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Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…

Diodorus

(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

Heliodorus

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος; Heliódōros). [German version] [1] Chancellor under Seleucus IV, 2nd cent. BC Son of Aeschylus of Antioch on the Orontes, was educated with Seleucus IV and was a courtier (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) and well-respected chancellor (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) under him in 187-175 BC (IG XI 4,1112-1114, or OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). When financial difficulties after the defeat of Seleucus' father Antiochus III against the Romans (190/188), in conjunction with internal Jewish intrigues, had led to special…

Pausanias

(3,302 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Et al.
(Παυσανίας; Pausanías). [German version] [1] Spartiate from the house of the Agiads Spartiate from the house of the Agiads, son of Cleombrotus [1], after whose death (480/479 BC) he became guardian for his cousin Pleistarchus [1] and 'regent' (Hdt. 9,10; Thuc. 1,132,1; Paus. 3,4,9), father of the later king Pleistoanax (Thuc. 1,107,2). In 479, P. led the contingent of the Hellenic confederacy of 481 to victory over the Persians at Plataeae (Persian Wars), where at first the Greeks almost suffered a catastro…

Image II

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr)
[German version] The concept of image common in the western world of ideas has its origin in Greece, especially in the writings of  Plato and of  Aristotle, but modern and ancient views appear to deviate considerably from each other (cf. also  Art;  Art, theory of). Neither with regard to the concept of image nor concerning the terminology applied in antiquity relating to image is there a comprehensive investigation although attempts have been made to formulate a Greek basic idea of image [1]. In the process, individual concepts like εἴδωλον ( eídōlon), εἰκών ( eikṓn) [2; 3], κολοσσός ( kolo…

Art, theory of

(1,897 words)

Author(s): Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr)
[German version] A. Mimesis Although in antiquity there was no conceptual term equivalent to the modern understanding of ‘art’, there were nevertheless theories on fine art reflecting on the essence of the artist's creative act, e.g. instructions on the production of works of art, studies on perception, descriptions of and reactions to works of art, critical assessments of artists and their œuvre as well as anecdotes and legends on artists at work. The explicit analogies of pictorially creative and non-visual, verbal art, so effectively made in modern times with far…

Artists

(2,855 words)

Author(s): Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr)
[German version] I. Understanding of the concept in ancient and modern times Just as the term ‘art’ did not exist in antiquity, there was no term for ‘artist’ either. Only the changed conceptions of the artist in post-classical theory of art and artistic practice have formed the modern interpretation of the material and non-material legacies of antiquity in relation to their ‘creators’ -- be they buildings or craftwork. To that extent, reflections on the artist in antiquity are always intertwined with post-classical ideas characteristic of their respective time. Donohue, Alice A. (…

Polemon

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Πολέμων/ Polémōn). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher, 4th-3rd cents. BC Academic philosopher, born c. 350, died probably in 276/5 BC. Xenocrates [2] introduced him to philosophy (legendary account of his vocation in Diog. Laert. 4,16 f.). P. succeeded him as head of the Academy. He taught Crates [3] and Crantor, as well as the Stoics Zeno of Citium and Ariston [7] of Chios. Very little remains of his many writings mentioned in ancient sources (Diog. Laert. 4,20; Suda s. v. Π 1887) (fr. collected in …

Art, interest in

(1,803 words)

Author(s): Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr)
[German version] A. Greece From the Renaissance up to the present day, ancient Greek and Roman art has been consistently held in high regard; overall, however, the attitude of ancient cultures to their own art has remained rather mysterious until today. There was, for example, no Muse in antiquity for fine art [1. 288]; ‘Art’ is per se a post-classical category of material-visual creation essentially unknown to antiquity [2; 3]. Thus, the character of modern reference and conceptual systems, seemingly timeless and of general validity, is particularly…