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Herculanean papyri

(884 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. Definition Papyri with Latin and Greek texts found during the Bourbon excavations in the middle of the 18th cent. in a villa near  Herculaneum (with site map). These were part of the library of the poet and philosopher  Philodemus of Gadara, who had gone from Athens to Italia during the period 80-70 BC and maintained a friendly relationship there with L.  Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus, the owner of the villa in Herculaneum. In this luxurious villa, Philodemus collected an ext…

Philiscus

(934 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Et al.
(Φιλίσκος; Philískos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy Poet of Middle Comedy, to whom the Suda attributes 7 play titles: Ἄδωνις (Á dōnis), Διὸς γοναί ( Diòs gonaí/ 'The Birth of Zeus'; Adespoton 1062 K.-A. is sometimes assigned to this play [4]), Θεμιστοκλῆς ( Themistoklês/ ' Themistocles'; title probably incorrectly included in the list [3. n. 37]), Ὄλυμπος ( Ólympos; ' Olympus'), Πανὸς γοναί ( Panòs gonaí; 'The Birth of Pan'), Ἑρμοῦ καὶ Ἀφροδίτης γοναί ( Hermoû kaì Aphrodítēs gonaí/ ' The Births of Hermes and Aphrodite'; possibly two plays [3. n. 24]), Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ἀ…

Scheda

(204 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] ( schida, scida) has various meanings in Latin authors: (1) a sheet or piece of papyrus or parchment (Pugillares) for notes or short messages (Cic. Att. 1,20,7; Quint. Inst. 1,8,19; Mart. 4,89,4; CGL IV 422,52; V 243,10 and 482,57;  cf. [1. 4920]). (2) In Late Antiquity s./ schedula is the term for a 'rough draft' of a literary work; cf. Isid. Etym. 6,14,8 “scheda est quod adhuc emendatur, et necdum in libris redactum est” ("scheda describes a text which still has to be corrected and is not yet finished"; the interpretation i…

Herodotus

(3,277 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἡρόδοτος; Heródotos). [German version] [1] The historian Herodotus, approx. 485-424 BC The historian Herodotus. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] A. Life Sources on the life of H., the ‘father of history’ (Cic. Leg. 1,1,5), c. 485-424 BC (fundamental for all of the following: [1]) are, apart from the information he provided himself in particular, the Suda s.v. H. or s.v. Panyassis. H. came from Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum) in the south-west of Asia Minor. The names of his father, Lyxes, and his uncle, Panyassis, a famou…

Phaedrus

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] I. Greek (Φαῖδρος; Phaîdros). [German version] [I 1] 5th cent. BC Son of Pythocles, from the Attic deme of Myrrhinus, born probably c. 450 BC. Accused of participation in the profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteria and the mutilatation of the herms, P. went into exile in 415 BC. His property was confiscated (And. 1,15; ML 79,112-115). By 404 BC at the latest, he had returned to Athens; he subsequently married a cousin (Lys. 19,15). Died before 393. Participant in the meeting in Plato's Protagoras (315c), interlocutor of Socrates in Plato's Phaedrus and first speaker in his Sy…

Polystratus

(387 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος/ Polýstratos). [German version] [1] Wealthy Athenian, councillor 411 BC Wealthy Athenian, frequent office-holder, member of the boulḗ in 411 BC. After the oligarchic coup, he took part in the selection of the 5,000 citizens to whom political rights would in future be restricted. He was wounded in the naval battles against the Spartans off Eretria. After the fall of the Four Hundred (Tetrakosioi), P. was fined heavily; he was prosecuted again c. 410/409 at age 70, probably for his political activities. Parts of his defence survive in the 20th speech of t…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…

Autograph

(557 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] The existence in antiquity of MSS of literary texts written ‘in the author's own handwriting’ is still a controversial subject in current times and is closely connected with the individual authors' ways of working ( Copy). The MSS under consideration are those which were claimed to be a copy in the author's own hand, as well as the evidence of indirect tradition which lead to the conclusion that a literary work was written in the author's own hand. The only texts which can be said with absolute certainty to have been written in the author's own hand are th…

Correction marks

(412 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] An ancient text could be corrected in at least two ways: a) a διορθωτής ( diorthōtḗs), a professional c orrector, collated the copy with the original. This intervention was sometimes indicated by the monogram δι = δι(ώρθωται), ‘corrected’ [1. 15. n. 85,13] ( Publication). b) A reader (not necessarily a professional corrector, but often a lay man) collated the copy with another sample. Two or more correctors could work on the same copy [3]. A wrong correction was indicated as ἀποδιόρθωμα ( apodiórthōma) (PSI 12, 1287,11-14). The intervention of an ancient correcto…

Timocrates

(593 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Τιμοκράτης/ Timokrátēs). [German version] [1] From Sparta, advisor of Cnemus, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Spartan, one of the three advisors of the nauarchos Cnemus who, following the defeat off the Acarnanian coast in 429 BC, were supposed to make strategic and logistical preparations for a new naval battle (Thuc. 2,85,1). T. committed suicide after the devastating defeat in 429 against the Athenian fleet near Naupactus (Thuc. 2,92,3). Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodos, legate of Pharnabazus [2], c. 400 BC Rhodian. In the winter of 396/5 BC…

Themista

(100 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Θεμίστα; Themísta). One of the women philosophers of the Epicurean School; at the beginning of the 4th cent. BC the wife of Leonteus [2] (Diog. Laert. 10,5,25); they had a son called Epicurus (Diog. Laert. 10,26). Cicero praises T.'s 'wisdom' ( sapientia) and names her as the author of numerous writings ( tanta volumina, Cic. Pis. 63). Epicurus addressed a number of letters (Excerpt: Diog. Laert. 10,5 = fr. 125 Usener) and a work Neocles to T. (Νεοκλῆς πρὸς Θεμίστα; Diog. Laert. 10,28) to her. Nothing of her work survives. Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography M. Erler, i…

Polyaenus

(604 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύαινος/ Polýainos). [German version] [1] Epicurean, c. 300 BC One of the four 'masters' (καθηγεμόνες; kathēgemónes) of the Epicurean School (with Epicurus, Metrodorus and Hermarchus). B. at Lampsacus (year unknown), d. at Athens in 278/7 BC. Epicurus inaugurated an annual festival in his honour in the month of Metageitnion. P. came into contact with Epicurus during the latter's sojourn at Lampsacus (311/10-307/6 BC), and thereafter devoted himself to philosophy. At first, he excelled as a mathematician; re…

Anaxarchus

(169 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (᾿Ανάξαρχος, Anáxarchos) of Abdera. Democritean philosopher ( Democriteans, c. 380-320 BC). He accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaign to the East. After Alexander's death, A. was taken prisoner and then pounded to death in a mortar by Nicocreon, the tyrant of Salamis on Cyprus, with whom he had quarrelled. In the ancient records, A.'s attitude towards Alexander the Great wavers between adoration and irony. A. was the author of a treatise Περὶ βασιλείας ( Perì basileías), of which only two fragments are preserved (fr. 65-66). The assessments of h…

Leonteus

(206 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Λεοντεύς; Leonteús, ‘lion’). [German version] [1] Leader of the Lapiths' contingent at Troy Son of Coronus. With Polypoetes he leads the contingent of the Lapithae at Troy. Together, they also defend the Greek camp and participate in the funerary games for Patroclus (Hom. Il. 2,745ff.; 12,128ff.; 23,837ff.). Michel, Raphael (Basle) Bibliography H. W. Stoll, s.v. L., Roscher 2, 1944-1945. [German version] [2] Of Lampsacus, student of Epicurus L. of Lampsacus, one of the most important students of Epicurus. L. and his wife Themista got to know Epicurus during …

Lesbonax

(349 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Λεσβῶναξ; Lesbônax). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian Greek grammarian, dates uncertain (perhaps before the end of the 2nd cent. AD). Author of a work on rhetorical figures (Περὶ σχημάτων; Perì schēmátōn) that is extant in two different excerpts (there is no basis for equating him with the orator L. of Mytilene). In it, L. describes a series of grammatical peculiarities ( schḗmata, ‘figures’), i.e. changes in the normal form of speech, which are demonstrated with examples primarily from Homer. There is no Atticist influence at all: the principal sou…

Basileides

(316 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Βασιλείδης; Basileídēs). [German version] [1] Leader of the  Epicurean School (since 201/0) Epicurean (c . 245-175 BC.), fourth leader of the  Epicurean School (since 201/0) who taught Philonides of Laodicea on the Pontus. He studied mathematics and is known for his discussions in Alexandria with the father of the mathematician Hypsicles about a writing by Apollonius [13] of Perge. He is also known for a debate together with Thespis, another Epicurean, about anger, held against Nicasicrates and Timasagoras. Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography Testimonia: W. Crönert, Kolotes…

Papyrus

(2,017 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
I. Material [German version] A. Term and manufacture The term papyrus was adopted into the European languages via the Greek πάπυρος/ pápyros, lat. papyrus, and ultimately is the source of the modern terms for paper, Papier, papier, etc.  Papyrus is hypothetically derived from an (unattested) Egyptian * pa-prro ('that of the king'). Papyrus, an aquatic plant with a long stem and a triangular cross-section ( Cyperus papyrus L.), was in its processed form a widespread writing material ('paper') in the ancient cultures of the Mediterranean. Papyrus is produced by p…

Patron

(113 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Πάτρων; Pátrōn). Epicurean, successor in 70 BC to Phaedrus [4] of Athens as director of the 'Garden' of the Epicurean School at Athens (Phlegon of Tralleis, FGrH 257 F 12 § 8). P. had previously gone to Rome, where he had become acquainted with Cicero, C. Memmius [I 3], Catullus, Atticus (Cic. Fam. 13,1) and Saufeius (Cic. Att. 4,6,1). A successful intervention by Cicero on P.'s initiative prevented C. Memmius from having a house built in the deme of Melite on the site of the house of Epicurus (Cic. Att. 5,11,6; Fam. 13,1,5). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography M. Erler, …

Protarchus

(265 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος/ Prṓtarchos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Thespiae, 1st cent. BC Comic poet from Thespiae, victorious on one occasion in the 1st cent. BC at the Soteria of Acraephia, and son or father of the epic poet Protogenes; otherwise, nothing is known of him. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [German version] [2] Epicurean from Bargilia, 2nd cent. BC P. of Bargilia. Teacher of Demetrius [21] Lacon (Str. 14,20; 2nd cent. BC), perhaps in Miletus. It is unlikely that he was the head of the Epicurean 'Garden' ( kḗpos ). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bi…

Timasagoras

(134 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Τιμασαγόρας; Timasagóras). Epicurean 'deviant' ( sophistḗs), living in Rhodes presumably in the 2nd cent. BC. T., who shared the philosophical views of Nicasicrates, the leader of the Epicurean school there, is accused together with him (primarily by Philodemus) of having misappropriated Epicurean theories by setting themselves in opposition to the founders ( kathēgemónes). T.' interest was in the theory of perception, particularly vision (PHercul. 19/698). T. and Nicasicrates were of the opinion that anger is an affect that shoul…

Carneiscus

(86 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Καρνεΐσκος; Karneískos). Pupil of  Epicurus, originating in Asia Minor, perhaps from Cos or Rhodes. In his work Φιλίστας ( Philístas), comprising at least two volumes, he wrote on the Epicurean concept of friendship. The end of the 2nd volume (extant in PHercul. 1027) is dedicated to one Zopyrus, otherwise unknown. C. expresses his disagreement with the Peripatetic philosopher  Praxiphanes, criticizing his writing on friendship for suggesting improper forms of relationship between friends.  Epicurean School Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography T. Dorandi,…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Copy

(2,225 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. Introductory comments Copy should be understood in two ways: on the one hand, it refers to the copying of a literary work beginning with the first version and throughout the various writing phases, including the alteration of the text into book form. On the other hand, it refers to the copies of a book intended for its systematic, ‘publisher driven’ dissemination. Copy thus refers to both the working methods of ancient authors and to the realm of book production. Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) [German version] B. Copying-techniques There are only few indirect records a…

Punctuation

(2,578 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
I. Greek [German version] A. General The common practice of ancient Greek copyists to write prose as well as poetry in scriptio continua, that is without grouping individual letters into words to delineate units of meaning, must have given rise to serious reading and comprehension difficulties. Punctuation was introduced as a remedy but only sporadically and without fixed rules. On some Greek inscriptions from the 5th/4th cent. BC, words are separated by a horizontal row of dots [4]. Dots are also frequently document…

Pugillares

(227 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (or pugillaria, mostly: 'notebook'). Latin substantive, derived from pugillus, a diminutive of pugnus ('fist', 'closed hand'); the etymology emphasises that it is an object of such restricted size that it can be held there. In Latin texts pugillares. is a term for a small writing surface; sometimes it occurs as a synonym for libellus or codicillus ('small manuscript'). What is meant are mostly wax or wood tablets (such as those from Vindolanda in Britain, cf. [3]) or sheets of parchment ( pugillares membranei, Mart. 14,7) fastened together. Ancient authors wro…

Opisthographos

(199 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (ὀπισθογράφος, -ον/ opisthográphos, -on; Latin opisthographus, -a, -um), lit. 'written on the reverse', adj., sometimes also used as a noun; a technical term rarely attested in antiquity. Ancient authors paraphrased or used synonyms instead (ὄπισθεν/ ópisthen or κατόπισθεν/ katópisthen, ὀπίσω/ opísō, κατόπιν/ katópin). In antiquity, opisthographos denoted either a roll with a text which continued from the recto to the verso (Plin. Ep. 3,5,17; opisthographum Ulp. Dig. 37,11,4) or a roll with a text on the back of the papyrus (Lucian. Vitarum au…

Siron

(89 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Σίρων; Sírōn). Epicurean philosopher, 1st cent. BC, who lived and worked in Neapolis. Known only from sparse testimonies [1]. It is uncertain whether he wrote at all. S. was an acquaintance of Philodemus (fr. 1) and a friend of Cicero (fr. 2-5). His most famous student was doubtlessly the Roman poet Vergilius who in his youth had studied Epicurean philosophy with him and remained close to him throughout his life (fr. 6-13). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography 1 M. Gigante, I frammenti di Sirone, in: Paideia 45, 1990, 175-198.

Hermarchus

(496 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Ἕρμαρχος; Hérmarchos). Born in Mytilene on Lesbos, a contemporary of  Epicurus. In his youth he was trained in rhetoric and encountered Epicurus in Mytilene in about 310 BC. H. did not immediately turn to philosophy, but only followed his teacher Epicurus to Athens after he had founded a school (306 BC). From 290 to 270 BC he went to Lampsacus to visit the Epicurean school there. Before his death in 270 BC, Epicurus transferred the leadership of the Athenian school to H. despite h…

Kepos

(120 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] The philosopher Epicurus owned a house in the Attic deme of Melite (Diog. Laert. 10,17) and a garden (κῆπος; kêpos), the seat of his school (Cic. Fin. 5,1,3; Sen. Ep. 21,10; Plin. HN 19,50; Diog. Laert. 10,11). The localization of this garden is disputed. It was either outside the city between the Dipylon Gate and the Academy (Heliodorus, Aethiopica 1,16,5) [2], or in the city itself ( in ipsa urbe, Plin. HN 19,50), adjoining the house in the deme of Melite or very close by [1]. Epicurus; Epicurean School Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography 1 E. Wycherley, The Garden of E…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Charmides

(165 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Χαρμίδης; Charmídēs). [German version] [1] Son of Glaucon, 5th cent. BC Son of Glaucon, from an old Athenian noble family; brother of  Perictione the mother of Plato, and cousin of  Critias. C. was one of the committee of the ‘Ten’ appointed by the ‘Thirty’ and officiating in Piraeus during the despotic rule of the ‘Thirty’ ( Triakonta; 404-403 BC); its powers are not precisely known (Plat. Ep. 7,324c5. Aristot. Ath. Pol. 35,1). He was killed in 403 during the fighting that accompanied the fall of the ‘Th…

Fabius

(6,346 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Scholz, Udo W. (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman patrician family name, probably derived from Etruscan fapi [1. 162]. According to ancient etymology, however, either from faba ‘(broad)bean’ (‘legume grower’: Plin. HN 18,10; [2]) or from the original ‘Fodius’, ‘Fovius’ (‘wolf pit hunter’: Plut. Fabius 1,2; Fest. 77 L.) because the Fabii with the Quinctii originally appointed the priesthood of the Luperci; the  Lupercalia were also the family celebration of the Fabii (Ov. Fast. 193ff.). Early Imperial pseudogenealogy, which perhaps arose in the literary ci…

Zenodotus

(1,870 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ζηνόδοτος/ Zēnódotos). [German version] [1] Of Ephesus, Alexandrian philologist Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus ( c. 325-260 BC; Suda s. v. Ζ. Ἐφέσιος). Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) [German version] I. Life Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus Z. was employed as tutor to the royal princes at the Ptolemaic court before his appointment in 285/4 BC as the first director [1. 147-148] of the library (II B 2.a) in Alexandria [1]. In addition to a classification of Greek poetry (most notably epic and lyric works), Z. developed in …

Idomeneus

(647 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἰδομενεύς; Idomeneús). [German version] [1] Commander of the Cret. troops at Troy Son of  Deucalion, grandson of  Minos; the name is indirectly attested as early as in Linear B [1]. I. is one of  Helena's suitors (today fr. 204,56ff. M-W) and a guest of Menelaus (Hom. Il. 3,230-233). He commands the rather large Cretan contingent (80 ships) in the Trojan campaign, assisted by his loyal follower  Meriones (Hom. Il. 2,645-652); he is the oldest Greek at Troy after Nestor, still fit for action ( aristeia in Il. 13); I. belongs to the inner circle of Greek army leaders, but does n…

Epicurean School

(1,973 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. School of Epicurus The school, founded in Athens in 307/6 or 305/4, survived as an institution until the 1st cent. BC. After a period of obscurity we again come across references, from the 2nd cent. AD, to some Epicurean philosophers. It was between the 4th and 1st cents. BC that the Epicurean School received its strength and vitality, extending both its range of thought and its structure. That happened under a series of school heads from Epicurus to Patron who assured its fate and…

Diogenianus

(416 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna)
(Διογενιανός; Diogenianós). [German version] [1] Epicurean Epicurean, dating uncertain (perhaps 2nd cent. AD). Eusebius (Pr. Ev. 4,3; 6,8), who cites long excerpts from his script against the doctrine of Chrysippus ‘On Fate’ (περὶ εἱμαρμένης), falsely labels him as a Peripatetic. D. accepted the truth and reliability of mantics. He taught the existence of fortune (τύχη) and of fate; but this does not exclude the freedom of the will. Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography T. Dorandi, in: Goulet 2, 833f. J. Hammerstaedt, in: JbAC 36, 1993, 24-32. [German version] [2] from Heraclea …

Publication

(667 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] Publication (ἔκδοσις/ ékdosis) describes the act by means of which an author in Antiquity released his work to the public. The common interpretation (van Groningen) limited the meaning of ἔκδοσις to entirely private transmission by authors themselves, who would make their works available to anybody who might wish to become acquainted with them. This view has been abandoned for good reasons [1. 60f.]. Some evidence in Porphyrius, Galen and Quintilian suggests rather interpreting the verb ἐκδοῦναι ( ekdoûnai) in the sense of 'making public, publishing'. The…

Philodemus

(2,276 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Φιλόδημος; Philódēmos). [German version] A. Life and work Born in Gadara around 110 BC; in Athens, pupil of the Epicurean philosopher Zeno of Sidon; after Zeno's death, in the mid-70s, P. went to Italy. In Rome he became friends with L. Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus (cf. Cic. Pis. 68-72) and took up residence at the Villa dei Pisoni (also called the 'Villa dei Papiri') in Herculaneum, where he met Siron and the poets Quinctilius Varus, L. Varius Rufus, Plotius and Vergilius. P. died after 40 BC. Before the library in the 'Villa dei Papiri' (Herculanean papyri) was discovered…

Pythocles

(168 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Πυθοκλῆς; Pythoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian rhetor, 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Pythodorus from the deme Cedi ( c. 380-318 BC), (syn)trierarch multiple times (IG II2 1615,12; 1622,314), an opponent of Demosthenes [2] after 343; he spoke unsuccessfully in 338/7 against Demosthenes holding the epitáphios for those killed at Chaeronea (Dem. Or. 18,285); possibly executed in 318 as a follower of Phocion (Plut. Phocion 35,5). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 485  Develin, Nr. 2682  LGPN 2, s. v. P. (17). [German version] [2] Epicurean, c. 300 BC Student …

Cartonnage

(132 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] Cardboard or papier mâché made from used pieces of papyrus for making mummy bandages (for humans or animals). Common in Egypt during the Ptolemaic period (find spots: necropoleis of Ghoran, Madīnet al-Nuḥās, Al-Ḥība); a number of examples can be dated to the end of the Augustan period (find spots: Abū Ṣīr al-Malaq). Numerous 3rd-cent. BC fragments of Greek literary texts (e.g. Callimachus, Menander, Plato; list in [1]) and copies of documents (petitions or submissions/ enteúxeis to the Ptolemaic court) have been recovered from dismantled cartonnage. Dorandi, Tizia…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Manuale

(138 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] Portable wooden reading desk. Manuale was probably originally an adjectival attribute of lectorium. Substanticised it then took on the meaning of (reading) desk [1]. The sole written reference is found in Mart. 14,84. A manuale is illustrated on two reliefs from Neumagen [1. fig. 15-16] and in Vergil's Codex Romanus (Cod. Vaticanus Latinus 3867, VI). Two kinds of reading desk are attested: one with a base and one without. Only the latter can be defined as a manuale as such. This is a wooden board with ends so bent as to hold in depressions both rolled-up e…

Chaeredemus

(58 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Χαιρέδημος; Chairédēmos). One of the three brothers of  Epicurus, who, like him, devoted themselves to philosophy (Diog. Laert. 10,3). He predeceased Epicurus, who bestowed funerary gifts in his memory (Diog. Laert. 10,18) and dedicated a book to him (Diog. Laert. 10,27 and Plut. An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum 1129a). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)

Philonides

(298 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Φιλωνίδης; Philōnídēs). [German version] [1] Attic poet of Old Comedy Attic Old Comedy poet, father of the comic poet Nicochares [1. test. 1, 2]. The supplementation of his name on the list of victors at the Dionysia is insecure [1. test. 3]. Three play titles survive - Ἀπήνη ( Apḗnē / 'The Chariot'), Κόθορνοι ('The Cothurni'), Φιλέταιρος ( Philétairos / 'The Good Comrade') - as do 17 brief fragments, most from 'The Cothurni'. The play Προαγών ( Proagṓn / 'The Preliminary Contest'), sometimes attributed to P., is probably by Aristophanes, who had it produced under P.'s …
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