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QAWĀMI, ḤOSAYN

(468 words)

Author(s): EIr.
(1909-1989), known also as Fāḵtaʾi, a master vocalist in the second half of the 20th century. QAWĀMI, ḤOSAYN (b. Tehran, 1288 Š./1909; d. Tehran, 1368 Š. /1989), known also as Fāḵtaʾi, a master vocalist in the second half of the 20th century.Qawāmi’s father, a well-known architect, was a music enthusiast with a comprehensive collection of records of performances by Persian vocalists of the time. Ḥosayn was thus acquainted with music from early childhood. He grew interested in singing, especially in performances of two vocalists of the …
Date: 2022-08-01

GOLŠIRI, HUŠANG

(3,648 words)

Author(s): Ḥasan Mirʿābedini | EIr
(b. Isfahan, 1938; d. Tehran, 2000), novelist who explored new literary techniques. He received the Lillian Hellman and Dashiell Hammett award (1997) via the Human Rights Watch Organization and was awarded the Osnabrück Peace prize (1999) from the Erich Maria Remarque Foundation for his defense of freedom of speech. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 2, pp. 114-118 GOLŠIRI, HUŠANG (b. Isfahan, March 16, 1938; d. Tehran, June 5, 2000; Figure 1), one of the most significant Persian writers of the second half of 20th century. He…
Date: 2016-07-02

MAḤJUBI, Reżā

(503 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
(1898-1954) composer and violinist, brother of Morteżā. MAḤJUBI, Reżā (b. Tehran, 1277 Š./1898, d. Tehran, 1333 Š./ 1954) composer and well-known player of the violin. Reżā’s parents were both familiar with music and Reżā, like his brother, Morteżā Maḥjubi, became interested in music from early childhood. His first teacher in music was Ḥosayn Hangāfarin (q.v.), a noted music master of the time. He then continued his music education with Ebrāhim Āžang, but since he did not have much interest in learning musical notation …
Date: 2012-11-20

IRĀNŠAHRI

(898 words)

Author(s): Dariush Kargar | EIr
ABU’L-ʿABBĀS MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad (fl. 2nd half 9th cent.), mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer, philosopher, and author. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIII, Fascicle 5, pp. 539-540 IRĀNŠAHRI, ABU’L-ʿABBĀS MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad (fl. 2nd half 3rd/9th cent.), mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer, philosopher, and author. He was from Nišāpur, the city known also as Irānšahr (Moqaddasi, pp. 299-300; Ebn Faqih, p. 321), hence his title Irānšahri. N…
Date: 2017-04-19

AMIR KABIR PUBLISHERS

(680 words)

Author(s): EIr
a major Persian publishing house active from 1949 to 1979, founded by ʿAbd-al-Raḥim Jaʿfari (b. 1298 Š. /1919) in a small office on Nāṣer Ḵosrow Avenue in Tehran, the location for most major publishers at the time. It opened its first bookstore nearby and later established thirteen branches throughout the city. AMIR KABIR PUBLISHERS, a major Persian publishing house active from 1949 to 1979. It was founded by ʿAbd-al-Raḥim Jaʿfari (b. 1298 Š. /1919) in a small office on Nāṣer Ḵosrow Avenue in Tehran, the location for most major publishers at the t…
Date: 2013-02-25

GONBAD-E QĀBUS

(2,345 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | M. Momeni, | EIr | Habib-Allāh Zanjāni | Sheila S. Blair
(now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative center of the sub-province ( šahrestān) of the same name and the urban center of the Turkman tribal area in northern Persia. It is named after its major monument, a tall tower that marks the grave of the Ziyarid ruler Qābus b. Vošmgir (r. 978-1012). A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 2, pp. 126-129 GONBAD-E QĀBUS (KĀVUS), city and sub-province in the Golestān Province. i. GEOGRAPHY The city of Gonbad-e Qābus (now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative…
Date: 2013-06-04

ISFAHAN

(137,783 words)

Author(s): EIr. | Planhol, Xavier de | Walcher, Heidi | Zanjani, Habibollah | Hansman, John F. | Et al.
ancient province and old city in central Iran. Isfahan city has served as one of the most important urban centers on the Iranian Plateau since ancient times.A version of this article is available in printVolume XIII, Fascicle 6, pp. 613-675 and Volume XIV, Fascicle 1, 2, pp. 1-119 ISFAHAN, ancient province and old city in central Iran (Middle Pers. “Spahān,” New Pers. “Eṣfahān”). Isfahan city has served as one of the most important urban centers on the Iranian Plateau since ancient times and has gained, over centuries of urbanization, many si…
Date: 2022-10-11

HOSTAGE CRISIS

(10,745 words)

Author(s): Mohsen M. Milani | EIr
the events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by leftist Islamist students in 1979 with subsequent wide-ranging repercussions on Iran’s domestic politics as well as on U.S.-Iran relations. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 5, pp. 522-535 HOSTAGE CRISIS, the events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by leftist Islamist students in 1979 with subsequent wide-ranging repercussions on Iran’s domestic politics as well as on U.S.-Iran relations. The crisis began on 4 Novem…
Date: 2013-06-11

ḤAKIMI, EBRĀHIM

(4,058 words)

Author(s): Abbas Milani | EIr
Ḥakimi was born into an old and prominent family of court physicians. The family had been court physicians since the 17th century, starting with the eponym of the family, Moḥammad-Dāwud Khan Ḥakim, a physician at the courts of the Safavid Shah Ṣafi and Shah ʿAbbās II and the founder of the Ḥakim Mosque in Isfahan. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 6, pp. 575-580 ḤAKIMI (Ḥakim-al-Molk), EBRĀHIM (b. Tabriz, 1288/1871 [1286 in ʿĀqeli, p. 589, is incorrect]; d. Tehran, 27 Mehr 1338 Š./19 October 1959, Ṣadiq, II, p. 210 [28 Oct. acc. to …
Date: 2014-01-03

ḤASIBI, KĀẒEM

(628 words)

Author(s): Bāqer ʿĀqeli | EIr
(1906-1990), political figure and university professor. When the oil industry was nationalized in 1951, Ḥasibi, as Deputy Minister of Finance, became a member of the delegation charged with the eviction of the former oil company. He accompanied Dr. Moṣaddeq to the U.N. Security Council. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 1, pp. 48-49 ḤASIBI, KĀẒEM, political figure and university professor (b. Tehran, 1324/1906; d. Tehran, 1369 Š./1990; Figure 1). Born to a merchant family, Ḥasibi graduated from the law school at Tehran …
Date: 2015-06-28

ḠALYĀN

(2,352 words)

Author(s): Shahnaz Razpush | EIr
or QALYĀN (nargileh); a water pipe chiefly used in the Middle East and Central Asia for smoking tobacco. It is composed of several parts: the bādgīr (chimney); sar-e ḡālyān or sarpūš (the top bowl; sar-ḵāna in Afghanistan); tana (the body); mīlāb (the immersion pipe); ney-e pīč (hose); and kūza (the reservoir of water). A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 3, pp. 261-265 ḠALYĀN or QALYĀN (nargileh), a water pipe chiefly used in the Middle East and Central Asia for smoking tobacco (Syr. Ar: nafas; called ḥoqqa in India; čelam/ čelīm in Afghanistan; Pūr-e Dāwūd…
Date: 2013-05-29

KADḴODĀ

(3,294 words)

Author(s): Willem Floor | EIr.
principal meaning “headman,” from Middle Persian kadag-xwadāy, lit. “head of a household." A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 3, pp. 328-331 KADḴODĀ, principal meaning “headman,” from Middle Persian kadag-xwadāy, lit. “head of a household, master of the house” (MacKenzie, p. 48; see also Vullers, II, p. 805a-b). During the medieval period, at least in post-Saljuq times, the term mainly referred to the headman of primary communal groups that were characterized by face to face relations in several social contexts—villages ( dehāt), guilds of craftsm…
Date: 2012-10-16

MINBĀŠIĀN, Ḡolām-Ḥosayn

(681 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
violinist, pianist, and conductor (1907-1978). MINBĀŠIĀN, ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN, violinist, pianist, and conductor of orchestra (b. Tehran, 5 Ābān 1286 Š/25 Nov. 1907; d. Tehran, Ābān 1357 Š /Nov. 1978). He was the son of Ḡolām-Reżā Minbāšiān Sālār Moʿazzaz and is known for his contemptuous disregard for traditional Persian music and his attempts to restructure and, to some extent, replace it with Western music. Minbāšiān left Persia for Europe after finishing the music school of Dār al-Fonun to study music at the Geneva Conservatory. There he studied the violin an…
Date: 2015-12-22

MAʿRUFI, Jawād

(513 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
Persian composer and pianist (1915-1993). MAʿRUFI, Jawād, a renowned Persian music composer and pianist (b. Tehran, 1294 Š/1915; d. Tehran, 1372 Š/1993). Maʿrufi’s father, Musā Maʿrufi, was a master musician and an imposing player of the tār (a plucked long-necked lute), who wrote down the repertoires ( radifs) of Persian music in Western notation and thus helped make it recorded and lasting. Jawād, after finishing primary school, entered the music school (Masdrasa-ye ʿāli-e musiqi) founded by ʿAli-Naqi Vaziri. There he first studied the tār for several years before joining th…
Date: 2012-11-28

HAMADĀN

(24,814 words)

Author(s): EIr. | Zanjani, Habibollah | Planhol, Xavier de | Eshragh, Abdolhamid | Aḏkāʾi, Parviz | Et al.
province, governorship, and city located in the Zagros region of western Persia.A version of this article is available in printVolume XI, Fascicle 6, pp. 595-627 HAMADĀN , province, governorship, and city located in the Zagros region of western Persia.HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHYHamadān is one of the western provinces of Persia, situated to the southwest of Tehran between latitudes 33°59’ and 35°48’ north and longitudes 47°34’ and 49°36’ east. The city of Hamadān (the capital of the province) is located at 37°47’ N and 48°30’ E, at an altitud…
Date: 2021-07-20

FOŻŪLĪ, MOḤAMMAD

(1,808 words)

Author(s): Eir
b. Solaymān (ca. 1480-1556), widely regarded as the greatest lyric poet in Azerbayjani Turkish, who also wrote extensively in Arabic and Persian. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 2, pp. 121-122 FOŻŪLĪ, MOḤAMMAD, b. Solaymān (ca. 885-936/1480-1556), widely regarded as the greatest lyric poet in Azerbayjani Turkish, who also wrote extensively in Arabic and Persian. He adopted the pen name ( taḵalloṣ) of Fożūlī (presumptuous) in order to be “unique,” as he reveals in the preface to his Persian dīvān (Karahan, in EI2 II, p. 937; Bombaci, 1970, p. 13). Fożūlī h…
Date: 2015-12-22

SHAHRYAR, MOHAMMAD HOSAYN

(3,443 words)

Author(s): Kamyār ʿĀbedi | EIr
(1906-1988), prolific poet and the most noted representative of the short-lived Persian romanticism, who also composed poems in Azeri Turkish. Shahryar’s poetry has influenced many contemporary poets. SHAHRYAR, MOHAMMAD HOSAYN (Moḥammad Ḥosayn Behjat Tabrizi; b. Tabriz, Šahrivar 1285 Š./August 1906; d. Tehran, 27 Šahrivar 1367 Š./18 September 1988), outstanding, prolific contemporary poet (Figure 1, Figure 2). LIFE Shahryar was the son of Sayyed Esmāʾil, known as Mir Āqā (d. 1934), a calligrapher and erudite man (Zāhedi, p. 37). His childhood years co…
Date: 2015-12-21

IRĀNŠAHR (2)

(1,605 words)

Author(s): EIr. | Nejatian, Mohammad Hossein
city, formerly Fahraj, and sub-province ( šahrestān) in the province of Sistān and Baluchistan.A version of this article is available in printVolume XIII, Fascicle 5, pp. 533-534 IRĀNŠAHR, a city, formerly Fahraj (q.v. at iranica.com), and a sub-province ( šahrestān) in the province of Sistān and Baluchistan (q.v.). In 1935, the district ( baḵš) of Bampur (q.v.) was officially renamed Irānšahr, and a year later it became part of the Ḵāš sub-province. In 1947 it was officially recognized as a city in the administrative division of Baluchistan.i. Geography The sub-province. The sub-pr…
Date: 2021-07-20

HAJIABAD

(1,523 words)

Author(s): Philippe Gignoux | EIr
(Ḥājiābād), site of bilingual inscription of Šāpur I on the wall of a cave near Persepolis. OVERVIEW of the entry: i. The Inscriptions. ii. The Texts. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 5, pp. 554-556 HAJIABAD (Ḥājiābād) INSCRIPTIONS, bilingual inscription of Šāpur I on the wall of Ḥājiābād cave near Persepolis. HAJIABAD i. INSCRIPTIONS The Hajiabad inscriptions were discovered by Robert Ker Porter at Ḥājiābād in 1818 in a grotto a few kilometers north of Persepolis, at a place called Šayḵ ʿAli or Tang-e Šāh Sarvān, oppos…
Date: 2013-06-05

HEDAYAT, SADEQ

(17,905 words)

Author(s): Homa Katouzian | EIr | Michael C. Hillmann | Ulrich Marzolph | Touraj Daryaee
(Hedāyat, Ṣādeq), the eminent fiction writer (1903-1951), who had a vast influence on the next generation of Persian writers. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 2, pp. 121-135 HEDAYAT, SADEQ (Hedāyat, Ṣādeq), the eminent fiction writer (b. Tehran, 28 Bahman 1281 Š./17 February 1903; d. Paris, 19 Farvardin 1330 Š./9 April 1951), had a vast influence on the next generation of Persian writers. HEDAYAT, SADEQ i. LIFE AND WORK Sadeq Hedayat (Figure 1) was the youngest child of Hedā-yatqoli Khan Eʿteżād-al-Molk, the notable literary historia…
Date: 2015-03-13

MAJD, Loṭf-Allāh

(662 words)

Author(s): Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi | EIr
r player known for his brilliant virtuosity and distinctive style (1917-1978). MAJD, Loṭf-Allāh, the celebrated tār (a plucked long-necked lute) performer known for his brilliant virtuosity and distinctive style (b. Sāri, Māzandarān, 1296/1917; d. Tehran, 1357 Š./1978). Majd was fascinated with music from his early childhood, spending most of his time fiddling around with a battered old tār that he had found in the storage room of their house at the expense of attending to his school assignments. This caused his father to take the instrument away fr…
Date: 2012-11-21

FREEMASONRY

(12,189 words)

Author(s): Hasan Azinfar | M.-T. Eskandari, | Edward Joseph | Hamid Algar | EIr | Et al.
This famous fraternal order, bound by rituals and secret oaths, was introduced to Persia and adopted by Persian notables in the 19th century. It developed in the early 20th century and burgeoned in the period from 1950-78. Its practice still continues among some middle- and upper-class Persians in exile at the turn of the 21st century. The topic will be treated in five entries. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 2, pp. 205-221 FREEMASONRY This famous fraternal order, bound by rituals and secret oaths, was introduced to Persia and adopted by P…
Date: 2013-05-29

HEKMAT, ʿALI-AṢḠAR

(4,319 words)

Author(s): EIr | Abbas Milani
man of letters, university professor, cabinet minister, and the chief architect of the modernization of the educational system under Reza Shah (1893-1980). Once Reza Shah decided to unveil Persian women, he placed Hekmat in charge of mapping out a plan of action, which included co-education in the first four years of elementary school. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 2, pp. 145-149 HEKMAT (Ḥekmat), ʿALI-AṢḠAR, man of letters, university professor, cabinet minister, and the chief architect of the modernization of the educational…
Date: 2013-06-07

GOLŠAHRI, SOLAYMĀN

(758 words)

Author(s): EIr
or GÜLŞEHRî; 13th century Ottoman Sufi and poet who wrote in Persian and Turkish. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 1, pp. 101-102 GOLŠAHRI (GÜLŞEHRÎ), SOLAYMĀN, Ottoman Sufi and poet who wrote in Persian and Turkish. He was from the city of Golšahri, the name of which appears on his works in Persian, and which is known today as Kırşehir. Next to nothing is known about his life; it, however, can be deduced from the dates of his works that he flourished during the second half of the 13th century and was alive until 717/1317, the year when he completed his Mantık’t-tay…
Date: 2013-06-04

JIROFT

(10,951 words)

Author(s): M. Badanj | EIr. | Eric Fouache | Oscar White Muscarella | Jean Perrot
sub-province ( šahrestān), town, and dam in Kerman Province. i. Geography. ii. Human geography and environment. iii. General survey of excavations. iv. Iconography of chlorite artifacts. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 646-664 JIROFT, name of a sub-provincial unit ( šahrestān), a town, and a dam in Kerman Province. JIROFT i. Geography of Jiroft Sub-Province Jiroft sub-province. Located in the south of Kerman Province, the sub-province of Jiroft is bound by those of Kermān (north), Bam (east), ʿAnbarābād and Kahnuj …
Date: 2012-04-18

ANJOMAN-E FALSAFA WA ʿOLŪM-E ENSĀNĪ

(234 words)

Author(s): EIr
(Iranian Society for Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences), formed in 1949 as a regional branch of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences, a UNESCO affiliate. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 1, pp. 84 ANJOMAN-E FALSAFA WA ʿOLŪM-E ENSĀNĪ (Iranian Society for Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences) was formed in 1328 Š./1949 as a regional branch of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences, a UNESCO affiliate, as proposed by Ḡ. ʿA. Raʿdī Aḏaraḵšī, then the Iranian r…
Date: 2013-02-13

ANJOMAN-E OḴOWWAT

(1,286 words)

Author(s): ʿA. Anwār | EIr
(or OḴŪWAT) “The Society of Brotherhood,” a non-political Sufi-type society officially founded on 15 Šabʿān 1317/21 December 1899 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Khan Ẓahīr-al-dawla to promote the ideals of equity and brotherhood in Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 1, pp. 88-89 ANJOMAN-E OḴOWWAT (or OḴŪWAT) “The Society of Brotherhood,” a non-political Sufi-type society officially founded on 15 Šabʿān 1317/21 December 1899 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Khan Ẓahīr-al-dawla to promote the ideals of equity and brotherhood in Iran. The soci…
Date: 2013-02-27

JAVĀNRUD

(1,090 words)

Author(s): ʿAbd-Allāh Marduḵ | EIr.
a city and a sub-province ( šahrestān) in the northwest of Kermānšāhān Province near the border with Iraq at about 110 km southwest of Sanandaj sub-province. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 601-602 JAVĀNRUD, a city and a sub-province ( šahrestān) in the northwest of Kermānšāhān Province near the border with Iraq at about 110 km southwest of Sanandaj sub-province. Apparently it is so called after the name of the Kurdish tribe Javānrud, a dominant tribe of the area in the past, which is now almost ent…
Date: 2012-04-13

ABU'L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN

(248 words)

Author(s): EIr
The only son of Kāmrān Mīrza, brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56). A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 4, pp. 357-358 ABU’L- QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN, MĪRZĀ, only son of Kāmrān Mīrzā, the brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56). An incident of symbolic significance, placed in the year 952/1545 (or 951/1544), is related in the Akbar-nāma (tr. I, pp. 455-56): The boys Abu’l-Qāsem and Akbar, sons of two rival princes, wrestle for possession of a kett…
Date: 2016-08-02

JĀRČI-E MELLAT

(996 words)

Author(s): EIr.
a weekly satirical newspaper published in Tehran, 1910-28 (with long interruptions). A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 581-582 JĀRČI-E MELLAT, a weekly satirical paper published in Tehran with long interruptions between 12 Šawwāl 1328/16 October 1910 and 8 Ḵordād 1307 Š./29 May 1928. It was suspended on numerous occasions, and the two papers, Jārči-e asrār (2 Ḏu’l-ḥejja 1329/23 Nov. 1911) and Jāsus (22 Rabiʿ I 1332/18 Feb. 1914; Ṣadr Hāšemi, II, p. 161), that were published as replacements were immediately banned. In the …
Date: 2012-04-13

ARSACIDS

(17,321 words)

Author(s): Shahbazi, A. Shapur | Schippmann, Klaus | Alram, Michael | Boyce, Mary | EIr. | Et al.
(Persian Aškānīān), Parthian dynasty which ruled Iran from about 250 BCE to about 226 CE. A version of this article is available in printVolume II, Fascicle 5, pp. 525-546 ARSACIDS (Persian Aškānīān), Parthian dynasty which ruled Iran from about 250 BCE to about 226 CE.i. Origins.ii. The Arsacid dynasty.iii. Arsacid coinage.iv. Arsacid religion.v. The “Arsacid” era.vi. Arsacid chronology in traditional history.vii. The Arsacid dynasty of Armenia.viii. Military Architecture Of Parthia.ARSACIDS i. OriginsOur sources on the ancestry of the eponymous founder of the dyn…
Date: 2022-02-17

ʿEBRAT

(576 words)

Author(s): EIr
a monthly magazine first published on 4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār. A version of this article is available in print Volume VIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 79 ʿEBRAT, a monthly magazine first published on 15 Bahman 1334 Š./4 February 1956 as the organ of Tūda party prisoners under the auspices and with the facilities of the Office of Tehran’s Military Governor, General Teymūr Baḵtīār. Its format was thirty-eight, and lat…
Date: 2014-01-08

EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria

(1,015 words)

Author(s): Sidney H. Griffith | EIr
(877-940), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arabic and called Ketāb al-tārīḵ al-majmūʿ ʿalā’l-taḥqīq wa’l-taṣdīq or Naẓm al-jawhar) is a rich repository of much otherwise unobtainable information about the history of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, especially in the periods of Persian occupation in the seventh century and in Islamic times up to the early tenth century. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 1, pp. 77-78 EUTYCHIUS of Alexandria (Saʿīd b. Beṭrīq), Christian physician and historian whose Annales (written in Arab…
Date: 2013-05-06

CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS

(46,156 words)

Author(s): Pulleyblank, Edwin G. | Rogers, John Michael | Yingsheng, Liu | Mohajer, Parviz | Balland, Daniel | Et al.
This series of articles deals with Chinese-Iranian relations spanning from Pre-Islamic times to the Constitutional Revolution in Iran.A version of this article is available in printVolume V, Fascicle 4;5, pp. 424-460i. In Pre-Islamic TimesContact between China and Iran was initiated toward the end of the 2nd century B.C.E. by the envoy Chang Ch’ien (Zhang Qian), who journeyed to the west in search of the Yüeh-chih (Yue-zhi), a people that had migrated from the borders of China after having been defeated by the Hsiung-nu (Xiongn…
Date: 2021-12-16

DĪN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

(133 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara. A version of this article is available in print Volume VII, Fascicle 4, pp. 411-412 DĪNMOḤAMMAD KHAN b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara. He was given the governorship of Nesā a…
Date: 2013-04-17

ĀSRŌN

(100 words)

Author(s): EIr
Middle Persian form of Avestan āΘravan. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 802-803 ĀSRŌN, Middle Persian form of Avestan āΘravan. The form āsrōn continues Av. āΘrauuanəm (acc. sing.) whereas the also attested form āsrō (Pahlavi Videvdād and Vispred, Pazand āsrū) is most likely to continue āΘrauua (nom. sing.), cf. Pazand āšo for Av. ašauua (Pahl. ahlaw). In Middle Persian texts āsrōn designates a member of the priestly class and is almost invariably mentioned together with artēštār and wāstaryōš, members of the warrior and farmer classes. See also…
Date: 2016-10-03

CENTRAL ASIA

(75,713 words)

Author(s): EIr | Richard H. Rowland | Richard N. Frye | C. Edmund Bosworth | Bertold Spuler | Et al.
This series of articles covers Central Asia. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 2, pp. 159 CENTRAL ASIA (See also Archeology v, vii; Architecture iv; Art in Iran vi, viii.) CENTRAL ASIA i. Geographical Survey The central expanse of the Asian continent, the land mass situated approximately between 55° and 115° E and 25° and 50° N, comprises two geographically distinct areas. The western part includes the Transcaspian plains and the low tablelands between the Aral Sea and the Tien Shan (lit. “heavenly moun…
Date: 2017-11-08

FARHANG-E MOʿĪN

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Kamran Talattof | EIr
an important Persian encyclopaedic dictionary published in six volumes in Tehran between 1963 and 1973. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 3, pp. 268-270 FARHANG-E MOʿĪN, an important Persian encyclopaedic dictionary published in six volumes in Tehran between 1963 and 1973. Most of the work was compiled by the eminent Persian scholar and lexicographer Moḥammad Moʿīn (1918-71). His work on lexicography began in 1946 with his collaboration with ʿAlī-Akbar Dehḵodā (q.v.) on the monumental Persian encyclopedic dictionary Loḡat-nāma. Later, he prepa…
Date: 2013-05-26

KĀK

(918 words)

Author(s): Etrat Elahi | Eir.
a general term applied to several kinds of flat bread or small, often thin, dry cakes variously shaped and made. A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 4, pp. 352-353 KĀK, a general term applied to several kinds of flat bread or small, often thin, dry cakes variously shaped and made, and therefore differently defined in dictionaries and cookbooks. The earliest source which mentions kāk is perhaps Asrār al-tawḥid, where one reads of Shaikh Abu Saʿid (d. 1048, q.v.) sending his servant to “a kāk-pazi,” similar to a bakery, to buy a large quantity of kāk, a…
Date: 2012-10-16

CHILDREN

(20,905 words)

Author(s): Jenny Rose | Mahmoud Omidsalar | Mansour Shaki | Shirin Ebadi | Erika Friedl | Et al.
This series of articles covers children and child-rearing in Iran and Iranian lands. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 4, pp. 403-423 CHILDREN i. Childbirth in Zoroastrianism The Zoroastrian community has traditionally regarded marriage as having a threefold function: to propagate the human race, to spread the Zoroastrian faith, and to contribute to the victory of the good cause (Sanjana, p. 508). The birth of a child is viewed as of intrinsic benefit to the whole community because it furthers e…
Date: 2013-06-11

FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN

(12,819 words)

Author(s): Moḥammad-Ḥasan Mahdawī Ardabīlī | Mortażā Momayyez | Ahmad Ashraf | Aḥmad Tafażżolī | Yūnos Karāmatī | Et al.
This article will deal with the faculties of Agriculture, Fine Arts, Law and Political Science, Letters and Humanities, and Medicine, which are among the oldest and most important secular institutions of higher education in Persia. Other faculties of the University of Tehran and main faculties of other major universities will be treated under individual UNIVERSITIES. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 2, pp. 140-156 FACULTIES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN. The University of Tehran was founded in 1313 Š./1934 from four pre-existing schools ( madrasas) wh…
Date: 2013-11-08

KATA

(618 words)

Author(s): Etrat Elahi | EIr
a simple, everyday rice dish characteristic for the Caspian provinces, Gilan and Mazanderan. A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 2, pp. 122-123 (as KATEH) KATA ( kateh), a simple, everyday rice dish characteristic for the Caspian provinces, Gilan and Mazanderan. It is prepared by combining all the ingredients (rice, two cups of water for every cup of rice, butter, and salt) and boiling over medium heat; the rice is not soaked previously. When the water is absorbed, the heat is reduced and the p…
Date: 2013-03-22

FERDOWSI, ABU'L-QĀSEM

(15,094 words)

Author(s): Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh | A. Shapur Shahbazi | EIr
(940-1019 or 1025), one of the greatest epic poets and author of the Šāh-nāma, the national epic of Persia. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 5, pp. 514-531 FERDOWSI, ABU'L-QĀSEM i. Life Life. Apart from his patronymic ( konya), Abu’l-Qāsem, and his pen name ( taḵalloṣ), Ferdowsī, nothing is known with any certainty about his names or the identity of his family. In various sources, and in the introduction to some manuscripts of the Šāh-nāma, his name is given as Manṣūr, Ḥasan, or Aḥmad, his father’s as Ḥasan, Aḥmad, or ʿAlī, and his grandfa…
Date: 2016-06-29

CHINESE TURKESTAN

(23,306 words)

Author(s): EIr | Victor Mair | Prods Oktor Skjærvø | Isenbike Togan | Morris Rossabi | Et al.
(Sinkiang, Xinjiang), IRANIAN ELEMENTS IN. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 5, pp. 460-484 CHINESE TURKESTAN i. Geographical Overview The eastern portion of the Central Asian land mass (see central asia i. geography), between 70° and 100° E and 25° and 45° N, encompasses Chinese Turkestan, now Sinkiang (Xin-jiang) Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China, with the Tarim basin and the high plateaus and mountains surrounding it (capital Urumchi [Wu-lu-mu-chi]); Tibet (ca…
Date: 2014-05-26

CLOTHING

(92,910 words)

Author(s): EIr | Shapur Shahbazi | Trudi Kawami | Elsie H. Peck | Gerd Gropp | Et al.
(Ar. and Pers. lebās, Pers. pūšāk, jāma, raḵt). The articles in this series are devoted to clothing of the Iranian peoples in successive historical periods and of various regions and ethnic groups in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 7, 8, pp. 719-870 CLOTHING i. General remarks Of the twenty-seven subsequent articles in this series eleven are devoted to clothing of the Iranian peoples in successive historical periods and fourteen to modern clothing of various regions and ethnic group…
Date: 2013-06-20

ENAMEL

(1,573 words)

Author(s): EIr | Layla S. Diba
a heat-fused glass paste colored by metal oxides and used to decorate metal surfaces. Enamel was associated with lapidary, glassworking, and goldmithing crafts and was probably used primarily in place of precious stones before the 17th century. A version of this article is available in print Volume VIII, Fascicle 4, pp. 424-428 ENAMEL (Pers. mīnā, possibly a dialect form of mīnū < Mid. Pers. mēnōg “uncorporeal, spiritual, the world beyond, heaven” < *"sky" < "blue," meaning "glass, luster, enamel" [Horn, Etymologie, s.v. mīnō; for the ū-/ ā- variation in words derived from OIr. - u stems…
Date: 2017-12-20

EGYPT

(19,435 words)

Author(s): Edda Bresciani | Philip Huyse | Heinz Heinen | Ruth Altheim-Stiehl | Jonathan M. Bloom | Et al.
relations with Persia and Afghanistan. A version of this article is available in print Volume VIII, Fascicle 3, pp. 247-267 EGYPT: relations with Persia and Afghanistan.i. Persians in Egypt in the Achaemenid periodii. Egyptian influence on Persia in the Pre-Islamic periodiii. Relations in the Seleucid and Parthian periodsiv. Relations in the Sasanian periodv. Political and commerical relations in the Islamic period. See FATIMIDS, AYYUBIDS, IL-KHANIDSvi. Artistic relations with Persia in the Islamic periodvii. Political and religious relations with Persia in the modern periodv…
Date: 2017-04-20

MAHDAVI, Yaḥyā

(755 words)

Author(s): Moḥammad Ḵᵛānsāri | EIr
Mahdavi continued his education at Tehran Teachers College from 1928 until 1931, from which he was among the first to graduate with a bachelor's degree. In 1931, he received a scholarship from the state to continue his education in France until his graduation in 1938, writing his doctoral thesis under André Lanlande and Emile Bréhier. MAHDAVI, YAḤYĀ (b. Tehran, spring 1287 Š./1908; d. Tehran, 1379 Š./2000; Figure 1), professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran and a leading translator of Western philosophical works. Mahdavi was the son of Ḥā…
Date: 2014-01-03

FATḤ B. ḴĀQĀN

(171 words)

Author(s): EIr
b. ḴĀQĀN (d. 861), famous bibliophile, author, courtier, and official in ʿAbbasid times. A version of this article is available in print Volume IX, Fascicle 4, pp. 422 FATḤ,b. ḴĀQĀN, famous bibliophile, author, courtier, and official in ʿAbbasid times ( d. 4 Šawwāl 247/11 December 861). Some modern authorities have referred to him as “al-Fāresī” or claim he was of Persian ancestry (Zereklī, Aʿlam2 V, p. 133; Dehḵodā, s.v. “Fatḥ b. Ḵāqān”; Yıldız, p. 452), but this appears to be erroneous. Masʿūdī ( Morūj VII, p. 191) gives Fatḥ the nesba al-Torkī, and his father, a military officer n…
Date: 2013-05-28

BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN

(347 words)

Author(s): EIr
(Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 350-351 BONGĀH-E ḤEMĀYAT-E MĀDARĀN O KŪDAKĀN (Institute for the protection of mothers and infants), founded 25 Āḏar 1319 Š./16 December 1940 on the order of Reżā Shah, originally funded by charitable contributions. During World War II the institute distributed clothing and hot meals among the poor. In 1320 Š./19…
Date: 2013-03-11
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