennes region, the “desert,” to fight for the freedom and rights of their suppressed church in the face of harsh persecution. The term “Camisard” probably derives from the camisia (“shirt”) worn over their clothing during night raids, which were therefore called camisades. The movement, which at times appeared fanatical, survived until 1711; especially when its followers were being pu…

Dupin, Louis Ellies

(172 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Jun 17, 1657, Paris – Jun 6, 1719, Paris) received his Dr.Theol. from the Sorbonne in 1684 and became professor at the Collège Royal in Paris. His signature to the “Cas de conscience” in sympathy with Jansenism in 1703 cost him his chair and brought him expulsion to Châtellerault. He recanted (1704) and was thus able to return to Paris, but not to his chair. In …

Du Cange, Charles Dufresne

(186 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1610, Amiens – Oct 23, 1688, Paris). After a humanist education at the Jesuit college in Amiens and law studies at the University of Orléans, Du Cange became a parliamentary advocate in Paris in 1631, but soon returned to Amiens. ¶ There he purchased the office of trésorier in 1645, which allowed him to devote himself to his historical and philosophical studies. He continued these in Paris in 1668 after an outbreak of the plague in Amiens. As an aut…

Bochart, Samuel

(146 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (May 30, 1599, Rouen – May 16, 1667, Caen) studied philosophy in Sedan and theology in Saumur as well as in Leiden, where he devoted himself to Arabic. From 1625 he was a pastor in Caen. His dispute with the Jesuit François Véron (Sep 22 – Oct 3, 1628) and the publication of the proceedings made him well known, and the release of his Geographia sacra even more so. An invitation to the court of Christina of Sweden in 1652 gave him the opportunity to evaluate the Arabic manuscripts of the royal library for his Hierozoicon. In 1661 he got into contr…

Toussain (Tossanus)

(485 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann | Dingel, Irene
[German Version] 1. Peter (Tossanus; 1499, St. Laurent, Lorraine – Oct 5, 1573, Montbéliard), canon in Metz after 1515. His attempt to preach the Reformation in Metz was unsuccessful. In 1535 Tossanus was charged with continuing the Reformation of the Württemberg count of Montbéliard (Mömpelgard), begun by G. Farel. The introduction of the Württemberg church order of 1536 and then the order of 1559 created difficulties, since Tossanus and his colleagues favored the Swiss Reformation. Negotiations le…

Toussain

(403 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann | Dingel, Irene
[English Version] 1.Peter (Tossanus), (1499 St. Laurent, Lothringen – 5.10.1573 Montbéliard), seit 1515 Kanonikus in Metz. Versuche, dort ev. zu predigen, schlugen fehl. 1535 wurde T. mit der Fortführung der von G. Farel begonnenen Reformation der württembergischen Grafschaft Montbéliard (Mömpelgard) beauftragt. Die Einführung der württembergischen Kirchenordnung von 1536, desgleichen der von 1559, verursachte Schwierigkeiten, da T. und seine Kollegen der Schweizer Reformation zuneigten. Verhandlu…

Granvelle

(385 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian | Dingel, Irene
[German Version] 1. Nicolas Perrenot de (1484/85, Ornans, France – Aug 27, 1550, Augsburg) was a Burgundian official in the service of the Habsburgs, initially at the court of Besançon. After receiving the Dr.iur., Granvelle became chief councilor of the Franche-Comté in 1518. Charles V named him chief minister in 1524. After the death of his protector, Mercurino Arborio di Gattarina, Granvelle succeeded him as minister for the northern regions ¶ of the Empire in 1530. The emperor's great confidence in Granvelle, despite many accusations of bribery, made him one of…

Huguenots

(3,133 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene | Butler, Jon | Weber, Édith
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Music I. Church History 1. Europe The term Huguenot – whose etymology is unclear, although it probably traces back to the French eyguenot (cf. Ger. Eidgenossen) attested since 1520 – surfaces in relation to the Amboise conspiracy in 1560 and soon also found entry – in addition to the otherwise customary designation of French Protestants as adherents of the “supposedly reformed religion” ( religion prétendue réformée, R.P.R.) – into official texts. As early as the 1520s and 1530s, under the influence of the biblical humanism…

Church Polity

(28,214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Dingel, Irene | Ohst, Martin | Weitlauff, Manfred | Pirson, Dietrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages – III. Reformation – IV. Modern Period – V. Present – VI. Practical Theology I. Early Church The church polity projected and in part realized in early Christianity is one of the most significant institutional inventions of Late Antiquity. Since it has survived into the present, with many modifications and variations, it also represents an element of continuity between the ancient world and the modern world. Church polity as used here means all the institutions affecting the external organization of early Ch…
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